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HISTORY 



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JOHNA.SEAVERNS 















THE HISTORY 



THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS 







W? Kennedy.Huntsman. King George III Earl of Sandwich, MB. H. Princess of Wales. Prince of Wales. 

ROYAL HUPTT in WINDSOR TARK- 



THE HISTORY 



OF 



THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS 



SUBSCRIPTION EDITION. 



PART I. 

THE HEEEDITAEY OR MANORIAL PACK. 
THE HOUSEHOLD OR PRIVY PACK. 

PART II. 

THE UNITED PACKS. 
ASCOT RACES. 



COMPILED BY 



.1. P. HORE, 



AND 

ISSUED BY THE COMPILER (HIS PUBLISHERS HAVING • TAKEN 
THE KNOCK") AT 

HIGH-STREET. NEWMARKET. 



MDOCCXCV. 



TO 

SIR WALTER GILBEY, BART., 

IN APPRECIATION OF 

HIS ANTIQUARIAN, SCIENTIFIC, AND ARTISTIC RESEARCHES 

RELATING TO THE BRITISH EQUINE RACE, 

THIS ASSEMBLAGE OF DOG-LATIN, 

FRENCH OF STRATFORD-LE-BOW, AND OLD ENGLISH, 

TOGETHER WITH THE 

SINGULAR EXEMPLIFICATION OF OFFICIAL . DOQ-IN-THE-MANGERISM 

BY WHICH THE 

HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS HAS BEEN CURTAILED, 

IS INSCRIBED BY THE 

COMPILER. 



ERRATA. 

Page 1. f^or " 100 centuries " read " 10." 
25. For " 1866 " read " 1886." 

40-48. For " George Boleyne, Viscount Rochester " read " Rochtord.' 
80. i^or "August 21, 1520," read "April." 
390. For " Earl of Granville" read " Earl Granville' 



CONTENTS. 



PART I. 

THE DUAL PACKS. 

CHAPTER I. 
THE ''IIEIIEBITARY'' BRANCH: EDWARD III.— HENRY VIII. 

General Introduction. — Hunting "at Force." — England under Edward III. 
— His Prowess as a Huntsman. — Minimum Establishment of the Buck- 
hounds. — The Huntsmen in Ordinary. — Feudal Services. — The Manor 
of Little Weldon held by Tenure of keeping the Hounds. — The 
"Hereditary" Masters and the Hunt-Servants. — Sir Bernard Brocas, 
First Master. — Annual Tax imposed on the Counties of Surrey and 
Sussex the Support of the Pack. — The First and Subsequent Payments 
by the Sheriffs of Sussex to the Hereditary Master of the Buckhounds. 
— Sir Bernard Brocas, Second Master. — William Brocas, Third Master. 
— William Brocas, Fourth Master. — John Brocas, Fifth Master. — 
William Brocas, Sixth Master. — John Brocas, Seventh Master. — 
George Warham, jure Anne Brocas, Eighth Master. — Kalph Pexsall, 
jure Edith Brocas, Ninth Master 1 



CHAPTER II. 

THE HOUSEHOLD BRANCH: HENRY VIII. 

General Introduction : Social State of England tenq}. Richard II. — Henry 
VII. — Accession of Henry VIII. — The Household Branch of the Royal 
Buckhounds instituted. — George Bolcyne, Viscount Rochester, First 
Master, — The Hunt-Servants.— Their Salaries and Emoluments. — Sir 
Richard Long, Second Master. —Lord Darcy of Chiche, Third Master. 28 



Vm CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER III. 

THE HOUSEHOLD BRANCH: EDWARD VL~ELIZABETH. 

Celebrity of Hunting in England tnnjj. Edward VI. — John Dudley, Earl of 
Warwick, Fourth Master: April 5 to November 10, 1551. — Sir Robert 
Dudley, Fifth Master : November 11, 1551, to c. August 1553.— The 
Household Pack tcmj). Philip and Mary. — The Hunt- Servants. — Annual 
Cost of the Pack, — Accession of Queen Elizabeth. — Annual Cost of the 
Pack. — The Hunt Servants. — Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, Sixth 
Master: May 28, 1572, to September 4, 1588.— State of the Pack to the 
End of Queen Elizabeth's Reign. — Dearth of Hunting Intelligence.— 
The Queen and Ladies in the Hunting Field. . ... 58 

CHAPTER lY. 

THE "HEREDITARY'' BRANCH: HENRY VIII.— CHARLES I. 

Sir Richard Pexsall, Tenth Master. — Sir John Savage, Eleventh Master. — 
Sir Pexsall Brocas, Twelfth Master. — Dispute between James I. and 
the Master. — Critical Affairs of the Pack. — It is abolished by Royal 
Warrant.- The Functions of the Office conferred on the Sergeant of the 
Household Branch. — Order Thereon to the Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex. 
— Passing Events. — The Hereditary Pack given to Charles, Duke of 
York. — Sir Pexsall Brocas continues to receive the Emoluments of the 
Office.— The Hunt-Servants.— Thomas Brocas, Thirteenth Master.— The 
Manor of Little Weldon, and with it the Nominal Mastership of this 
Branch of the Royal Buckhounds, sold to Sir Lewis Watson. . , 80 

CHAPTER V. 

THE HOUSEHOLD BRANCH: JAMES I. (1603-1621). 

Annual Cost of the Pack during the Reign of James I. — The Master and 
the Hunt-Servants. — Their Annual Salaries, Fees, and Emoluments. — 
Sir Thomas Tyringham, Eighth Master: July 21, 1604, to March 
25,1625. 95 

CHAPTER VL 

THE HOUSEHOLD BRANCH: CHARLES I. (1625-1649). 

Annual Expenses of the Pack during the Reign of Charles I., from 1625 to 
1640.— The Master and the Hunt-Servants. — Their Salaries, Fees, and 
Emoluments.— Sir Timothy Tyrell, Ninth Master : March 26, 1625, to 
May 19, 1633.— Sir Thomas Tyringham (ii), Tenth Master : May 20, 
1633, to January 1637.— Robert Tyrwhitt, Esq., Eleventh Master: May 4, 
1637, to January 6, 1651, — Reflections on Sport with the Pack from 1608 



CONTENTS. IX 

to 1(540. — Hunting Horses. — Hunting Matches. — The Koyal Studs.— 
Deer- and Hound-Vans. — The Equerries of the Hunting Stables. 
— Hunting with the Pack during the Commonwealth. — Poaching.— 
Destruction of Deer. — Fate of the Royal Hunt-Servants. . . .119 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE HOUSEHOLD BRANCH: CHARLES II. (1660-1685). 

John Cary, Esq., Twelfth Master : .July 7, 1661, to February 5, 168.5.— 
Expenses of the Pack during the Eeign of Charles II. — The Master 
and the Hunt-Servants. — Their Salaries, Fees, and Emoluments. . 149 

CHAPTER VIII. 

THE HOUSEHOLD BRANCH: JAMES II. (1685-1688). 

Colonel James Graham, Thirteenth Master: March 25, 1685, to September 29, 

1688. — Expenses of the Pack during the Reign of James II. . . 177 

CHAPTER IX. 

THE HOUSEHOLD BRANCH: WILLIAM III. (1689-1702). 

James de Gastigny, Fourteenth Master : September 0, 1689, to c. July 1698. — 
Reinhard Vincent, Baron Van Hompesch, Fifteenth Master: July 6, 
1698, to March 8, 1702.— Annual Cost of the Pack.— Hunting in Holland. 
— Hunting in England. — Fatal Accident to the King when hunting 
with the Pack. — -Various Accounts of the Spill, and a Poor Record 
of the Runs towards the End of his Reign . 184 

CHAPTER X. 

THE ''HEREDITARY" BRANCH: CHARLES I.~ANNE. 

Sir Lewis Watson, first Baron Rockingham, Fourteenth Master. — Edward 
Watson, second Baron Rockingham, Fifteentli Master. — Lewis Watson, 
first Earl of Rockingham, Si.xteenth, and Last, ■' Hereditary " Master. 203 



X CONTENTS. 

PART II. 
THE UNITED PACKS. 

CHAPTER XT. 

ANNE (1702-1714). 

The Hereditary and Household Branches amalgamated. — The United Packs 
placed on the Establishment of the Prince Consort. — Death of H.R.H. — 
The Buckhounds Ee-established and Re-organised. — Appertains to the 
Lord Chamberlain's Department. —Annual Expenses of the Pack. — 
The Huntsmen and the Hunt-Servants. — The Hounds. — The Buck- 
hunting Season. — The Sport. — Ladies' Costume in the Hunting Field. — 
Sir Charles Shuckburgh, Thirtieth Master: June 6, 1703, to September 2, 
1705. — Walter Chetwynd(Lord Rathdownand First Viscount Chetwynd), 
Thirty-first Master: October 4, 1705, to June 7, 1711.— Sir William 
Wyndham, Thirty-Second Master: June 8, 1711, to June 27, 1712.— 
George, Third Earl of Cardigan, Thirty-third Master : June 28, 1712, to 
June 11, 1715. — Ascot Races instituted in connection with the Royal 
Buckhounds. — Reflections on Sport with the Pack during the Reign 
of Queen Anne. — Deer. — Officers of Windsor Forest. — Ascot Races. — 
" Queen Anne is Dead." 210 

CHAPTER XIL 

GEORGE I. (1714-1727). 

The Earl of Cardigan re-appointed Master of the Royal Buckhounds. 
November 6, 1714.— Resigns Office Jixly 11, 1715.— No Official Master 
onward during the Reign of George I. — Mr. William Lowen, Senior, 
appointed Huntsman to the Pack. — The Hounds. — The Hunt-Servants. — 
The Pack re-organised. — Annual Expenses of the Establishment during 
the Reign of George I. — Some Records of the Runs. — Popularity of the 
Hunt. — Is in great Favour with the Fair Sex. — Dearth of Hunting 
Intelligence during the Reign of George I. — Alderman Humphrey 
Parsons. — Ascot Races 252 

CHAPTER XIIT. 

GEORGE II. (1727-1732). 

Colonel Francis Negus, Thirty-sixth Master, July 11, 1727, to September 9, 
1732. — Annual Cost of the Pack. — Records of the Runs from 1728 to 
1732.— Ascot Races .268 

CHAPTER XIV. 

GEORGE II. {cofitinncd). (1733-1736). 

Charles, Earl of Tankcrville, Tliirty-seventh Master : June 21, 1733, to 

June 1736.— Records of the Runs from 1733 to 1736.— Ascot Races. . 292 



CONTENTIS. XI 

CHAPTER XV. 
GEORGE II. ((jontiniied) (1737-1744). 

Ralph Jenison, Esq.. Thirty-uighth Master : July 7. 1737, to December 

25, 17i4. . . " 317 

CHAPTER XVI. 
GEORGE II. {vonclvdi-d) (1745-17GO). 

The Earl of Halifax, Thirty-ninth Master : December 31, 1744, to June 2.5, 
174G.— Ralph Jenison, Esq. (ii), Fortieth Master : July 2, 1746, to 
February 5, 1757. — Viscount Batcman, Forty-first Master : July 1, 
1757, to October 25, 1760. — Records of the Runs. — Annual Expenses 
of the Pack during the Reign of George II. — The Huntsmen and the 
Hunt-Hervants. — Their Halaries and Emoluments.— Ascot Races. . . 33(5 

CHAPTER XVII. 

GEORGE III.— VICTORIA. 

The History of the Royal Buckhouuds stopped by Her Majesty's Ministers. 
— Official Dog-in-the-Mangerism.— Red Tape. — No more Official In- 
formation permitted, — Conjectures and Speculations. — No Official 
Information of the Buckhounds during the Reigns of George IV., 
William IV., and Victoria. — The Masters and the Hunt-Servants. — 
— And '• God Save the Queen ! " 372 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
SwiNLEY Lodge 382 



Chronological Index to the Masters, Huntsmen, and Hunt- 
Servants OF THE Royal Buckhounds from the Reign of King 
Edward III. to the Reign of H.I.M. Queen Victoria . . .388 

Postscript . . 391 



PART I. 

THE DUAL PACKS. 



CHAPTER I. 

''HEREDITARY BRANCH"— EDWARD III. TO HENRY VIII. 

General Introduction.— Hunting "at Force."— England under Edward III. — 
His Prowess as a Huntsman. — Minimum Establishment of the Buckhounds. 
— The Ordinary Hunt Servants. — Feudal Services. — The Manor of Little 
Weldon held by Tenure of keeping the Hounds. — Sir Bernard Brocas, First 
Master. — Annual Tax imposed on Surrej^ and Sussex towards supporting 
the Pack. — The First and Subsequent Payments by the Sheriff of Sussex 
to the Masters of the Buckhounds. — Sir Bernard Brocas, Second Master. — 
Sir Rustin Villenove, Intervenient Master. — William Brocas, Third Master. 
— William Brocas, Fourth Master. — John Brocas, Fifth Master. — William 
Brocas, Sixth Master. — John Brocas, Seventh Master. — George Warham 
jure Anne Brocas, Eighth Master. — Ralph Pexsall jure Edith Brocas, 
Ninth Master. 

The hunting establishments of the kings, queens, and princes 
of Great Britain from the earliest to the present times form 
a subject so abstruse that no one has ever attempted their in- 
vestigation in connection with the history of the chase. The 
ramifications of those establishments are so varied and compli- 
cated, that if a sporting writer were to attempt to follow up 
the " scent " in this historical hunt — extending, as it would do, 
to over a hundred centuries — he would doubtless come to sfrief 
in the progress of the " run," leaving only his ghost to be in at 
the death to tell the tale. In our prosaic days ghosts and dead 

1 



2 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

men tell no tales, consequently the subject is a covert which, 
we fear, will be " drawn blank " for evermore. The days of 
chivalry passed away without producing a champion who 
essayed such a task, and lived to record the result of his re- 
searches. It may be, however, that some of those "spectre- 
hunters," whom so many of the mediaeval chroniclers testify as 
having been seen in the witching hours of night pursuing the 
pleasures of the chase with hound and horn, set out on a his- 
torical hunt of this description. If so, it is evident the poor 
enthusiast came to grief, and met his fate in the pursuit of such 
a quarry. Truly an appalling conjecture ! This infatuation 
must have claimed many victims, for, seek where we will, there 
is no important forest mentioned by the superstitious writers 
of old without its " spectre hunter." Yet this ghost was a 
popular ghost. Even Shakespeare pays homage to the venatic 
spirit that held its nocturnal sway in Windsor Forest. With 
such dire conjurations before us we must at once close our eyes, 
and exclude from sight the multifarious sections of the chase 
connected with royalty, and confine our investigations to one 
portion only of the hunting establishment of the reigning 
sovereigns of these realms, so far as it relates to the " Royal 
Buckhounds." 

Even in this single department we find several distinct and 
separate elements. In the first place, there are the Buckhounds 
and the officers of the hunt, as officially recognised by the Lord 
High Chamberlain's department, the annual cost of which was 
defrayed by the Treasurer of the Chamber of the Royal House- 
hold. Secondly, the royal prerogative in the chase continually 
occurred by which the sovereign frequently augments the pack 
by seizing any hounds he liked belonging to his subjects, conse- 
quently we find the royal kennels " well replenished " from time 
to time with drafts obtained from this source. Thii'dly, when a 
bishop or an abbot departed this world for other happy hunting- 
grounds, the contents of the ecclesiastical kennel immediately 
reverted to the reigning sovereign. Fourthly, the sergeanties, 
that is, those estates held of the Crown by tenure of providing 
and keeping a certain number of Buckhounds and other sorts 



ENGLAND UNDEK EDWAED III. 6 

of dogs for the king's " disport." Fifthly, the obligations of the 
sheriffs of Surrey and Sussex, who were obliged to furnish 
certain contributions towards the cost of the pack out of the 
issue of those counties yearly. And sixthly, the somewhat 
complicated functions and privileges of the Hereditary Masters 
and the Household Masters of the pack, of whom the latter 
were nominated by the sovereign when feudal services gradually 
became obsolete in the sixteenth and eventually lapsed in 
desuetude early in the eighteenth century. Under each of 
these distinct sections were many subsidiary ones, as we shall 
see from time to time; the whole surroundings and the as- 
sociations of the pack constituting a quaint picture in the 
history of the chase from the time when the Royal Buckhounds) 
per se, were first instituted in the reign of Edward III. down 
to comparatively modern times. 

There is no doubt that buckhunting was a branch of the 
royal chase long before the time of Edward III. It seems 
special importance was imparted to the Royal Buckhounds in 
the reign of Edward III., when the pack is first specifically 
mentioned : " Canum nostrarum damorum vocatum buck- 
houndis," with a Master and other ofiicers appointed by the 
king to manage it, the Mastership being a hereditary oflice, 
and exercised by the Brocas family through many generations. 
About this period a manifest change took place in buckhunting. 
Before this time the sport was a mixture of coursing and stalk- 
ing the fallow deer with bow and arrow. The change referred 
to altered from that method to hunting the buck with hound 
and horn " at force " — that is to say, by rousing the quarry from 
his lair, laying on the hounds, and riding to them in pursuit, 
somewhat after the manner followed at the present time. It 
would be interesting to give a report of such a run with this 
pack in the days of the third Edward; but, alas! the fraternit}'' 
of the quill, who so graphically depict such scenes in our days, 
did not exist until the nineteenth century was out of its teens. 
And are we not now referring to sporting events occurring more 
than five hundred years ago, during a period when pen, ink, and 
parchment gave way to=the sword, blood, and mail armour ? 



4 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

Dean Hook, in his " Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury," 
very truly remarks that " the domestic history of Edward III. 
can scarcely be said to exist, all modern historians having 
directed attention to the warlike splendours of his reign." 
Under such circumstances our task, though a labour of love, 
becomes a very difficult one. The game is abundant, but so 
wild, that we frequently find ourselves fields behind the 
quarry, and, alas ! the scent is far from holding. The glory 
of this era militates and obscures the detailed records of the 
chase, so much so that the " imitation of war " had to give 
place to the genuine article — Mars, not Diana, monopolising 
for a great part of the time the attention of kings, princes, 
nobles, knights, squires, and clerics. 

Merry England in the days of Edward III. was not unlike 
ancient Rome in her gi'eatest prosperity — successful wars, 
glorious conquests, splendid spoils, brilliant triumphs ; in short, 
our ancestors at this period might be justified in adopting the 
imperial motto, and place over their triumphal arches, " Antique, 
sublime, and alone ! " Hence it happens that ordinary every- 
day events in England are rarely mentioned by the chroniclers 
of the time ; local incidents of a pastoral nature were lost sight 
of, or eclipsed by the martial glory of the era. Notwithstanding 
these drawbacks we must don our hunting tabard, mount our 
horse, wind our horn, and seek for some information relating 
to the Royal Buckhounds, as the facts may happen to be 
occasionally inscribed "on time's backward roll." 

King Edward III. was every inch a sportsman. He usually 
took his hounds and hawks with him wherever he went, 
whether at home or abi'oad, in time of peace or in time of 
war. There is little doubt that his hunting establishment was 
spacious, well furnished with all the accessories of the chase, 
and kept upon a proper footing. With one portion of it only 
we are now concerned — namely, the Royal Buckhounds, as 
reorganised and dignified by this magnificent Plantagenet 
monarch. For reasons given above, it is impossible to say 
precisely the number of hounds usually uncoupled at a meet 
of this pack. According to the conditions of the sergeanty, 



OEDINAKY HUNT-SEEVANTS — FEUDAL SEKVICES. 5 

the minimum number of hounds in the pack was fifteen 
couples. These were probabl}' supplemented from other 
sources when required. The same may b;e said of the hunt 
servants. Strictly speaking, the Hereditary branch of this 
pack only comprised the Master, the huntsman, the two 
"berners," whose duties were probably somewhat similar 
to the yeomen prickers of after times and the whippers-in 
of our own period. It is also impossible to give the nominal 
or the actual yearly cost of the pack. We know nothing 
of these expenses beyond the fact of the manor of Little 
Weldon, Northamptonshire, having been held by tenure of 
keeping the hounds, with a supplementary tax imposed on 
the counties of Surrey and Sussex, amounting to 63^. 17s. Qd. 
from the 36th year of the reign of Edward III. (a.d. 1362) ; 
and afterwards 50/. a year down to the year 1707, when those 
annual payments terminated. Bearing these circumstances in 
mind, it is safe to assume a glorious cavalcade assembled at a 
meet of the Royal Buckhounds in the vicinity of Windsor, 
when Edward III. and his illustrious Court attended there to' 
enjoy the pleasures of the chase. 

At the headquarters of this Royal Hunt yclept Windsor 
Forest, we find Edward III. — Dei gratia Rex Francise, et 
Anglise, et Domnius Hibernise, et Dux Aquitanise — about this 
time making considerable extensions to those happy hunting- 
grounds. Thus we find Sir William Trussel granting to his 
sovereign lord and master, in exchange of other lands, certain 
assarts from the soil of the Forest of Windsor, Old Windsor, 
New Windsor, Wynkefield and Ascot, which appertained to 
the Castle and Manor of Windsor, in times before the said 
lands were brought into cultivation, with the obvious intention 
(sad to say) that they should be re-affbrested for the benefit 
of the game. In like manner Sir John Brocas gave the 
King (for a quid pro quo) all his lands in Clewer, Bray, 
Dyneworth, and Windsor. And so on in various similar 
cases, which are unnecessary to recapitulate in detail. These 
transactions are adduced merely to show that Windsor Forest, 
spacious as it was in those days, was not deemed large 



6 THE HISTOEY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

enough for the venatic requirements of this great and mighty- 
monarch. 

Almost contemporaneous and co-existent with the institution 
of the Order of the Garter, the Mastership of the Royal Buck- 
hounds partook of, and participated in, the splendour and 
magnificence of the age. The first Master was a grand sports- 
man, a distinguished statesman, and an intimate and trusted 
friend of the king. Apart from his official connection with 
the pack, he was in receipt of a grant of 50/. a year for good 
service rendered to the Crown. He was also Master of the 
Horse, a post of great distinction and profit ; and as a soldier 
he was pre-eminent among the many valiant and brave men 
who flourished under the all-conquering sway of the trium- 
phant Edward. Now let us picture to ourselves the brilliant 
scene presented at a meet of the Royal Buckhounds in those 
days. In our mind's eye we see King Edward in his pride of 
place, accompanied by the Black Prince and his wife, — who has 
achieved such celebrity as " The Fair Maid of Kent," through 
whom the Order of the Garter is said to have originated, — 
" time-honoured Lancaster," Lineol of Clarence, and a brilliant 
troop of lords and ladies, knights galore, and doubtless many a 
squire of low degree, who had but recently won his spurs on 
numerous hard-fought fields — all well mounted and eager for 
the chase. Besides the natives, let us glance at the foreigners 
of distinction who are present at the meet. The French king, 
a prisoner of war on parole, the Duke of Orleans, with their 
suites, the flower of the nobility of conquered France, are there, 
trying to forget their misfortune in the pleasures of the chase. 
How the heart of the peasant who came to see the meet must 
throb with national pride as he looked upon the royalty of 
humbled France ! What pleasure he must feel as he tells his 
sweetheart by his side that yonder sorrel carries Ralph Earl of 
Eu and Guisnes, High Constable of France, and on either side 
she sees Charles Lord of Blois, and the Earl of Tancarville. 
David King of Scotland and his queen are likewise present, 
and likewise prisoners of war. There are other great person- 
ages at the meet among King Edward's guests upon whom 



SIR BEENARD BROCAS, FIRST HEREDITARY MASTER. 7 

fortune has not frowned, whom the fame of England attracts 
to visit her hospitable shores. From the East we see the King 
of Cyprus, from the North the Sovereign of Denmark. The 
reio-nins: Duke of Bavaria, the Duke of Brabant, Sir Frank 
van Hall, Sir Henry Eam of Flanders, " and many great lords 
and knights of Almain, Gascoigne, and other countries," are 
also to the fore. A highly-coloured picture perchance, yet 
withal a faithful one without exaggeration. Such a scene 
was doubtless witnessed in the vicinity of Windsor in those 
(then rare) piping days of peace, preparatory to the Master 
throwing off the hounds to seek the " antlered monarch of the 
glen " within the confines of the Forest " full of wilde dere," 
with "homes hie," the greatest that " were ever seen with eie," 
as old Chaucer hath it. These " grand huntings " were of fre- 
quent occurrence, upon which the king expended, says Barnes, 
in his "History of Edward III.," " extraordinary sums, 100/. 
one day and 100 marks the other, and so on, while the sport 
continued, which was both long and very diverting." 

Leaving the hunting field for the present, we must now hark 
back, and briefly follow the fortunes of the Hereditary Masters 
of the K,oyal Buckhounds from the reign of Edward IH. to 
the 7th year of the reign of Charles I. (1633), when the Brocas 
family ceased to hold the official horn of the pack. 

According to a popular tradition, in the year 1066 Sir Ber- 
nard Brocas, a knight of high renown, came into England with 
William the Conqueror, under whom he was a great com- 
mander, and had, in requital for his military services, the 
selection of lands to the then valiie of 400Z. per annum given 
him by that king. This estate he chose in Hampshire, and 
upon a part of it built his mansion house, calling it Beaurepaire, 
from a place of the appellation in France, of which his im- 
mediate ancestors were lords, encompassing it with a large 
moat, dug by his soldiers, which cost a mark (13s. 4c?.) or two 
of silver. In his progeny this estate continued until the 
twenty-first year of Henry VII. (a.d. 1506), when William 
Brocas, Esq., having only two daughters, — Anne, who died 
without issue, and Edith, who married Sir Ralph Pexsall, — 



8 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

with these two ladies the direct line terminated ; yet from a 
younger branch, having their chief residence at Horton Hall, 
in Buckinghamshire, and who were owners of many fair 
lordships in that county, the succession, through Bernard 
Brocas, Esq., of Horton Hall, the lineal heir, was continued 
until the male line finally became extinct on the death of 
Bernard Brocas, Esq., Lieutenant-Colonel of the Hants Militia, 
the last of the family, November 8th, 1777. 

Passing from the founder of the family above mentioned, 
and the three succeeding knights of the same name, we get 
down to the time of Sir John Brocas, of Beaurepaire,-co. Hants, 
who served with distinction under Edward III. at the siege of 
Calais, in 1346. This martial knight died in 1372, and had 
issue three sons : (1) Sir John, who obtained in the eighteenth 
year of Edward III. (a.d. 1344) a grant from the King of the 
Keepership of Nottingham Castle for life, and died, without 
heirs, on the battle-field, fighting against the French, in 1349 ; 

(2) Sir Oliver,* who was Grand Seneschal of the Duchies of 
Guienne and Aquitaine, and Governor of Bordeaux, under 
Edward III., as alleged in an old MS. in French, of the laws 
and customs by which he governed that province, then per- 
taining to the English Crown. This Sir Oliver Brocas married 
Margaret, daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas Hever, Knight, 
by whom he had an only son, John Brocas, who survived his 
father only sixteen years, and died without heirs in 1377* 

(3) Sm Bernard Brocas, Knight, the first Hereditary Master 
of the Royal Buckhounds, who married, first, Agnes Vavasour, 
divorced in 1360; secondly, Mary, daughter and heir of Sir 
John de Boches, Knight, and widow of Sir John de Borhunte; 
and, thirdly, Catherine, widow of Sir H. Tyrrell. On the 
death of his nephew, John Brocas above mentioned, this 
Sir Bernard succeeded to the family patrimony ; and, as 

* He held the Manor of Apse, in Surrey, by the service of rendering fifteen 
bushels of malt, oats, barley, and wheat to make ale, and two bushels and a 
half of wheat and barley to make bread, together with a hog, or in lieu thereof 
12d., to be distributed in alms annually on All Souls' Day, in the Manor of 
Apse, for the repose of the souls of the Kings of England forever. (Ing. P. M., 
37 Edw. III., No. 7.) 



SIR BERNARD BROCAS, FIRST HEREDITARY MASTER. \) 

previously described, he was appointed by Edward III. to the 
office of Master of the Royal Buckhounds, About this time 
Sir Bernard Brocas acquired the manor of Little Weldon, 
Northamptonshire, which had been held of the Crown, from 
the earliest times, as a sporting sergeanty, under the following 
circumstances : — 

There is no doubt that some portion of the Manor of Little 
Weldon, Northamptonshire, was held by the tenure of keeping 
the King's Buckhounds prior to this illustrious monarch's reign. 
Here, however, we must distinguish the difference between 
the tenure of Keeping these hounds and Mastership of the 
pack. Prior to the 36th year of the reign of Edward III. 
(a.d, 1362) we cannot find any authentic mention of the Master 
of the Royal Buckhounds in any of the various official deeds 
relating to the custody of the pack appertaining to the holders 
of the Manor of Little Weldon, This essential distinction 
appears to have been overlooked by Professor Montagu Bur- 
rowes in his very interesting history of " The Family of Brocas 
of Beaurepaire and Roche Court, Hereditary Masters of the 
Royal Buckhounds." In that volume (p. 26.4) the gallant and 
erudite author gives the following "List of the Hereditary 
Masters of the Royal Buckhounds by tenure in capite of 
Hunter's Manor, in Little Weldon, Northamptonshire : — 

" 1. [?] Osborne Lovel, Chamberlain to Henry II. 

" 2. []] William Lovel. 

"3. Hamon le Venour, by grant from Henry III. in 1216. 

(?) Resumed and regranted to Lovel. 
" 4. William Lovel. 
"5. John Lovel, ob. 1316. 

" 6. Thomas de Borhunte, ob. \Z^O,jure Margaret Lovel. 
" 7. William Danvers, oh. jure Margaret Lovel. 
" 8. Sir Bernard Brocas (1363), ob. 1395, jwre Mary de Borhunte." 

Now, with reference to the first seven individuals mentioned 
in the above list, as having been Hereditary Masters of the 
Royal Buckhounds, we are unable to accept them in that 
capacity. We can find no confirmation or allusion to any of 



10 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

those persons ever having held the office of Master, although 
they were undoubtedly the custodians of a portion of the 
King's Buekhounds and other dogs for the time being. 

In some instances they are styled huntsmen. In no instance 
are they called Masters. Even the number of buekhounds in 
the custody of the holders of the Manor varied from time to 
time. In the 10th year of the reign of Edward II. (A.D. 1316) 
the Manor of Little Weldon was held by tenure of keeping 
seven and a half couples of the King's Buekhounds every year 
in Lent. The same number is mentioned in the original 
Inquisition taken in the 14th Edward III. (A.D. 1340);* and 
in a similar document of the 40th Edward III. there are only 
seven couples mentioned. 

It is unnecessary for us to dwell on the peculiarities of the 
tenure or sergeanty attached to the Manor of Little Weldon 
during the period it was held solely by keeping certain drafts 
of the King's Buekhounds and the contingent services thereof, 
as this part of the subject is gone into by Professor Burrows. 
It will be sufficient for our purpose to begin with the manor 
when it passed to Sir Bernard Brocas on his marriage with 
Mary de Borhunte. Here we are. somewhat at fault in not 
being able to ascertain the exact date of this alliance. Sir 
Bernard Brocas is said to have been divorced from his first 
wife, Agnes Vavasour, in 1360. When he married his second 
wife, Mary de Borhunte, the relict of Sir John de Borhunte, 
is not stated in the family pedigree, as set out in Professor 
Burrows' volume. If the divorce did not take place before 
1360 the marriage with Mary de Borhunte must have been 
subsequent to that date. On June 6th, 1366, in consideration 
of a payment of 4:1., Sir Bernard Brocas obtained the King's 
licence to permit Matilda Lovel to make a grant of the Manor 

* Professor Burrows gives a copy of an undated document written in French, 
preserved among the Brocas family muniments, relating to Thomas de Bor- 
hunte, the holder of the tenure at this time, in which the number of buck- 
hounds in his custody is set down as twenty-four, and six greyhounds. This 
does not correspond with the original Inquisition above mentioned ; and it 
appears to refer to a later period when the tenure was altered after Sir Bernard 
Brocas became the first Master (^2^'^'' *^) ^^ *^^ Koyal Buekhounds. 



THE MANOR OF LITTLE WELDON. 11 

of Little Weldon, and the bailiwick of keeping the Royal 
Buckhounds, with the appurtenances, to the said Sir Bernard 
and Mary his wife for the natural term of her life ; should she 
survive Matilda and her heirs, the manor, etc., was to revert 
to the said Mary; and after her death it was to go to Sir 
Bernard and his heirs.* She having died about the year 1381, 
and no claimant appearing, the manor and bailiwick, with the 

* P Bernardo I ly omnib} ad quos &c. saitm Sciatis qd de gra nra 
Brocas Ispaii & p quatuor libris quas diicus & fidelis nr 
Bernardus Brocas Chiualer notjs soluit concessione 
& licenciam dedim} p nobs & heredibs nris quantu 
in nob est Matilt Louel qd ipa concedere possit 
qd mafiiu de parua Weldon ac ballina custodiendi 
canes nros damaricios cum ptui que de nob tenent 
in capite & que pfatus Bernardus & Maria ux. 
eius tenent ad tminii vite ipsius Marie que eciam 
post mortem eiusdem Marie ad pfatam Matiti & 
heredes suos reuti deberent post decessum eiusdem 
Marie remaneant pfato Bernardo & heredib} suis 
tenend de nob & heredib} nfis p suicia inde debita 
& consueta imppm et eidem Bernardo qd ipe maiiiii 
& ballinam pdca cum ptim post mortem ipsius Marie 
retinere possit sibi & heredib} suis tenend de nob & 
heredib} nris p suicia supdca imppm tenore psenciu 
similit licencia dedim} spaiem nolentes qd pdca 
Matitt vel heredes sui aut pfatus Bernardus vel 
heredes sui rone pmissor p nos vel heredes nros 
Justic Escactores vicecomites aut alios ballinos seu 
Ministros nros quoscun3 occonent} molestent} in 
aliquo seu g^uent''. In cui} &c., T. R. apud Westm, 
vj die Junii. 

et pdca quatuor libre soliat sunt in han. 
Vide Patent Roll, 40 Edward III., Part I., m. 19. See also Originalia 
Roll (Exch. L. T. R.), 40 Edward III., Ro. 27, under " Grossi Fines." 
In the I. P. M., 40 Edward III. (2nd numbers. No. 40b), the tenure 
was for the custody of fourteen of the King's buckhounds with one 
man to keep them, amounting to ^4 a year. This document is very 
faded. 



12 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

custody of the King's Buckhoimds, and the appurtenance, 
henceforth belonged to Sir Bernard and his heirs. Down to 
the time this deed was executed, in June 1366, we believe we 
are correct in saying that there is no direct evidence of the 
Mastership (in contradistinction to the custodianship) of the 
Royal Buckhounds having appertained to the holders of this 
manor. The details of the tenure, so far as it relates only to 
the custody of so many couples of the Royal Buckhounds, 
etc., do not directly affect the Hereditary Office of the Master 
of the Pack, as we shall find it hereafter established and 
fulfilled. Therefore the marriage settlement of June 1366 is 
of paramount importance, provided we may take it as fixing 
the date of Sir Bernard's second marriage ; for if he did not 
acquire the Manor of Little Weldon by right of his second 
spouse, before the year 13 66, he must have held the Office of 
Master of the Royal Buckhounds independently and apart from 
the tenure incident to the custody of the Buckhounds apper- 
taining to that property. 

Professor Burrows commits a singular mistake when he 
asserts that " We first hear of the salary [i.e., of the Hereditary 
Master] being first assigned on the revenues of the Sherifi" 
of Surrey in 1421, a memorandum of which date we find 
in the Brocas chest concerning a payment of part of the 
salary due to William Brocas from John Halle, Sherifi" of 
Surrey."* The year 1421 was the 9th regnal year of the 
reign of Henry V. ; and, instead of this having been the first 
payment to the Hereditary Master of the Royal Buckhounds, 
the stipend had been received by the holders of the office 
from the 36th year of the reign of Edward III. (a.d. 1362-63). 
This would be nearly five years anterior to the execution 
of the deed of settlement between Matilda Lovel and 
Mary de Borhunte, the second wife of Sir Bernard Brocas; 
consequently he could have no legal right to the Manor 
of Little Weldon and the bailiwick of the custody of the 
King's Buckhounds thereunto belonging, until after his 

* " The Family of Brocas," p. 256. 



FIRST PAYMENT BY THE SHEEIFF OF SUSSEX. 13 

marriage with that lady, upon whom the manor shortly after 
devolved,* 

This brings us face to face with the first payment recorded 
in the Pipe Rolls of the counties of Surrey and Sussex to 
the Hereditary Masters of the Royal Buckhounds, which is as 
follows : — 

(^-6>i?|tia|8o ©joca^OifbSt catmr(Fe0e^ sawtS ait 
"Si ®ziiFmga|tox ^ (vae'cyais (vnisamaf (^ (otiu of ofir p &tcm j (z^ pit^ ss'y canur- 

cu|^<nali^5r? ftpja|U7ptncuJb^^ro6i:|na|^i ejJigencf {V|<p4»ofrc<y^ (VnuT 

wn)'&-u8a^fimbj^iCt(5nany)temin^ntu|<»;f«i?|^ 
^^ccepcf. 

(Reduced facsimile, vide Pipe Roll 36th Edward III., item "Sussex.") 

This facsimile, with the contractions extended, reads as 
follows :— 

Et Bernardo Biocas Custodi canum Regis pro Damis cui Rex 
concessit duodeeim denarios per diem pro vadiis suis, et Waltero 
SuthWyke Roger Popham et Johanni Hayne quibus Rex concessit 
A-idelicet cuilibet eorum pro vadiis suis duos denarios per diem, et 
Johanni de Benham garcioni pro vadiis suis unum denarium et unum 
obolum per diem, et pro putura xxiiij canum currencium et sex 
leporariorum in custodia piedicto [for predicti] Bernardi existencium 
\-ideHcet pro quolibet eorum unum obokim et ferlingum per diem 
videlicet pro bujusmodi vadiis et putura a festo sancti Micbaelis 
anno xxxv finiente usque idem festum proximo sequens per ccclxv 
dies — bdijii" xvij*- vj<^' per breve Regis irrotulatvim in Memoran- 
dis predictis termino predicto et unam partem indenture inter pre- 
fatum vicecomitem et predictum Bernardum de receptis. 

Translation. — And to Bernard Brocas, keeper of the King's buck- 
liounds, to whom the King granted twelve pence a day for bis wages ; 

* The Manor of Little Weldon, with the tenure of the custody of .the King's 
Buckhounds, passed by marriage through the female heirs from the Lovels to 
the de Borhuntes, and then to Sir Bernard Brocas, subject to the settlement 
above. 



14 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

and to Walter Suthwyke, Roger Popham, and John Hayne, to whom 
the king granted, namely, to each of them for his wages, twopence 
a day ; and to John de Benham, groom, for his wages, a penny half- 
penny per day ; and for meat of 24 running dogs and 6 greyhounds 
being in the keeping of the said Bernard — namely, for each of them a 
halfpenny farthing per day ; that is to say, for such wages and meat 
from the feast day of Saint Michael in the 35th year ending up to 
the same feast day next ensuing for 365 days — 63^. IT*. 6d. — by the 
king's writ inrolled in the said Remembrances in the term aforesaid, 
and by one pai't of the Indenture [made] between the said sheriff 
and the said Bernard concerning receipts. 

In this entry it will be seen (Sir) Bernard Brocas is styled 
custodian of the King's dogs— viz., 24 running dogs and 6 
greyhounds. The word " custodian " here was altered in 1400 
to "Master," and in nearly all subsequent entries on the Pipe 
Rolls the latter designation prevailed. 

The original word employed in the documents reciting the 
tenure of the bailiwick appertaining to the custody of the 
hounds is " damaricois," but it is never used in the same sense 
in the Pipe Rolls. This distinction is important, and probably 
indicates the change which now took place in the method 
of Buck-hunting " at force " with " running dogs," called Buck- 
hounds, in contradistinction to the method formerly employed 
in Buck-hunting with the " damaricois," which was a slow 
work. 

In the following year, ended at Michaelmas 1363, Sir Bernard 
Brocas was paid a like sum of 63^. 17s. 6c?. by the Sheriff 
of Sussex ; but for the year 1364 he only received 38^. Os. 3d. 
The payment to him in the 39th year of this reign (1365) 
was increased to 85/. lO.s. lie?., at which sum his stipend 
continued until the 42nd year (1368) — viz., for his wages at 
12cZ. per day, the wages of Walter de Suchwyke, John Hayn, 
and Roger de Popham, huntsmen, at 2d. per day each ; the 
wages of John Parker, groom, at l|cZ. per day, and the keep 
of 40 dogs and 9 greyhounds at ^d. each per day for 365 days, 
altogether amounting to 85/. 10s. lid This increase in the 
hunt servants and the hounds was only temporary, for in the 



SIR BERNARD BROCAS, SECOND HEREDITARY MASTER. 15 

ensuing year (1369) the cost only amounted to 45^. 7-s. 4f?. 
— viz., for Sir Bernard's wages, the wages of Suchwyke and 
Popham, the " berners," and Hayn the huntsman, the food of 
24 running dogs and 6 greyhounds, less the food of 15 running- 
dogs and the wages of one huntsman during the 40 days of 
Lent, etc. Without going into full details, we may take it 
generally that from the year 1370 to 1373 these payments to 
Sir Bernard Brocas by the Sheriffs of Sussex amounted, on 
an average, to about 50/. a year, at which the charge of the 
pack may be said to have been established henceforward, until 
it was finally discontinued in the reign of Queen Anne. 

During the remainder of the reign of Edward III., it is to 
be presumed, Sir Bernard performed the duties appertaining 
to the office of Master of the Royal Buckhounds, and on the 
accession of Richard II. he obtained from that king the con- 
firmation of the appointment, which he held until his death, 
which took place in 1395, when he was succeeded by his son 
and heir, 

Sir Bernard Brocas, Knight, who married Joan, daughter 
and heiress of Gilbert Banbury, Esq. He was the second 
Hereditary Master of the Royal Buckhounds, Lord Chamberlain 
to Anne, Queen-Consort of Richard II., and a faithful adherent 
to the deposed sovereign, which allegiance cost him his life ; 
for, being concerned in a conspiracy with the Lord John 
Holland and others, at Reading, he took up arms with them 
and sought to raise forces. He was, with others, arrested by 
the people of Reading (partisans of Boiingbroke), and confined 
in the Abbey there. From this restraint the loyal prisoners 
attempted to escape by setting fire to some of the houses in 
that town ; but this expedient failed, and the discovery so 
enraged the townspeople, " that they drew out and executed 
several of them instantly." But Sir Bernard Brocas was 
reserved for a more public execution ; he was brought to 
London, and, as William of Worcester records in his " Annals," 
was hung and beheaded at Westminster (suspensus et dicapita- 
tus apud West^nonasterium), in January 1400, His mangled 
corpse was buried in the chapel of St. Edmund, in Westminster 



16 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

Abbey, where the following epitaph remains round the verge 
of a curious tomb, adorned with his e&.gy, etc. : — 

" Hie jacet Bernardus Brocas, Miles, T. T. quonda' camare 
Anne Regine Anglie, cuj' aiep. pr'cietur Deus : Amen." 

The back of this tomb was filled in with the following 
modern inscription, which is inaccurate in some respects : — 

" Here lieth buried Sir Bernard Brocas, third son of Sir John 
Brocas, who had a considerable command of Archers at the siege of 
Calais, in 1347, and was a lineal descendant from Sir Bernard 
Brocas, youngest son of the Earl of Foix, in France, who came into 
England with the Norman King William ; and in requital for his 
services, had a grant of lands in Hampshire to the then value of 
400^. a year, which he chose near Basingstoke, and thereon he built 
a mansion house and called it Beaurepaire. This Su* Bernard served 
in the French Wars, and being afterwards sent against the Moors, 
overcame the King of Morocco in battle, and was allowed to wear, 
for his crest, a Moor's head crowned with an old Eastern crown. 
His elder brother, Sir John, being slain in an engagement with the 
French, near Southampton, and his second son, Sir Oliver (who was 
Captain Seneschal of Guienne and Aquitaine, and Governor of 
Bordeaux, under King Edward III.), dying without Lssue, Su- 
Bernard Brocas succeeded to the parental inheritance both in 
England and France : and having married Mary, daughter and 
heiress of Sir John de Roche, had a large estate with her, and the 
hereditary post of Master of the Buckhounds ; which was con- 
firmed to him by King Edward III., and held by the family until 
sold in James I.'s i-eign. He was Chamberlain to Queen Anne, 
Richard II.'s Queen, and his son, a knight of the same christian 
name, was carver to his said Majesty. The son was one of the 
conspirators against King Heniy IV. at Oxford, and was after- 
wards taken and executed at Cirencester, in Gloucestershire ; and he 
himself, having raised a considerable force on the same side, advanced 
to Reading, in Berkshire, which place refusing him admittance, he 
burnt a part of it, and made the rest his quarters, till on the retreat 
of the conspirator's forces into Oxfordshire, Sir Bernard's dispersing, 
he, with many of his adherents, became an easy prey to the towns- 
men of ReacUng, who executed several upon the spot, but sent Sir 



SIR RUSTIN VILLENOVE, INTERVENIENT MASTER. 17 

Bernard to London, where he was beheaded on Tower Hill in 
January 1400." 

During the four years in which the second Hereditary- 
Master of the Royal Buckhounds officiated, he received from 
491. 19s. Ohd. to oOl. and IQd. per annum from the Sheriff 
of the county Sussex by right of his office towards the cost of 
the pack. John Napper was the huntsman; and the other 
two hunt servants were William and Richard Hunte. 

The allegiance of this Sir Bernard Brocas to Richard II. 
not only cost him his life, but likewise imperilled the con- 
tinuancy of the office of custodian or mastership of the Buck- 
hounds in the family of his heirs and successors. Immediately 
after his execution, "jauncing Bolingbroke" appointed Sir 
Rustin Villenove Master of the Buckhounds, and Sir Rustin 
received the emoluments of the office, amounting to 41 L 9s. S^d., 
from the Sheriff of Sussex in the 1st year of the reign of 
Henry IV., at which time John Napper was still the hunts- 
man, and John Backhous and John Hunt were the two yeomen 
berners. And, it is a singular circumstance that Sir Rustin 
Villenove is specifically styled Master {Magistro canu Regis) 
— the earliest instance on record where the term Master 
{per se) occurs in any official document relating to this subject. 
Down to this time the two preceding Brocas were styled 
custodian. In some instances their office was not even 
mentioned; the abbreviation "cap" (= taking) certain sums 
of money, only being used. Who this Sir Rustin Villenove 
may have been we are unable to say. His appointment must 
have been a temporary one, as we hear no more of him after 
this year. It is evident he had no interest in or connection 
with the Manor of Little Weldon, to which the office of 
custodian of the Royal Buckhounds appertained, consequently 
the inference that the office of Master of this pack was created, 
and did not exist prior to the year 1362 (when the counties of 
Surrey and Sussex were first obliged to defray the annual 
cost of the Master, the hunt-servants, and the hounds), is 
thereby reduced to a moral certainty. 

2 



18 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

The second Sir Bernard Brocas had issue five sons, of whom 
the eldest, William Brocas, Esq., of Denton, Yorkshire, and 
Beaurepaire, Hampshire, inherited the honours and estates 
of his ancestors, and in the 2nd year of the reign of 
Henry IV. (September 30, 1400 to September 29, 1401) 
became the third Master of the Royal Buckhounds, when he 
received 501. Os. 7d. from the Sheriff of Sussex by virtue of 
his office. He is officially styled Master of the King's dogs 
{Magro canu Regis), as all the succeeding Hereditary Masters 
are invariably designated in the Pipe Rolls from this time 
onward. It seems, however, some hitch or dispute occurred 
concerning this office in the 27th year of Henry VI. (a.d. 
1449), whereupon the Master presented the following petition 
to the King, in which he set forth his claims, and had his 
claims allowed :^ 

" To the Kyng and Sovain Lorcle. 
" Bisecheth mekely your humble servaunt William Brocas Squyer, 
Maister of your Bukhounds. Forasmuche that he holdith of you, 
and alle his Auncestres of tyme that no mynde is have hoklen to 
your noble pgenitours, the Manior of Lityll Weldon in the Counte 
of North', by Graunte Sergeauute, that is to witte, to be Maister of 
your Buklioundes, and to kepe xxiiij reunyng hov^ndes, and vj 
grehoundes, and to fynde a yeoman Veantrer, and two yomen 
Berners ; which Office was of olde tyme ordeyned for the pleasir and 
disporte of your noble pgenitovirs, and their successours ; to the 
which Office soo to mayntene and susteyne, been accustumed and 
due certeyn wages and fees, by Statute and Ordnaunce of the 
Housholde of your noble pgenitours and yours of aide tyme purveyed, 
as hit apperith in a Oedule to this bille annexed. Of which wages 
and fees, the said Bisecher and his Auncestres have been paid of the 
issues and p'fits of the Countees of Surr' and Sussex, by the Shirriff 
for the tyme tberbeyng, by vertue of a Warante under your Pryve 
Seal yearly to him made and du'ect, fro the tyme of yoiu" noble 
p'genitour Kyng Edward the Thirde, unto thre yeres last past, that 
the Shm-ef of the said Countees for the tyme beyng, seth that tyme is 
soo charged of othir wages and aunu;ytees graunted by your fres 
patentes to othir divers psonys, that the issues and pfites of the 
said Countees wolle not suffice to contente tlie wages and fees of your 



WILLIAM BROCAS, THIRD HEREDITARY MASTER. 19 

said Bisecher, over the wages aunuytee soo graunted to otliirp'sonys ; 
and soo your said Bisecher cannot be paid of the Shirrefez of the 
said Shirez for the tyme beyng, because that the said wages and 
fees were assigned yerely to be paid by waraunte of your Pryve 
Seal, and not by warant of your ires patentes : And thus he is like 
to lose his wages and fees aforsaid, withoute that your moost habun- 
daunt grace be shewed unto him in this partye. Wherefore please 
hit unto your Highnesse, as wele tenderly to consider these pmi^ses, 
as the trewe contynuell service that your said Bisecher hath doon 
unto your noble p'genitours, as to your Highnesse, by th'advys of 
your Lordes Spii'ituell and Temporell beyng in this psente Parlement, 
to graunte unto your seid Bisecher the said wages and fees, by your 
Ires patentes to be made in fourme, after the tenure of a Oedule to 
this Bille annexed ; and he shal pray God for you. 

" Responsio. 
" Soit fait come il est desire, juxst le continue d'un Oedule a ycest 
Peticion annexe."* 

The schedule, which is in Latin and of very considerable 
length, recites much of the foregoing, and says that Brocas and 
his ancestors, as Masters of the King's dogs, called " Buk- 
hundes," received 12d. a day, a huntsman 2d. a day, and two 
whippers-in each l^d. a day for their wages; and to feed the 
said 24 running dogs and 6 greyhounds each day ^d. a day from 
the Feast of St. Michael to the 24th day of June. But from 
the 25th day of June to the Feast of St. Michael following, 
Brocas received 7^d. a day in the King's household for his 
salary, whilst his men had their above-mentioned rates of 
pay, and the dogs the same allowance. 

There was given, in addition, to Brocas, 40s. for his livery, 
and 1 3s. 4cZ. to each of the three hunt servants for his livery, 
and for their shoes 4s. 8d. each annually. These salaries, 
liveries, shoes, and the food of the hounds amounted, it is said, 
to 50/. a year ; and the King, with the advice of the Lords 
Spiritual and Temporal in Parliament, and at the request of 
the county representatives, by the authority of Parliament, 
granted the same to Brocas and his heirs male out of the 

* Eot. Pari., sub anno. 



20 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

revenues of Surrey and Sussex, by the hands of the Sheriff, 
in equal proportions at Easter and Michaelmas. Besides 
the foregoing, and not included, was the wages of a " berner," 
for the keep of 15 running dogs during the 40 days of 
Lent. 

From the year 1401, this William Brocas, the third Here- 
ditary Master of the Royal Buckhounds, received 50^. and 16cZ. 
out of the issues of the county Sussex towards the expenses 
of his office. From the year 1400 to the year 1405 John 
Napper was the huntsman, and John Backhous and John Hunte 
were the two other hunt-servants of the pack. But in the last 
regnal year of Henry V.'s reign (a.d. 1422) the huntsman 
was Roger Kent. The stipend to the Master and his hunt- 
servants, 50^. and 8d., was paid to them by the Sheriff of the 
county Sussex for the time being. 

During the reign of Henry V. (March 21, 1413 — August 31, 
1422) there was no material change in the Master, hunt 
servants, or the cost of the pack, which was supported, as 
heretofore, out of the issues of the county Sussex. 

From the 1st to the 17th year of the reign of Henry VI. 
(September 1, 1422 — August 31, 1439) the same state of affairs 
prevailed, except that we find the names of the hunt servants 
recited with the Masters in the acquittances given to the 
Sheriff of Sussex when the payments were made. This 
Hereditar}?- Master of the Buckhounds obtained a patent of the 
office of Master of the King's dogs, called Buckhounds, from 
Henry VI., in 1449, which is the earliest document of the sort 
we have met with, in which the Mastership of the pack is 
conferred in express words. By virtue of this document the 
Master was entitled to 50^. per annum from the Sheriffs of 
Surrey and Sussex, towards the expenses of the pack (Pat. 27, 
Henry VI., Part ii., m. 28). He died in 1456, for which year 
he received 49Z. I7s. 4cZ. out of the issues of the county of 
Sussex for his salary, including the usual allowances of the 
huntsman, Thomas Childe, and the two hunt-servants, Richard 
and Peter Hunte. 

This William Brocas, Esq., third Hereditary Master of the 



WILLIAM BEOCAS, FOURTH HEREDITARY MASTER. 21 

Royal Buckhounds, was succeeded by his eldest son (by his 
first wife), William Brocas, Esq., of Beaurepaire, etc., the 
fourth Hereditary Master of the Royal Buckhounds. 

We cannot find any payment to him recorded on the Pipe 
Rolls before the 12th year of the reign of Edward IV. (March 4, 
1472 — March 3, 1473), when he received 50/. out of the issues 
of the county Sussex for himself, his huntsman, Thomas Parker, 
and his two hunt servants, Peter Hunte and John Donne. Five 
years later the huntsman is designated as Thomas Parker, 
senior, of Windsor, and one of the hunt servants as Thomas 
Parker, junior, of Bromley. Down to the 22nd year of 
Edward IV.'s reign we find the same huntsman, but the 
other two hunt servants then were William Ing-elfield and 
Richard Brown. The last payment to this Hereditary Master 
of the Buckhounds and his subordinates occurs on the Pipe 
Roll for the county Sussex for the 1st year of the reign of 
Richard III., when he received the usual stipend from the 
Sheriff" of that county by virtue of his office. This William 
Brocas, the fourth Hereditary Master, died on April 22, 
1484. He married, first, Agnes, daughter of Thomas Berking- 
ham, Esq., by whom he had issue, John Brocas, his son 
and heir, the fifth of his family who officiated as Hereditary 
Master of the Royal Buckhounds. It appears from the 
subjoined inquisition that, owing to certain formalities not 
having been complied with on the demise of his father in 
the 1st Richard III. (a.d. 1484), the family honours and 
estates were in abeyance for some time ; however, these 
legal technicalities were soon after adjusted, to the satisfaction 
of all concerned. 

Whereas by a certain inquisition taken at Bulwek, 20 Oct 2 Ric. iij., 
late King of England " de facto et non de jvire," before Richard 
Bvirton, the said King's escheator co. Northampton, and returned 
unto the said King's chancery, it was found among other things 
that WUliam Brocas esq., deceased, held in the said county on the 
day of his death, in his demesne as of fee, the manor of Parva 
Weldon called " Hunters Maner," with its appurtanances in the said 
CO. : And that the said manor was held of the said King by fealty 



22 THE HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

and the service of "keeping the King's clogs called bukhoundis": 
And that the said William Brocas died on 22 April, 1 E.ic. III., and 
John Brocas was son and heir of the said William, and was forty 
years of age : And whereas it has been made known to the present 
King (that though the said manor, through the death of the said 
William, was taken into the said King's hands by pretext of the 
aforesaid inquisition, and still remains in the present King's hands), 
the said John withovit due licence, presentation, or livery, &c., &c., 
&c., has held the said manor, with its appvirtanances, from the afore- 
said William, and still holds it, &c., &c. Writ to the Sheriff of 
Northampton to summons the aforesaid John Brocas to appear 
before the King in the Chancery on the morrow of St. Martin next 
to come, to show reason why he should not answer to the King for 
the issues and profits of the said manor from the time of the said 
William's death, &c., &c., and render homage and fealty to the King 
in respect of the premises. 

In the 2nd year of the reign of Eichard III. the fifth 
Hereditary Master of the Royal Buckhounds was paid 50^. 
out of the issues of the county Sussex for his own salary and 
allowances, and those of his huntsman, John Parker, and the 
two hunt-servants, R. Brown and W. Ingelfield, before men- 
tioned. He does not appear to have received his annual 
stipend for the 3rd and last regnal year of Richard III. ; but 
during the first three years of the reign of Henry VII. he was 
paid 50/. per annum by the Sheriffs of the county of Sussex. 
Down to 1485 Jacob Henton was the huntsman, and Richard 
Brown and William Ingelfield were the two berners. But in 
the following year (3 Henry VII., A.D. 1488) Henry Uvedale 
was the huntsman, and Henry Towers and John Stevens were 
the berners of the pack. During the ensuing two years the 
payments were again in abeyance ; they were resumed and 
paid in the 6th and 7th regnal years of the reign of Henry VII., 
in which latter year (1492) this Master died. 

Following the example of his father and grandfather, 
John Brocas, Esq., the fifth Master of the Royal Buckhounds, 
married twice. By his first wife Anne, daughter of Edward 
Longford, Esq., he had two sons : Edward, who died young, 



WILLIAM BROCAS, SIXTH HEREDITARY MASTER. 23 

and William Brocas, his successor, the sixth Master of the 
Royal Buckhounds,* He married Mary, daughter of John 
Griffin, Esq., of Braybrooke, by whom he had issue two 
daughters, Anne and Edith, of whom the latter eventually 
became his sole heiress. This William Brocas, Esq., the sixth 
Master of the Royal Buckhounds, dying in the twenty-first 
year of Henry VII. (a.d. 1506), was succeeded by his daughters, 
Anne and Edith Brocas. 

On the Pipe Rolls for the 9th regnal year of Henry VII. 
William Brocas, the sixth Master, was paid 50^. by the 
Sheriffs of the county Sussex, but we can find no payments 
to him for the 10th and 11th years of this reign. The 
stipend of his office was resumed on the 12th, and con- 
tinued to be paid to him regularly and in full until the 
22nd Henry VII. (a.d. 1-506), in the course of which year 
he died. During this period Henry TJvedale was the hunts- 
man, and Henry Towers and John Stevens were the other 
hunt servants to the pack. 

On the Pipe Roll of the county Sussex for the 23rd (and 
last) regnal year of the reign of Henry VIL (a.d. Aug. 22, 
1508 — April 21, 1509) John Brocas, Esq., the seventh Heredi- 
tary Master of the Royal Buckhounds, was paid the usual 
stipend of 50/. by virtue of his office by the Sheriff of that 
county in that year. Who this John Brocas was we cannot 
tell, as he is not mentioned as having ever held the office in 
Professor Burrows' work. At any rate, he also officiated as 
the Hereditary Master during the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd years 
of Henry VIII.'s reign (April 22, 1509— April 21, 1512), re- 
ceiving 501. a year out of the issues of the county Sussex by 
the hands of the Sheriff of that county for the time being. The 
hunt servants under him were the same as in the time of 
William Brocas, the sixth Master. We do not find any pay- 
ment on account of this portion of the Royal pack inscribed on 

* On June 16th, 1492, licence of entry without proof of age was granted 
to William Brocas, Esq., son and heir of John Brocas, Esq., and grandson and 
heir of William Brocas, and great-grandson and heir of William Brocas, all 
deceased. (Pat. Roll, sub data.') 



24 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

the Pipe Rolls of Surrey or Sussex for the following year ; 
therefore the assumption is that the office was in abeyance 
until the ensuing year (5 Henry VIII.), when we ascertain 
that pursuant to an inquisition taken before Lambert Langtry, 
the King's escheator, at Howell,* Northamptonshire, on Novem- 
ber 3, 1506, it was proved that Anne and Edith, daughters of 
WiUiam Brocas, Esq., deceased, held the Manor of Little 
Weldon in capite by tenure of keeping f the King's Buck- 
hounds, and that those ladies and their husbands were paid 
the usual stipend of the office amounting to 50^. a year, bj'- 
the Sheriffs of Surrey and Sussex for the time being. J 

This inquisition was avowedly entered on the Pipe Roll in 
order to show the authority for the payments to be made by 
the Sheriffs of Surrey and Sussex to Anne and Edith Brocas 
and their husbands. However, the only payment we have 
found in their joint names occurs in the Pipe Roll of the 
county Sussex for the 5th year of the reign of Henry VIII. 
(A.D. April 22, 1513 — April 21, 1514), when George Warham 
and Rudulpho Pexsall, Masters of the King's dogs — Magris 
canu Regs. — received the usual stipend of 50^. by right of their 
office. The money was paid to them jointly. Thomas Carnevill 
was the huntsman ; John Love and John Stevens the two 
berners, each of whom received the same remunerations as 
heretofore allowed to their predecessors in the same employ- 
ment. Anne Brocas, the wife of George Warham, eighth Here- 
ditary Master, having died childless in 1514, the Manor of 
Little Weldon, with the bailiwick appertaining to the King's 
Buckhounds, passed to her sister Edith Brocas, the wife of 
Ralph PexsaU, ninth Hereditary Master, who held the tenure 

* Eothwell (pronounced as spelt above), a celebrated racecourse ia the 
seventeenth century. See " History of Newmarket and the Annals of the 
Turf," vol. iii., v., Index. 

f In this, as in all other documents relating to the tenure of the Manor of 
Little Weldon, the word used is custody {costod. canis^ damv.) of the King's 
Buckhounds. It is only in the Pipe Rolls that the word " Master" is employed. 
This seems to confirm the assumption that the Mastership did not merge into 
the tenure before the first payment through the Sheriff of Sussex in 1363. 

% Pipe Roll, 5 Henry VIII. Item. Adliuc Sussex, dorso. 



EALPH PEXSALL, NINTH HEREDITAKY MASTER. 25 

appertaining to that manor and the Hereditary Mastership 
of the Royal Buckhounds by right of his wife's inheritance. 
He received the usual stipend of the office out of the issues 
of the county Sussex in the 7th and 11th, and from the 
12th to the 18th years of the reign of Henry VIII. in 
full;* but from the 19th to 25th ensuing years his pay- 
ments were intermittent — a portion on account varying from 
22^. 4s. lOd., to 271. Os. 2d. per annum, and in addition the 
arrears overdue in some cases — and from the 26th to the 
29th years following he does not appear to have obtained 
any payment whatever from the Sheriffs of the counties of 
Surrey or Sussex. However, in the 30th regnal year of the 
reign of Henry VIII. (a.d. April 22, 1539— April 21, 1639) 
he was paid 50/. in full by the Sheriff of the county of Sussex, 
which is the last payment recorded to him as Master of the 
Royal Buckhounds that is entered on the Pipe Rolls. At 
this time Reginald Hannington was the huntsman ; Hugh 
Carter and Thomas Jordan were the berners, each of whom 
were in receipt of the same fees and emoluments as their 
predecessors in office — viz., George Hunt, John Bland, and 
John Chenry. 

Apparently Miss Anne Brocas carried the official insignia of 
the Royal Buckhounds about the time Henry VIII. ascended 

* Eef erring to the joint Mastership about this time Professor Burrows 
remarks: "From the joint petitions of the two husbands of the two wards we 
were able to obtain some clue to an obscure portion of tlie family history. 
But not only were the arrears petitioned for never paid, but in the ninth, tenth, 
and eleventh years of Henry VIII. the Sheriff still continued to refuse pay- 
ment, and Pexsall appears to have obtained no redress. We may, however, 
suppose that these difficulties now came to an end, for we hear no more of 
them." (" Family of Brocas," p. 258.) This deduction does not correspond 
with the Pipe Bolls, which Professor Burrows, has apparently not consulted, 
and consequently he missed the best official information on the point. We do 
not advert to this in any way reflecting on the learned author's lack of 
investigation, as it would be preposterous to expect the Chichele Professor 
of Modern History at the University of Oxford to waste the time and put up 
with the indignities which the search would now (1866) involve at the Public 
Eecord Office. Upon this search alone the writer was occupied for six months. 
If the documents had been in the British Museum it could have been accom- 
plished in six days. 



26 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

the throne.* On the death of her father, which appears to 
have taken place in 1506, she and her sister Edith were given 
in wardship to John Audley, Thomas Cobham, and Anthony 
Wingfield. We hear nothing of her family again until July 
16, 1512, when Anne Brocas, Ralph Pexsall, and Edith, his 
wife, obtained licence to enter upon the Manor of Little 
Weldon, Northampton, and on the office of keeping the King's 
Buckhounds — ac in offichn custodiencV canes n'str's damarum 
— as held by William Brocas, deceased, ifemp, Henry VII. 
Miss Anne Brocas married George Warham, Esq. ; but she 
appears to have died in 1514, as on December 16 of that year 
Ralph Pexsall and Edith, his wife, who had become her sister's 
heir, and Hereditary Master (or Mistress) of the Buckhounds, 
obtained livery of the Manor of Parva Weldon, otherwise 
** hunter's manor," Northampton, and the property of the 
said Anne; of the manor and other premises in Weldon; of 
the office of keeper of the King's Buckhounds, and the profits 
thereof; and of all possessions held to the use of them and 
their heirs. This Miss Edith Brocas having married Ralph 
Pexsall, Esq., he, by virtue of his wife's inheritance, became 
jointly with her the nominal Master of the Buckhounds to 
Henry VIII. at this portion of his reign. Pexsall seems to 
have found favour with the king and the cardinal ; was a 
J.P. for several counties, and was appointed, with others, at 
various times, a commissioner to collect the subsidy in 
Hampshire. He was likewise appointed a teller of the royal 
wardrobe, and had an appointment in Wolsey's train, when 
the suite of his Eminence almost excelled that of the king. 
He was Sheriff of Hants in 1527, 1529, and 1530. On 
March 6, 1522, he was appointed Clerk of the Crown in 
Chancery, with a salary of 201. a year and a livery similar 
to Richard Sturgeon and Thomas Ive, his predecessors in 
office, temp. Henry VII. The following year he obtained a 
" corrody " in St. Mary's monastery, Thetford. On January 26, 

* At the present time there are two ladies in France who own and hunt 
their own packs of staghoands — viz., the Duchesse d'Uzes, in the vicinity of 
Rambouillet forest, and Mme. Quimet, from her chateau in the Saone-et-Loire. 



EALPH PEXSALL, NINTH HEREDITARY MASTER. 27 

1532, he was among the witnesses present when Henry VIII. 
took the Great Seal from the custody of Thomas Audley, 
and, after holding it for a quarter of an hour, " returned it 
to the custody of the said Thomas Audley, appointing him 
Chancellor of England." About this time Ralph Pexsall seems 
to have disposed of the reversion of his office of Clerk of 
the Crown to Thomas Pope, including his livery of a fur 
robe of office, which he obtained annually from the Great 
Wardrobe. This is the last reference we have found of this 
joint Hereditary Master of the Royal Buckhounds. He died 
c. 1540. By Edith, his wife, who died in 1517, he had issue 
two sons, John Pexsall, Esq., who died without heirs, and Sir 
Richard Pexsall, knight, the tenth Hereditary Master of the 
Buckhounds, whose demise occurred in the 13th year of 
Queen Elizabeth's reign, a.d. 1571. 



28 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 



CHAPTER II. 
HOUSEHOLD BRANCH— HENRY VIII. 

General Introduction. — Social State of England temi). Richard II. — Henry VII. 
— Accession of Henry VIII. — The Household Branch of the Royal Buck- 
hounds instituted. — George Boleyne, Viscount Rochester, First Master. — 
The Hunt Servants : theii" Salaries and Allowances. — Sir Richard Long, 
Second Master. — Lord Darcy, of Chiche, Third Master. 

The rural history of England during the fifteenth century is 
almost unknown. From the deposition of Richard II., in 1899, 
until a few years before the accession of Henry VIII., in 
1509, we find a sanguinary era, one of the saddest to be found 
in the annals of any civilised country. Yet in those rare and 
short intervals of peace and prosperity that intervened, the 
rural sports so characteristic of our country are occasionally 
mentioned incidentally by contemporary chroniclers.* We 
may, therefore, deduce that the innate love for field sports, 

* It is recorded by Holinshed that Richard II., his Queen, John, Duke of 
Lancaster, the Duke of York, Thomas Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, the 
Archbishop of York, the Earl of Arundel, the Earl of Huntingdon, " with 
other bishops, lords and ladies a great many," assembled at Leicester, about the 
Feast of St. Peter and Vincent, 1389, to hunt in the forest and all the parks 
appertaining to the said Duke of Lancaster. Holinshed also attests that 
Edward IV. indulged in the pleasures of the chase whenever a favourable 
opportunity presented ; and he fiirther specifically mentions that " in the 
summer the last he ever saw [A.D. 1483], his highnesse, being at Windsors in 
hunting, sent for the maior and aldermen of London to him, for none other 
errand but to have them hunt and be merry with him ; when he made them 
not so stately, but so friendly and so familliar cheare, and sent venison from 
thence so freely into the city, that no one thing in many dayes before gat 
him either more hearts or more hearty favor among the common people, which 
ofentimes more esteeme and take for the greater kindness a little courtesie than 
a great benefit." 



SOCIAL STATE OF ENGLAND : EICHAED II. — HENRY VII. 29 

which has at all times been prominently associated with the 
inhabitants of this country, though latent in those days of 
civil strife, was not extinguished. Unfortunately, the field of 
battle in a great measure supplanted the pleasures of the 
hunting-field ; consequently it is impossible to give any 
succinct account of the progress of the chase in a general way, 
or of the Royal Buckhounds and their Masters during the 
fifteenth century. We are unaware of any records or similar 
documents to which we can apply for information relating to 
details of the hunting establishments of the fourth, fifth, and 
sixth Henrys, of the fourth and fifth Edwards, of Richard III., 
or of Henry VII. ; nevertheless, there is little doubt that those 
royal venatic establishments were sustained as efliciently as 
the disjointed times and adverse circumstances permitted. It 
is to be presumed the Hereditary Masters of the Buckhounds 
continued to fulfil their normal duties, provided always the 
holder of horn was loyal to the reigning sovereign. But to 
act thus he must have been a partisan of the House of York or 
of the House of Lancaster in turn, as the White or the Red Rose 
faction ruled the realm. To do so he would, have to adopt the 
policy of the Vicar of Bray, which would be repugnant to the 
hot Norman blood of the lords of Beaurepaire. Bearing in 
mind these discordant circumstances, and in the absence of 
any precise information on the point, it can only be assumed, 
with all reserve, that the succeeding Hereditary Masters of the 
Buckhounds, who are mentioned in the preceding chapter, 
continued to exercise their functions until that time, when 
George Boleyne, Viscount Rochester, was appointed Master of 
that portion of the Royal Buckhounds appertaining to the 
Household, by his brother-in-law, in December 1528. 

But, as previously mentioned, sport with the Royal 
Buckhounds in those unsettled times must have been very 
intermittent. The same may be said with regard to the 
numerous packs that were found to be dispersed throughout 
the country. The great feudal barons and the lord abbots 
emulated kings and princes in the extent and efiiciency of the 
hunting establishments which they kept up. The appalling 



30 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

consequences of the civil war frequentlj^ spoiled the sport, and 
often rendered hunting altogether out of the question. The 
history of those dark days is too well known to require much 
notice at our hands ; but, in order to show how difficult it was 
to enjoy the pleasure of the chase, a brief allusion to the fate 
of some of the prominent sportsmen of this period, who kept 
vast hunting establishments at their feudal seats, may not be 
out of place. 

In the course of that long and terrible contest thirteen 
pitched battles were fought, three kings met with untimel}' 
ends, eighty princes of the blood had fallen, and twenty-six 
Knights of the Garter perished either by the sword or by the 
hand of the executioner. The ancient nobility of England 
was almost entirely annihilated. Of the royal house of 
Plantagenet, Richard, Duke of York, and his son, the Earl of 
Rutland, were slain at the battle of Wakefield; the Duke 
of Clarence died the death of a traitor; Edward V. and his 
brother, the Duke of York, were murdered in the Tower of 
London ; and, lastly, their uncle, Richard III., was killed at 
Bosworth. Of the House of Lancaster, King Henry VI. 
perished mysteriously in prison; his son Edward, Prince of 
Wales, was slain at Tewkesbury. Of the kindred of Queen 
Elizabeth Woodville, the consort of Edward IV., her father, 
Richard, Earl Rivers, and her brother, Sir John Woodville, 
were beheaded at Northampton; her husband, John, Lord Grey 
of Groby, fell at the second battle of St. Albans; her son. 
Sir Richard Grey, was beheaded at Pomfret ; and on the same 
scafibld perished her brother, the accomplished Anthony 
Woodville, Earl Rivers. Of the royal house of Beaufort, 
Edmund, Duke of Somerset, formerly Regent of France, was 
slain at the first battle of St. Albans ; Henry, the second duke, 
was beheaded after the battle of Hexham ; Edmund, the third 
duke, was beheaded after the battle of Tewkesbury ; and in 
the same battle was slain Sir John Beaufort, son of the first 
duke. Of the great house of Stafford, Humphrey, Earl of 
Stafford, fell at the first battle of St. Albans; his father, 
Humphrey, Duke of Buckingham, fell at the battle of 



SOCIAL STATE OF ENGLAND : RICHAKD II. — HENEY VII. 31 

Northampton ; Heniy, the second duke, was beheaded at 
Salisbury ; and of another branch of the Staffords, Humphrey, 
Earl of Devon, perished on the scaffold at Bridgewater. Of 
the house of Neville, Richard, Earl of Salisbury, was beheaded 
after the battle of Wakefield ; his sons, Richard, Earl of 
Warwick, the " Kingmaker," and John, Marquis of Montagu, 
fell at Barnet ; a third son, Sir Thomas Neville, fell at Wake- 
field; Sir John Neville was killed at the battle of Tow ton ; 
Sir Henry Neville, son and heir of Ralph, Lord Latimer, was 
beheaded after the battle of Banbury ; and Sir Humphrey 
Neville and his brother Charles, after the battle of Hexham. 
Of the Percys, Henr^r, second Earl of Northumberland, one of 
the heroes of Agincourt, fell at the first battle of St. Albans ; 
two of his gallant sons, Henry, the third earl, and Sir Richard 
Percy, were slain at Towton; a third son, Thomas, Lord 
Egremont, perished at the battle of Northampton ; and a 
fourth son. Sir Ralph Percy, at Hedgerley Moor. Of the 
house of Talbot, John, second Earl of Shrewsbury, and his 
brother. Sir Christopher Talbot, were slain at Northampton ; 
their kinsman, Thomas Talbot, Lord Lisle, fell in a skirmish 
at Wotton-under-Edge. Of the Courtnays, Thomas, sixth 
Earl of Devon, was beheaded after the battle of Towton ; 
Henr}^ the seventh earl, w^as beheaded at Sarum ; and at 
Tewkesbury was slain their only remaining brother, the eighth 
earl. Of the De Veres, John, twelfth Earl of Oxford, and his 
eldest son, Sir Aubrey de Vere, perished together on the 
scaffold on Tower Hill. Of the Cliffords, Thomas, the eighth 
lord, was slain at the first battle of St. Albans ; and his son 
John, the ninth lord, at the battle of Towton. Of the house 
of Hungerford, Robert, third Baron Hungerford, was beheaded 
after the battle of Hexham; and his heir. Sir Thomas Hun- 
gerford, was beheaded at Salisbury. Of the Bourchiers, 
Humphrey, Lord Cromwell, was slain at the battle of Barnet ; 
and Sir Edward Bourchier, brother of Henry, Earl of Essex, 
at Wakefield. Lastly, of the house of Welles, there perished 
the representatives of three generations : Leo, Lord Welles, was 
slain at the battle of Towton; his son Richard, Lord Welles 



32 THE HISTOKY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

and Willoughby, and his grandson, Sir Robert Welles, severally 
perished by the axe of the executioner. Long as is this 
catalogue of slaughtered heroes, there might be appended 
many other and no less illustrious names. At the battle of 
Bloreheath was slain James Touchet, Lord Audley ; at the 
battle of Northampton, John, Viscount de Beaumont ; at 
Wakefield, William Bonville, Lord Harrington ; at Tewkesbury, 
John, Lord Wenlock ; at Towton, Banulph, Lord Dacre of 
Gillesland ; and at Bosworth, John Howard, Duke of Norfolk, 
and Walter Devereux, Lord Ferriers of Chartley. Lastly, on 
the scaffold perished William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke ; 
John Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester ; James Butler, Earl of 
Wiltshire; William Bonville, Lord Bonville; William, Lord 
Hastings ; Sir Owen Tudor, grandfather of Henry VII. ; and 
Sir Bernard Brocas, second Hereditary Master of the Royal 
Buckhounds, under the circumstances mentioned in the pre- 
ceding chapter. The ancient nobility had been almost entirely 
annihilated ; and in the renowned and powerful Earl of 
Warwick, who is said to have feasted at his board, in the 
different manors and castles he possessed, upward of thirty 
thousand persons, there had fallen the greatest and the last of 
those mighty barons by whom the Crown had in former times 
been checked and overawed. Such, indeed, had been this 
deluge of noble blood in the field or on the scaffold that 
Henry VII. could find only twenty-eight temporal peers to 
summon to his first Parliament ; and such the change effected 
by it, in a political sense, on the management of public affairs, 
that the accession of the first Tudor is considered the origin of 
the modern system, and from it the constitutional historian 
of England, notwithstanding all the charters and acts to be 
found in the statute-book prior to this time, has dated the 
commencement of his history. 

This fearful picture of the state of the country in those 
days supplies a sufiicient excuse for the barrenness of our 
subject during this unhappy period. With the union of the 
Houses of York and Lancaster by the marriage of Henry VII. 
with Elizabeth of York a happier state of affairs ensued. 



SOCIAL STATE OF ENGLAND IN THE KEIGN OF HENRY VII. 33 

The king now inaugurated a new policy, and a wise one, by 
abolishing, as far as possible, all feudal services. Such of the 
great baronial houses as survived the Civil War were curtailed 
of those armed retainers that had formerly constituted the 
power of the nobility for good or for evil. As an illustration 
of the effect of the king's new policy and the way it was 
carried out, the following instance may be mentioned. When 
the Earl of Oxford, Lord High Admiral and Great Chamber- 
lain to the king, entertained Henry VII. at one of his castles 
in 1498, with all the splendour and hospitable display of the 
old regime, the king, when taking his departure, said, " By 
my faith, I thank you for your good cheer ; but at the same 
time I cannot have my laws broken before my face by you, 
my lord ; my Attorney-General must have some serious talk 
with you " ; and soon after the earl was fined fifteen hundred 
marks for thus having violated the law. Now, with this 
instance before us, we must be very circumspect in attaching 
too much importance to the actual effect of the feudal service 
appertaining to the Royal Buckhounds and the Hereditary 
Mastership, held by the Brocas family in those days. Conse- 
quently, we can only assume that those gentlemen exercised 
the functions of the ofiice as their ancestors from the time of 
Edward III. may have done. The privy purse expenses of 
Henry VII. contain no reference to the pack. There are no 
accounts or ordinance of this king's household extant. The 
entire surroundings are so shrouded in obscurity that it would 
be a bootless task to indulge in speculations which cannot 
be supported by any genuine evidence. 

It is, nevertheless, apparent that even at this time there 
was a Royal Pack of Buckhounds other than the Hereditary 
one. Unfortunately, all we know about it consists in the 
fact that on October 16, 1485, Henry VII. appointed John 
Wydor yeoman (valectorum) of his dogs called Buckhounds, 
under the Master thereof, to have and hold the said office 
with the usual wages and fees thereunto belonging (Pat. 1, 
Henry VII., Part 1, m. 24), The name of this Master is not 
mentioned. It could hardly have been John Brocas, the 

3 



34 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

seventh Hereditary Master ; and, moreover, John Wydor was 
not connected with the Hereditary branch of the pack at, prior, 
or subsequent to, this time. It would, therefore, appear that 
Henry VII. contemplated the formation of some supplemen- 
tary pack of Buckhounds immediately after his accession 
to the Crown. But it seems the intention was abandoned, 
as we can find no further official reference to it during the 
rest of his reign. 

Henry VII. was very partial to rural sports. He filled up 
every office appertaining to the chase from the Chief Justice 
of the Forests on this side and beyond the Trent to the very 
subordinate official whom he appointed to be his swanherd 
on the river Thames. So far as concerned the royal preroga- 
tive the Forest Laws were strictly enforced. All his liege 
subjects were enjoined to observe the statutes and ordinances 
touching the preservation of the game. Deer, of all species, 
birds and beasts of venery, were vested only in the king and 
in those to whom he had granted, or confirmed existing grants, 
of free chase and free warren. 

Apart from the Buckhounds, 'per se, his hunting establish- 
ments were speedily restored to their pristine status. Thus 
we find on October 12, 1485, Henry VII. made a grant for 
life to Sir Giles Daubeney of the office of Master of the 
Royal Harthounds, and of the emoluments heretofore enjoyed 
therewith by his predecessor in the said office, Henry, late 
Earl of Essex. Three days later a similar grant was conferred 
upon Sir William (afterwards Lord) Willoughby of the office 
of Master of the King's Harriers, with the wages out of the 
issues of Bedford and Bucks, and of the alnage of cloths in 
the counties of Somerset and Dorset, with the emoluments 
heretofore enjoyed by John Worth, Esq., with that office. 
There was also a Royal Pack of Otter Hounds, besides various 
accessories of the chase in connection with the Crown, which 
it is unnecessary to recapitulate here. Under the circum- 
stances, we will proceed at once to investigate the " Privy " 
or Household branch of our pack in the reign of Henry VIII. 

We must view the character of bluff" King Hal as a sports- 



THE HOUSEHOLD BRANCH INSTITUTED. 35 

man only. He excelled in all manly sports and pastimes. 
As a huntsman he had few equals and no superior. He seems 
to have introduced the use of led horses in a run to hounds 
when hunting " at force " — a practice generally supposed to 
be a comparatively modern innovation. He tired out several 
led horses in the course of a single day's hunting. As to the 
extent and the cost of his hunting establishment very little 
is known. Later on in his reign there are, however, some- 
what fuller details ; but the information is not sufficiently 
ample to warrant any general conclusion. 

So far as the facts can be gathered from the fragmentary 
historical data available for consultation relating to the hunting 
establishments of Henry VIII., it appears that during the 
period now under consideration — i.e., 1528-1536 — the officers 
of what we may style the Household branch (in contradistinc- 
tion to the Hereditary portion) of the Royal Buckhounds con- 
sisted of the Master and four subordinate servants. The then 
Master, George Boleyne, afterwards styled Viscount Rochester, 
is mentioned as being in receipt of certain fees for "feeding 
the hounds," or for " finding meat " for them, as recorded from 
time to time in our biographical memoir of that unfortunate 
nobleman. The State papers and cognate historical docu- 
ments of the period throw no light on the number of hounds 
belonging to this branch of the pack, nor can we find 
any ordinance by which all the departments of the Royal 
household were usually established and regulated. As to 
the subordinate officials of the household branch of the pack, 
we find, in the year 1528, that the three sergeants — viz., 
Humphrey Raynsford, Richard Pery, and George Node — 
were each entitled to receive for wages and hoard wages 
15d. a day. Of this stipend they appear to have only 
received about 3 jcZ. per diem out of the king's privy purse ; 
from what fund the balance was obtainable we are unable to 
ascertain. They occasionally obtained supplementary gifts in 
money and grants from the king by way of " reward." * It 

* E.(j., on March 29, 1542, George Nodes obtained from the king a grant 
of Shephall for himself, his heirs, and assigns for ever, of the site of the chief 



36 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

seems they also provided the hounds meat, " chippings " — now 
known as " dog biscuits " — for which they received from 95. to 
9s. 4d^. a month. They were likewise entitled to a livery coat 
yearly, which cost IZ. 2s. Qd., and on occasion a donation of 
lis. or 12s. wherewith to buy a jerkin of Kendal green. 
Richard Pery died in 1529, from which date onwards we find 
some changes in the hunt servants. A hound- van is mentioned, 
and some miscellaneous disjointed particulars so far as it came 
within the scope of the privy purse expenses of Henry VIII., 
from 1529 to 1532 :— 

1528. * •■?• f^- 

Dee. 30. Paid to Hvimphrey of the privy hounds for 

meat by the space of one month .... 9 

1529. 
June 30. Paid to Humphrey Raynezford* for chippings 
for the king's privy buckhounds for two 
months the wliich be ended the last day of 
June 18 8 

Nov. 29. Paid to him for chippings for a month ..090 

1530. 

Jan. 25. Paid to him for chippings for the king's privy 

buckhounds for one month 12 4 

Feb. 26. Paid to him for chippings 9 4 

March 12. Paid to him for a month's wages now ended .094 
„ 28. Paid to him for one month now ended (sic) .094 

messuage of the Manor of Shephall and of divers lands there, which belonged 
to the Monastery of St. Albans, Herts. On October 20, 1537, Henry Sell, 
yeoman pricker (valet j^ry^^e^') of the Buckhounds, obtained a grant for life of 
the site of the manor and lordship of Cherton, Herts, with all houses, barns, 
edifices, orchards, and gardens thereunto belonging by the payment of a red 
rose (unam ruhrain rosam^ per annum upon St. John the Baptist's Day. Also 
twenty-four acres of meadow in " Le Frethe " in the said lordship, from the 
death of Henry, late Duke of Richmond and Somerset, at the annual rent of 3Z. 
Also to be keeper of the wood called " Lee Old Park,' in the said lordship, with 
fees of 13s. 4<Z. per year, and one " holowe oke " yearly out of the same wood. 

* The names of these gentlemen are spelt in all sorts and manner of ways. 
Dodsworth's descendants were connected with the royal hunting establishment 
until nearly the close of the Stuart dynasty. A member of this family owned 
and probably bred the famous stallion of that name which forms the foundation 
of Weather by 's Stud Book. 



s. 


d. 


5 





9 





9 





9 





.2 


4 


9 





6 


8 


9 





9 






THE HUNT- SERVANTS : SALARIES AND ALLOWANCES. 37 

1530. £ 

April 8. Paid to him foi^ his Hvery 1 

June 6. Paid to him for chippings for the king's privy 

bnckhounds for one month 

„ 26. Paid to him for one month's wages .... 

July 15. Paid to him for one month's wages .... 

And to him in reward to buy a jerkin ... 
Aug. 16. Paid to him for a month's wages ended 

August 12th 

,, 18. Paid to him by way of reward 

Sept. 13. Paid to him for a month's wages ended the 

3rd day of this month 

Oct. 2. Paid to him for his wages ended for one month 
,, 15. Paid to him for his coat by the king's com- 
mands 126 

Nov. 9. Paid to him for his month's wages now 

ended 9 

Dec. 25. Paid to him for his month's wages now ended 9 

1531. 

Jan. 19. Paid to him for a month's wages then ended 9 

Feb. 24. Paid to him for his wages, due for one month, 

now ended 090 

March 16. Paid to him and Lawrence Lee for their 

wages due for one month this present day 18 
May — . Paid to him for his wages due for one month 9 
June 2. Paid to him for a month's wages now ended .090 
„ 10. Paid to him and Lawrence Lee to buy them 

a Kendal coat 120 

„ 28. Paid to him, Thomas of London, Hugh Harris, 

Ralph Mundy, and Christopher Fausconer, 

for their livery coats, every man at ... 1 2 6 
Jidy 9. Paid to him and Ralph Mundy, by the king's 

commands, in reward 9 4 

Aug. 12. Paid to him for canvas to cover the cart 

[hound-van] to carry the same hounds ..076 
„ 23. Paid to him for [two] months' wages ended 

this day 18 

Sept. 7. Paid to him, Cox the footman, and Watt, by 

the king's commands 1 



38 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

1531. £ «• ^■ 

Sept. 14. Paid to him, Watt, and Ralph, by the king's 

commands 0150 

„ 30. Paid to him, Ralph Mimdy, and Walter 

Dodsworth 376 

Oct. 1. Paid to him, Ralph Mundy, and Dodsworth, 
for meat for the privy [buckjhounds for the 
space of one month, at 9s. a-piece ... 1 7 

Nov. 20. Paid to him, Ralph Mundy, and Walter 
Dodsworth, for their hounds' meat for a 
month 170 

Dec. 17. Paid to him, Ralph Mundy, and Walter 
Dodsworth, for theii' hounds' meat for a 

month now ended 170 

,, 28. Paid to him, Walter Dodsworth, and Ralph 
Mundy, for their livery coats, each of them 
IZ. 25. 6rf 3 7 6 

1532. 

Jan. 9. Paid to him, Ralph Mundy, and Walter 
Dodsworth, for their hounds' meat for one 
month now ended 170 

Feb. 12. Paid to him, Walter Dodsworth, and Ralph 
Mundy, for one month's wages, every man 

9s ...170 

March 9. Paid to him, Dodsworth, and Ralph Mundy, 
for their hounds' meat for a month now 

ended 17 

April 8. Paid to him, Ralph Mundy, and Walter 
Dodsworth, for their hounds' meat for 
one month ended the last day of 

March 17 

„ 16. Paid to him in reward towards his marriage 

by the king's command 2 

„ 25. Paid to him, Ralph Mundy, and Walter 
Dodsworth, for their hounds' meat for a 
month now ended 170 

May 20. Paid to him, Ralph Mundy, and Walter 
Dodsworth, for their hounds' meat for one 
month now ended 170 



THE HUNT-SEEVANTS : SALARIES AND ALLOWANCES. 39 

1532. £ s. d. 

June 16. Paid to him, Ralph Mundy, and Walter 
Dodsworth, for their hounds' meat by the 

space of one month 17 

„ 28. Paid to him, Ralph Mundy, and Walter 

Dodsworth, for their liveries 3 

July 2. Paid to him, Walter Dodsworth, and Ralph 
Mundy, for the meat of their hounds for 

one month now ended 17 

„ 20. Paid to him for ten ells of canvas to cover the 

cart with the king's hounds 5 

Paid to him for [the hire of ?] the said 

cart 010 

Paid to him for 300 nails for the said cart .006 
Paid to him for boards to make a chest within 

the said cart and for carpenter's labour .034 
„ 24. Paid to him, Walter Dodsworth, and Ralph 
Mundy, for their hounds' meat for one 
month ended the 23rd day of July, at 9s. 

each 17 

„ 29. Paid to him for removing with the cart with 

hounds from Ampthill to Grafton ... 2 4 
Aug. 6. Paid to him for bringing the cart with the 

hounds from Grafton to Woodstock ... 3 6 
Paid to him, Walter Dodsworth, and Ralph 

Mundy, in reward 15 

„ 16. Paid to him for carrying the cart with the 

hounds from Woodstock to Langley ... 1 2 
Paid to him, Walter Dodsworth, and Ralph 
Mundy, for their hounds' meat for one 
month ended the 21st day of August ..170 
„ 22. Paid to him for the cart with the hounds 

from Langley to Abingdon 2 4 

„ 23. Paid to him, Walter Dodsworth, and Ralph 

Mundy, by way of reward 15 

„ 29. Paid to him for carrying the cart with hounds 

from Abingdon to Newlem Park .... 1 4 
Paid to him for carrying the said cart from 

Newlem to Reading 2 



40 THE HISTOEY OF THE KOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

1532. £ s. d. 

Sept. 12. Paid to him, Dodsworth, and Mundy, £oi^ 

their hovinds' meat for one month ... 1 7 
,, 19. Paid to him for the cart with hounds from 

Windsor to Chertsey 2 

„ 30. Paid to him for his cart with hounds from 

Hampton Court to Greenwich .... 2 6 
Oct. 7. Paid to him, Dodsworth, and Mundy, for their 

month's wages 170 

Nov. 28. Paid to him, Walter Dodsworth, and Ralph 
Mundy, for their wages for two months 

now ended 2 14 

Dec. 24. Paid to him, Ralph [Mundy], and Walter 
[Dodsworth], to every of them 22s. Qd. for 

their coats 3 7 6 

„ 25. Paid to him and Walter [Dodsworth], " the 
houts " for their hounds' meat for one 
month 170 

George Boleyne, Viscount Rochester, the First Master 
of the " Privy " or Household branch of the Buckhounds to 
Henry VHI. from 1528 to 1536, vras the third son and heir 
of Sir Thomas Boleyne, Viscount Rochford, Earl of Wiltshire 
and Ormonde, K.G., by Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Tliomas 
Howard, second Duke of Norfolk, E.M., K.G. He was born 
at Hever Castle, Kent, about the year 1509. It is a somewhat 
singular circumstance that this castle, in which the young 
viscount was born and in which he chiefly resided during his 
youth, belonged to Sir Oliver Brocas when the Royal Buck- 
hounds were first instituted in the reign of Edward III. 
" Hever," says Mr. William Hepworth Dixon, in his " History 
of Two Queens," " was poetic and retired. Beyond the moat 
and garden lay an orchard and a bowling-green. Not many 
paces ofi" the river Eden brawled and chafed among the stones. 
Grassland and woodland stretched on every side ; here swell- 
ing into mound and ridge, there dropping into flat and marsh. 
Some rare and famous nooks lay screened amidst these depths 
of wood. Seven miles north stood Knole, where Warham 



GEORGE BOLEYNE, VISCOUNT ROCHESTER, FIRST MASTER. 41 

dwelt among his books and papers. Seven miles east rose 
Tunbridge, where Buckingham used to keep his state. Nearer 
still lay Penshurst Park, of which young Boleyne's father was 
the ranger. To the south, beyond the level grounds, rose 
Ashdown Forest. In and out among these woodlands becks 
and rivulets sang their pilgrimage towards the sea. Sweet- 
briars grew in every hedge, and linnets built in every copse. 
The pools were rich with lilies, and the air, though laden with 
the scent of many herbs, was freshened by the salt of neigh- 
bouring seas." In this charming residence young George 
Boleyne and his sister Anne dwelt for many happy years, and 
there they doubtless were "well entered" to the mysteries of 
the chase, in which they afterwards excelled and continued 
to enjoy, until they were both sacrificed by ruthless bluff 
King Hal. 

The earliest notice of George Boleyne, afterwards Viscount 
Bochester and Master of the Buckhounds, etc., occurs in a 
patent dated April 29, 1522, in which his name appears, joined 
with that of his father, as the holder of various offices about 
Tunbridge. On July 2, 1524, he received a grant to himself 
of the manor of Grimston, in Norfolk. On September 26, 
1528, he received an annuity from the Crown of fifty marks, 
payable by the Chief Butler of England out of the issues of 
the prizes of wines. On November 15 of the same year, by 
another grant, in which he is styled " Squire of the Body," 
he obtained the keepership of the Palace of Beaulieu, alias 
the manor and mansion of Newhall, Essex ; gardener or keeper 
of the garden and orchard of Newhall ; warrener or keeper 
of the warren in the said manor and lordship ; keeper of the 
wardrobe in the said palace or manor in Newhall, Dorehame, 
Walkfare Hall, and Powers, in Essex ; with certain fees in each 
office, and the power of leasing the said lands, etc., for his 
lifetime. During the following month (December 1528) he 
appears to have been appointed Master of the Buckhounds, 
and to have received a fee of 4/. 10s. for feeding or providing 
food for the hounds. We have been unable to find the 
original patent, the only information relating to it being a 



42 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

brief entry of enrolment of the grant. This and some sub- 
sequent payments to him of a similar nature do not correspond 
to the sums received by the subordinate officers of the pack 
under this head. On February 1, 1529, George Boleyne, 
Master of the Buckhounds, obtained a grant of the office of 
Chief Steward of the Palace of Beaulieu, and of all possessions 
annexed thereto by authority of Parliament or otherwise, and 
Keeper of New Park, with a fee of 101. a year for the former 
and od. a day for the latter. 

About this time his sister Anne had become the avowed 
object of the king's attentions, and there can be no doubt to 
what influence these honours were due. The fair sister of the 
Master of the Buckhounds was a famous equestrian, remark- 
able among the hard riders of the royal pack. The king 
frequently encountered her in the hunting-field, admired her 
prowess in the saddle, and her skill in the mysteries of the 
chase. When she was out with the hounds he accompanied 
her in the first flight, and if she were absent his thoughts 
were with her; the first billet doux she received from her 
royal lover is closely associated with our subject, having been 
indited in the hunting-field on the termination of a run with 
the pack. " That you may think of me the oftener as I am," 
wrote Henry, " I send you a buck killed with my own hand, 
hoping when you eat of it you will remember the hunter." 
From these flirtations in the hunting-field momentous events 
occurred. Henry created " his entirely beloved Anne Boleyne " 
Marchioness of Pembroke, divorced Catherine of Arragon, and 
soon after married and murdered the accomplished sister of 
the Master of the Royal Buckhounds. In June 1529 George 
Boleyne, " Master of the King's Buckhounds," received 60s. 
for finding the said hounds meat. On July 27 he was 
appointed Governor of Bethlehem Hospital, and in the ensuing 
month of September he obtained from the king 6ol. 6s. 8d. for 
one year's allowance, in advance, apparently in connection 
with his post of "Esquire of the Body." Towards the end 
of that year he was sent on an embassy to France with 
Dr. Stokesley, who was shortly after made Bishop of London, 



GEOEGE BOLEYNE, VISCOUNT ROCHESTEE, FIEST MASTER. 43 

to consult with Francis I. and the Duke of Albany on various 
modes of counteracting the projected treaty between the 
Emperor Charles V. and James V., King of Scotland, and to 
prevent the assembling of a general council, with an allowance 
as ambassador of 40s. a day. As yet his designation was onty 
Squire of the Body, or Gentleman of the Privy Chamber ; but 
just about this time he appears to have been knighted, and, 
on the elevation of his father to the Earldom of Wiltshire and 
Ormonde, to have acquired the courtesy title of Viscount 
Rochester, by which name the fallen Cardinal Wolsey granted 
him, by Cromwell's recommendation, an annuity of 200 marks 
out of the revenues of his bishopric of Winchester to secure 
his favour. By this name also he signed, along with the rest 
of the nobility, a memorial to Pope Clement VII,, urging him 
to consent without delay to the king's wishes on the subject 
of his divorce from Catherine of Arragon, During the year 
1531 he was usually styled Lord Rochester, and was in 
constant attendance at the court and on intimate terms with 
the king. Thus in April he received 61. for bets won from 
the king at tennis, three angles a game ; August 24, 3s. 6d. to 
give to the officers of the hunt ; September 25, 51. 6s. 8d. won in 
a shooting match from the king at Hunsdon; and 3/. 15s. "for 
his charges carrying the [buck]hounds from St. Thomas's day 
after midsummer to Holy Rood day, as appears by a bill 
signed by the said Lord Rochester." These friendly relations 
between the king and his Master of the Buckhounds evidently 
continued throughout the ensuing and for some subsequent 
years. On July 7, 1531, -Viscount Rochester received 581. 
which he won from the king in a shooting match at Hampton 
Court, and on August 26 there was a payment to him of 
3/. 8s. Qd. under the same head. About this time he was 
joined by his father in a grant of the office of Steward of the 
honour of Raylegh, keeper of Raylegh Park, Master of the 
hunt of deer in that park and Thundersley Park, and bailiff 
of the hundred of Rochford, Esses, with lOZ. a year for the 
office of bailiff, and M. a day for the keepership of Raylegh 
Park, payable out of the issues of the manor and honour of 



44 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

Raylegh, and of the lordships and manors of East Woodbury, 
Thundersley, and Lonedon, Essex, and the herbage and pan- 
nage of Raylegh Park, in as full manner as they had been held 
by Thomas, Marquis of Dorset, then lately deceased. 

This Master of the Buckhounds' new year's gift to the king- 
in 1532 was two "hyngers gilt, with velvet girdles," which 
were probably intended to hold the couteoM de chase with 
which the buck was gralloched when he was pulled down by 
the hounds at the termination of a run. In the privy purse 
expenses the following payments were made to Viscount 
Rochester by the king's commands in 1532 : — 

Jan. 23. 45Z. won from the king at shovelboard,* and by betting 

on the same game. 
Feb. 18. 36^. ditto. 

„ 22. U. 12s. M., ditto. 
March 16. 40?. 10s., cUtto. 
,, 18. 9?. won at bowls. 
„ 20. Is. %d. won at tennis. 
April 20. 2/. 5s. won at bowls. 

„ 22. 30?. won ditto. 
June 28. 18?. won at archery. 

July 19. 6?. 13s. M. for the king's huntsmen for their charges 
going to Sussex. 
Oct. 6. 55?. won from the king on a coursing match in Moat 
Park. 

The following year Viscount Rochester was summoned by 
the king to be present in the Parliament at Westminster on 
February 5, 1533; and on the 25th of the following month 
he witnessed the marriage of his sister to the king in the 
private chapel of Westminster Palace, where Dr. Lee, the 
learned Bishop of Lichfield, tied the nuptial knot. Shortly 
after the ceremony that proved so fatal to him and his sister 
he was again sent on an embassy to France. In connection 
with this mission he received (March 11) 106?. 13s. 4f/. for 
diets for fourteen days, beginning on that day. The primary 

* This game is minutely described in Strutt's " Sports and Pastimes," p. 267. 



GEORGE BOLEYNE, VISCOUNT EOCHESTER, FIRST MASTER. 45 

object of his embassy was to convey to Francis I. the in- 
telligence that his sister, the Marchioness of Pembroke, was 
married to King Henry, and that they trusted his Catholic 
Majesty would support them in resisting any papal excom- 
munication. Lord Rochester was also enjoined to invite 
Francis to visit England, to enjoy the pleasures of the chase 
with King Henry, who, in anticipation of the visit, issued 
orders to put the royal parks, etc., in order, and revoked all 
licences which had been given to hunt in those preserves, 
so as to ensure plenty of game in case the invitation was 
accepted. This, however, Francis was obliged to decline ; 
and Lord Rochester returned to England early in the follow- 
ing month, where for some time he was in constant attendance 
upon the court, and apparently getting the best of his royal 
brother-in-law in those rural sports in which they were so 
expert. In June he was again sent abroad, in company with 
the Duke of Norfolk and others, to dissuade Francis from his 
proposed meeting with the Pope at Marseilles, which, however, 
actually took place later in the year. During the absence 
of the Master of the Buckhounds on this diplomatic mission 
his duties in connection with the pack were doubtless well 
administered by a competent deputy, as Eustace Chapuys, 
the ambassador of Charles V. at the English court, in a 
despatch dated July 30, informs the emperor that Thomas 
Cromwell, the reigning minister (who was an enthusiastic 
sportsman), had offered him a licence from the king to hunt 
in any of his parks, etc., and that be (Cromwell) would 
accompany him with the hounds as often as he pleased, and 
mount him also on one of the finest hunters in England. 
Although this offer was then declined, his Excellency subse- 
quently participated in some runs with the Royal Pack in the 
vicinity of London. In the interval Lord Rochester went 
back to England, probably to render an account of the pro- 
gress of the embassy to Henry, but he soon after rejoined 
Norfolk and the other diplomats in France. He was home 
again in September, and was present at the christening of his 
niece, the infant Princess Elizabeth, at Greenwich, when, 



46 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

assisted by Lord Hussey, Lord William and Lord Thomas 
Howard, he bore the canopy over the future good Queen Bess 
at that interesting ceremony. Early in October we find the 
Master of the Buckhounds coursing with his royal brother- 
in-law, and winning a large sum from him at that sport ; 
and ten days later he set up his household in the royal Manor 
of Beaulieu, Essex, which the king ordered his eldest daughter, 
the Princess Mary, to quit to make room for him. 

On January 15, 1534, Viscount Rochester was summoned 
with other peers to attend at the opening of Parliament at 
Westminster. He continued in attendance at the court until 
the end of March, occasionally taking an active part in 
pai'liamentary and cognate affairs of State. Early in April 
he obtained the reversion of the lieutenancy of Guisnes Castle, 
then held by Lord Sandes ; and on the 12th of this month 
he was appointed, with Sir William Fitzwilliam junior, Envoy 
Extraordinary to Francis I., concerning certain proceedings of 
Charles V. and other potentates which were deemed prejudicial 
to British interests. The ambassadors arrived at Boulogne on 
the 17th of that month, and soon after reached the locale of 
the French court at Coucy, where they had an immediate 
audience with Francis. The negotiations that then and there 
took place resulted in Henry and Francis being united by 
closer ties " as friends to friends and enemies to enemies." 
Having thus accomplished their mission, the ambassadors 
immediately returned to England. They arrived at Dover 
on May 5th, where they spent a short interval in fowling 
dotterels,* and with the contents of the bag proceeded to 
London, where the young envoys presented nine brace of the 
silly (but savoury) birds to the queen, who ordered three brace 
to be served for her dinner, three for her supper, and the other 
three brace for breakfast on the following morning. Lord 
Rochester now resumed his ordinary duties, and we find him 
in attendance on the king and queen at Hampton Court during 
the leafy month of June. On or about the 11th of that month 

* The novel method pursued in fowling dotterels in those days is described 
in " The History of Newmarket and the Annals of the Turf," vol. ii., p. 281. 



GEOEGE BOLEYNE, VISCOUNT EOCHESTER, FIEST MASTER. 47 

he was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Warden of 
the Cinque Ports, though his patent did not pass the Great 
Seal until June 23rd. Honours and emoluments continued 
to pour on this apparently fortunate Master of the Buck- 
hounds. The following month he was again sent to France 
as Envoy Extraordinary, touching an interview which Henry 
was eager to have with his " Right Excellent, Right High, 
and Mightie Prince, his eldest brother, and perpetuall allie, 
the French King," but which it became necessary in the end 
to put off. In the " hunter's month " we find Lord Rochester 
once more located at Hampton Court, surrounded by sporting 
attributes, whence he sent one of his servants to Flanders 
to purchase hawks. Later in this year his duties as Lord 
Warden necessitated occasional visits to and sojourns at Dover. 
The reception given by Lord Rochester to the French Admiral 
Brion, who was sent to Henry ,VIlI. in embassy, on his landing 
at Dover, was a memorable affair. The entertainment having 
lasted four days, the envoy and his train were conducted 
to Blackheath with semi-regal splendour. 

In the spring of 1535 Lord Rochester obtained from the king 
a grant of the Manor of Octham, a parcel of Begham Abbey 
lately suppressed ; also the manor of South, in Kent, with the 
advowson, etc., thereunto belonging. In May his services were 
once more employed in a diplomatic mission to France, to 
negotiate a marriage contract between his niece, the Princess 
Elizabeth, and Charles, Duke of Angouleme. The duke 
wanted to wed the Princess Mary, but Henry refused to give 
him her hand, and wished to substitute that of the Princess 
Elizabeth instead, which offer the duke rejected. Curiously 
enough, many years after, the duke became a suitor for the 
hand of the Virgin Queen, but she in her turn rejected 
his offer. Lord Rochester returned to England in June. By 
this time he had attained the meridian of his power. His 
influence was all-powerful, his favour with the king appeared 
to be unshakable and permanent. Despite these outward 
appearances, he was fast approaching his fall. He little 
thought, as he sat on the jury which found Fisher guilty. 



48 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

that he would soon be arraigned, and his life left to the 
mercy of a similar tribunal. But, as he soon discovered, trial 
by jury in those days was a judicial farce. Meanwhile we 
find him during the autumn of this year conducting with 
great ability and tact many intricate affairs relating to the 
Cinque Ports, and he appears to have resided chiefly at 
Dover Castle, where he was well plied with suitors soliciting 
his patronage in the dispensation of the many posts which he 
controlled, through his close relationship with the king. But, 
unfortunately for Lord Rochester and his sister, the king now 
became enamoured of Lady Jane Seymour, and in order to 
wed her. Queen Anne and all her family were fated to perish. 
The breach between Henry and Anne is a matter of history 
to which we need not now allude. With the rise of Anne 
her brother George rose ; with her fall he likewise fell. On 
May 1, 1536, he was one of the challengers in that tourna- 
ment at Greenwich from which the king abruptly departed ; 
the next day he rode up from Greenwich to his London house 
without the least suspicion of his danger until he was informed 
of his sister's commitment to the Tower. Three or four hours 
after her arrest he also was immured in the same fortress. 
The two were arraigned together on May 15 for acts of 
incest and high treason; the jury found them guilty, and 
judgment of death was pronounced upon each. Lord Rochester 
defended himself, and so ably, that the betting in court was 
ten to one that he would be acquitted. Nevertheless, he was 
found guilty, sentenced to be drawn to Tyburn, hung by the 
neck, cut down alive, ripped open, quartered, and beheaded. 
The king so far commuted the sentence by ordering that his 
ex-Master of the Buckhounds should be done to death by the 
axe of the headsman only. Thus died George Boleyne, Viscount 
Rochester, on Tower Hill, May 17, 1536. He married Jane, 
daughter of Sir Henry Parker (eldest son and heir of Henry, 
Lord Morley), a bad woman, who continued Lady of the Bed- 
chamber to the three succeeding queens, but eventually shared 
the fate of Katherine Howard. Lord Rochester had no issue. 
He was attainted soon after his execution, when, of course, all 



GEOEGE BOLEYNE, VISCOUNT ROCHESTER, FIRST MASTER. 49 

the honours and emoluments which had been conferred upon 
him by his royal brother-in-law and the vast estates to which 
he was heir-presumptive reverted to the king.* 

Before concluding our biography of this Master of the Buck- 
hounds, it may perhaps be excusable if we pause for a moment 
to glance at the end of his unfortunate sister. She was not to 
die, as her brother died, by the stroke of an old English axe. 
In France they had a method of executing criminals by the 
sword, and Henry, wishing to introduce that method into 
England, chose to have the first experiment tried on his own 
wife ! No man in London was accustomed to do the work, 
and Cromwell had to send to Calais for an expert in this 
novel craft. Anne shrank in horror from such novelties ; but 
the Lieutenant of the Tower, meaning to be kind, assured her 
in his burly way that " her head would be off in no time," as 
indeed the sequel proved. Two days after her brother's execu- 
tion, on the morning of May 19, the king, attired for the 
chase, with his huntsmen and buckhounds around him, was 
at a meet of the pack at Pleshet, near East Ham, in Epping 
Forest, breathlessly waiting the signal-gun from the Tower 
which was to announce that the sword had fallen on the neck 
of his once " entirely beloved Anne Boleyne." At last, towards 
noon, the sullen sound of the death salute boomed along the 
windings of the Thames. Henry started with ferocious joy. 
" Ha, ha ! " he cried with satisfaction, " the deed is done. 
Uncouple the hounds, and let us follow the sport." The chase 
that day bent towards the west, whether the quarry led it in 
that direction or not, for at nightfall the king was at Wolf- 
hall, in Wiltshire, telling the news to his elected bride, whom 
he next morning married. 

* The terrible severity of this attainder extended even to his lordship's debts 
and obligations. All moneys due to him became forfeited to the Crown, his 
debts could not be recovered by those to whom they were owing, although the 
unfortunate Master of the Buckhounds had ample means and was willing to 
satisfy such claims. For instance, he owed to George Brown, Archbishop of 
Dublin, 400^., who lent him this sum for " the redempcion of a cuppe of golde," 
upon the security of his house ; yet the mortgage was invalid, as the whole of 
his lordship's effects went into the clutches of the king. 

4 



50 THE HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

Sir Richard Long and Lord Darcy, of Chiche, Masters of 
the Royal Buckhounds, are recited in the patent granted to 
Sir Thomas Tyringham in 1603, as being among others his 
predecessors in the branch of this pack under the Lord 
Chamberlain of the Household ; but we are unable to say 
when those masters were appointed or how long they filled 
this office. Sir Richard Long died in 1545, and Lord Darcy in 
1558. It is, therefore, evident that Sir Richard Long became 
the second Master of the Household branch of the Royal 
Buckhounds some time subsequent to the execution of George 
Boleyne, Viscount Rochester. As previously noticed, the 
accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber, which would 
contain the payments to these Masters of this portion of the 
royal pack, amounting to 33^. 6s. Sd. a year, are lost or missing. 
If those interesting documents were available for consultation, 
we could then ascertain when and for what period Sir Richard 
Long filled the post. No enrolment of any patent or privy 
seal conferring or relating to his appointment to the Buck- 
hounds can be found, consequently we are quite in the dark as 
to the principal incidents of his career relating to our subject. 
This is particularly disappointing, as he seems to have been 
the first Master of the Household part of the royal pack who 
enjoyed during his tenure of office the annual fee of 33^. 6s. 8d. 
— a figure at which the remuneration of those Masters remained 
until the accession of Charles II. This Sir Richard Long, of 
Shengay and Hardwicke, co. Cambridge, was the second son 
of Sir Thomas Long, of Draycot-Cerne, co. Wilts. He was 
knighted on October 18, 1537, when his arms were quartered 
1st and 4th sable, crusily a lion rampant argent ; 2nd, argent 
on a chief gules a bezant between two stags' heads cabossed 
or; 3rd, gules, two wings conjoined or, and for his crest a 
demi-lion rampant argent, holding in the mouth a human arm, 
couped proper. Possibly the two stags' heads, which he then 
bore in the second quarter of his coat, may have reference to 
his office as Master of the Buckhounds, and he may have 
obtained the appointment in succession to Lord Rochester at 
or about this time. The valiant knight was " an esquire of 



SIK KICHARD LONG AND LORD DARCY. 51 

the King's stable," and was evidently a favourite with 
Henry VIII., from whom he obtained many valuable grants 
and offices from time to time, including the custody of Eltham 
Park, a portion of the Forest of Deane, keeper of the Manor 
and Pleasaunce of Greenwich, lease to farm the royal Manor of 
Eltham, with custody thereof, grant of the Priory of Kington 
with the temporalities thereof in various parts, grant of the 
Manor of Coggeshall, seneschal of the Manor of Deptford, grant 
of the Manor of Great Saxham and elsewhere in co. Suffolk, 
grant of the site of the Hospital of St. Thomas, within the 
Borough of Southwark, with the endowment of the same ia 
various counties; annuities to the amount of 120Z. a year, and 
a house in London ; and Governor of the Channel Islands, 
which appointment he held at the time of his death. Marillac, 
the French Ambassador, in a despatch to Francis I., dated 
London, June 25, 1541, announced to the King, his master, that 
Sir Richard Long, whom His Excellency designates "a personage 
of a certain authority and experience in military affairs," had 
been lately sent to Calais in great haste, for the purpose of 
inspecting the fortifications of that and other places in France 
belonging to England, and to report thereon. Sir Richard 
Long, the second Master of the Household Branch of the Royal 
Buckhounds, died on September 29, L545. 

Very likely Thomas, Lord Darcy, K,G., succeeded Sir Richard 
Long, and became the third Master of this portion of the Royal 
Buckhounds about the year 1546, and probably retained the 
office until it was conferred upon John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, 
temp. Edward VI. But, as in the preceding instance, we are 
equally in the dark as to the particulars relating to this 
Master's tenure of office. All we can find about him is that 
he was the only son of Roger Darcy, Esquire of the Body to 
Henry VII., and Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Henry Went worth 
and widow of John Bourchier, Earl of Bath. He was born in 
1506. In course of time he became a prominent personage 
at the Court of Henry VIII. He was knighted at Calais, 
on November 1, 1532. In 1545 he was constituted Master 
of Ordinances within the Tower of London, and in the next 



52 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

year made a Gentleman of the King's Privy Chamber. He 
obtained large grants of Church lands for Essex from 
Henry VIII., with whom he was a great favourite. On 
May 24, 1550, he obtained from Edward VI. the keepership 
of the King's " Turkey-cocks and Cocks of the Game " at 
Greenwich Palace. The turkey must have then been a rara 
avis in the land : the game chanticleer was (until lately) 
emblematical of British pluck and endurance. On April 5, 
1551, Sir Thomas Darcy was created Baron Darcy of Chiche, 
CO. Essex, at which time he was Vice-Chamberlain of the 
Household, Captain of the Royal Guard, and one of the 
Knights of the Privy Chamber to King Edward VI. He was 
soon after installed Knight of the Garter. His Lordship died 
at Wyvenhoo Hall on June 28, 1558. 



53 



CHAPTER III. 

HOUSEHOLD BRANCH.— EDWARD VL— ELIZABETH. 
1547—1602. 

Celebrity of Hunting in England tenq). Edward VI. — John Dudley, Earl of 
Warwick, Fourth Master: April 5 to November 10, 1551. — Sir Robert 
Dudley, Fifth Master : November 11, 1551 toe August, 1553. — The House- 
hold Pack temp. Philip and Mary. — The Hunt Servants. — Annual Cost 
of the Pack. — Accession of Queen Elizabeth. — Annual Cost of the Pack. — 
The Hunt Servants. — Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, Sixth Master : 
May 28, 1572 to September 4, 1588.— State of the Pack to the End of 
Elizabeth's Reign.— Dearth of Hunting Intelligence. — The Queen and 
Ladies in the Hunting Field, 

As the accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber are not 
extant, we are unable to give any particulars of the cost 
of the "Privy," or Household portion of the Royal Buck- 
hounds in the reign of Edward VI. Beyond the fact that 
John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, and his son, Sir Robert Dudley 
(afterwards Earl of Leicester), held the office of Master of this 
branch of the pack in Edward VI.'s reign, there is nothing 
further known of the hunt servants or the cost of this establish- 
ment for the time being. Nevertheless, we may safely assume 
that it was maintained as in the preceding reign. The fame 
acquired by the Royal packs was well known in continental 
Courts. For instance, it is recorded that Marshal Jacques 
d'Albon St, Andre, Ambassador of Henry II. at the Court of 
Edward VI., brought in his suite, in May 1.5.51, "a great 
number of the young gentlemen of the French Court" who 
were " desirous to have some experience in the English hunt- 
ing, wherein they (the English) do excel other nations." In 



54 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries it was one of the 
duties of the Masters of the Buckhounds to contribute, to the 
best of their ability, to the venatic predilections of the foreign 
Ambassadors and the Corps Diplomatique generally, whenever 
they would "a hunting go." 

John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, Duke of Northumber- 
land, etc., fourth Master of the Household branch of the Royal 
Buckhounds (temp. Edward VI.), from April 5 to November 
10, 1551, was eldest son of Edmund Dudley, Viscount Lisle, the 
celebrated lawyer and statesman of the reign of Henry VII. 
He was born in 1502, and afterwards became one of the most 
powerful subjects this kingdom ever saw. At the time his 
father was beheaded he was about eight years old ; and, it 
being known that the severity exercised in that act was 
rather to satisfy popular clamour than justice, his friends 
found no great difficulty in obtaining an Act of Parliament, 
in 1512, to reverse his father's attainder and to restore in 
blood and degrees his heir, so that he might inherit all his 
deceased father's lands. After an education suitable to his 
quality, he was introduced at the brilliant Court of Henry VIII. 
about the year 1523, where, having a fine person and great 
accomplishments, he soon became admired. He attended 
Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, in the expedition to France 
against the Duke of Bourbon, and distinguished himself so 
much by his gallant behaviour that he obtained the honour 
of knighthood. In 1528 he attached himself to the suite of 
Cardinal Wolsey, whom he accompanied in his embassy to 
France, and in eight years afterwards he was made Master 
of the Armoury in the Tower of London, for life, with the 
wages of 12fZ. a day for himself, and 3cZ. a day for his groom 
in the office. In 1 540 he was appointed Master of the Horse 
to Anne of Cleves, and the next year, in the jousts held at 
Westminster, he was one of the principal challengers, his horse 
being accoutred with white velvet. On March 12, 1542, he 
was elevated to the peerage, in the ancient dignity enjoyed 
by his mother's family, that of Viscount Lisle, and was 
appointed Warden of the Marches of Scotland in that year. 



JOHN DUDLEY, EAEL OF WARWICK, FOURTH MASTER. 55 

On January 26, 1543, he received the high preferment of Lord 
High Admiral for life. In this capacity his lordship displayed 
great gallantry, and did good service for his country against 
France and Scotland. He became a Privy Councillor on 
April 23, 1543, and on the concurring festival of St. George 
was elected a Knight of the Garter. In 1544-45 his lordship 
was appointed Captain of Boulogne. Up to this period he 
owed all his honours and fortunes to Henry VIII., from whom 
he received very large grants of Church lands ; which, how- 
ever, created him many enemies. He was also named by 
Henry VIII. in his will to be one of his sixteen executors; 
and received from him a legacy of 5001. which was the highest 
he left to any of them. 

After the death of Henry VIII., which occurred on January 28, 
1547, the Earl of Hertford, afterwards Duke of Somerset, who 
was the young king's uncle, without having any regard to 
Henry's will, got himself proclaimed Protector of the Kingdom, 
and set on foot many projects. Among the first, one was to 
get his brother, Sir Thomas Seymour, made Lord High Admiral, 
in whose favour Lord Viscount Lisle was obliged to resign; 
but in recompense for the loss of that office he was created 
Earl of Warwick, with a grant of Warwick Castle, by patent 
dated February 17, 1547. But in 1550 he was again made 
Lord High Admiral. His lordship was appointed Master of 
the Buckhounds to Edward VI. on April 15, 1551, with an 
annual fee of 33^. 6s. 8d., payable half yearly, by even pro- 
portions, at Easter and Michaelmas, in as full and ample a 
manner as enjoyed by his predecessors in that office. However, 
after holding the horn for a short time, he resigned the appoint- 
ment, apparently in favour of his son, Lord Robert Dudley 
(afterwards Earl of Leicester). In the following year the 
Earl of Warwick was constituted Lord Steward of the House- 
hold. Henceforward his lordship's ambition appears to have 
known no bounds, and to have hurried him into acts of great 
baseness and atrocity. Through his intrigues the quarrel arose 
between the Protector Somerset and his brother Thomas, Lord 
Seymour, which terminated in the public execution of the 



56 THE HISTOEY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

latter ; and he was at this period accused of acquiring consider- 
able wealth by the plunder of the Church. On October 11, 

1551, he was advanced to the dignity of Duke of Northumber- 
land, a peerage, which, by the death of the last Earl of 
Northumberland, without heirs, and the attainder and execu- 
tion of his brother, Sir Thomas Percy, the Percy estate 
became vested in the Crown. His grace had previously been 
constituted Earl Marshal of England. 

Having now attained the highest honour in the peerage, and 
power the most unlimited, the Duke proceeded, with scarcely 
the semblance of restraint, in his ambitious projects ; and the 
Protector Somerset, one of his earliest and steadiest patrons, 
soon fell a victim to their advancement. That distinguished 
personage was arraigned, through the intrigue of Northumber- 
land, before his peers, and, though acquitted of high treason, 
was condemned for felony, and sentenced to be hanged. The 
eventual fate of the Lord Protector Somerset is well known, 
and, considering his own conduct to his brother, not deplored. 
He was executed by decapitation on Tower Hill, on February 22, 

1552, upon which day the Duke of Northumberland succeeded 
him as Chancellor of Cambridge. From the death of Somerset 
the Duke of Northumberland became so unremitting in his 
attentions upon Edward VI., and had so much influence over 
him, that he prevailed upon the King to sign and seal a 
patent, conferring the succession upon Lady Jane Grey 
(grand-niece to King Henry VIII.), the wife of his third son 
Lord Guildeford Dudley. His subsequent efforts, after the 
decease of Edward VI., to establish this patent by force of 
arms proved abortive. On the accession of Mary a proclama- 
tion was issued by the new Queen, offering land to the value 
of 1,000^. to any nobleman, 500?. to any knight, 500 marks to 
any gentleman, or 100?. to any yeoman that might be so 
fortunate as to arrest the ex-Master of this branch of the Royal 
Buckhounds, and deliver him up to the Queen. He was soon 
after arrested upon the charge of high treason at Cambridge, 
and being condemned thereof, was beheaded on Tower Hill 
on August 22, 1558, when all his honours became forfeited 



SIE EOBEET DUDLEY, FIFTH MASTER. 57 

under the attainder. This John Dudley, Viscount Lisle, Earl 
of Warwick, and Duke of Northumberland, K.G., E.M., married 
Jane, daughter of Sir Edward Guildeford, Knt., and had issue 
seven sons and two daughters. His fourth son, Robert Dudley, 
afterwards Earl of Leicester, was appointed Master of the 
" Privy " or Household branch of the Royal Buckhounds on 
November 11, 1551, and to the same office again on May 28, 
1572. 

The few days Lady Jane Grey reigned preclude anj^ 
information of the Household branch of the Royal Buckhounds 
in her time, consequently we find ourselves harboured in the 
reign of Mary (July 6/19, 1553 — November 17, 1558) before 
one can say " Tally-ho ! " Neither Mary nor her royal consort, 
Philip of Spain, seem to have been imbued with that love for 
field sports usually so characteristic of the English sovereigns. 
During her father's lifetime Mary was persecuted for her 
religious opinions, and when she succeeded to the throne she 
became an easy prey to the fanatics, by whom she was driven 
to sanction alleged atrocities which rendered her " sanguinary 
reign " notorious. Philip was morose ; he had no sympathy 
with the habits and customs of the people of this country; 
yet on one occasion, as recorded in Machyn's " Diary," he "rode 
hunting in the Forest [of Waltham], and killed a great stag 
with guns." This is the only allusion we have found of 
King Philip participating in the chase during his residence 
in England; nevertheless, we must not dogmatise upon the 
apparent dearth of the Royal sport, as it may, for all we know 
to the contrary, have flourished, though no details of it have 
been preserved. Such a hypothesis is not too far-fetched, 
inasmuch as the Royal hunting establishment was sustained 
as in the days of yore. Fortunately the accounts of the 
Treasurer of the Chamber of the Household of Philip and 
Mary are extant, and from the facts and figures therein set 
forth, we ascertain the following particulars relating to this 
branch of the Royal Buckhounds for the year ending December 
31, 1557, from which it appears that some of the hunt servants 
who officiated in the reign of Henry VIII. were still to the 



58 THE HISTOKY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

fore, and that the pack cost the Royal Exchequer, in the year 
mentioned, the sum of 951. 10s. Id. 

Officers of the Huntes. 

George Nodes, S'^iaunte of the Buckhoundes at xxiji'. xvj*. p annm' 
for his wage for iij q"rters of a yere ended at Cristmas annis iiij*" 
and v*^ in full payment of his wage then due amounting to . . . 
xvij^^ ij^. 

Will'm Howell, a hunte at vj^'. xiij*. iiij'^". for his wage for iij 
q'^rters ended at Cristmas diet" ann' in full payment then as in the 
saide booke appearith amounting to . . . v^'. 

James Mapley at vj^. p diem for his wage for lyke tyme in full 
payment then due amounting to . . . vj^'. xvj^. x*^. ob. 

Henry Sell for lyke wage and tyme in full payment then due 
amounting to . . . vj^'. xvj^. x*^. ob. 

Humfrey Rainsforthe at C^. p ann. for his wage due for lyke tyme 
in full payment amountinge to Ixj^. vj*^. 

Walter Doddesworthe at vj^'. xiij^. iiij''. P ann. for his wage due 
for one hole yere endyd at Easter diet annis iiij*^" et v*° in full pay- 
ment then as in the saide booke appearithe . . . vj^'. xiij®. iiij"^. 

Thomas Doddesworthe for the like wage and tyme endyd at 
Easter aforesaide in full payment due to hym at that tyme amount- 
inge to . . . vj^\ xiij®. uij"^. 

Walter Godsome for lyke wage and tyme endyd at Easter afore- 
saide in full payment due to hym at the tyme amountinge to . . . 
vj". xiij^. 111]*^. 

Christopher Duck for lyke wage and tyme in full payment then 
due amoimtinge to . . . vj^'. xiij*. iiij''. 

Ralfe Mundaye at xv^'. per ann. for his wage for one hole yere 
endyd at Easter diet. ann. iiij*^° et v^° in full payment of his [wages] 
due at tyme amountinge as in the saide pticler booke appearethe 
. . . xv". 

John Lynde at vj^'. xiij^. iiij''. p ann. for his for iij. q'rters of a 
yere ended at Cristmas the yere aforesaide in full payment then 
amountinge to as in the saide booke appearethe . . . C®. 

The Gromes of the Buckhoundes for their houndes meate at xiiij"^. 
vj^. p ann. in full paymente endyd at Cristmas diet. ann. iuj*° et v*** as 
in the saide pticler booke appearith amountinge to . . . ix". xiv^. vj''. 

Total . . . iiij xv". x^. j-^. 



THE HUNT-SEKV ANTS- -ANNUAL COST OF THE PACK. 59 

It is evident that the hunting establishment of the king 
and queen was fairly well kept up, as we find the following 
additional facts relating; to it in the accounts of the Treasurer 
and Chamberlain of the Exchequer of the Household above 
mentioned — viz., seventeen officers of the hawks and falcons* 
and one keeper of the spaniels, received 172^. lis. 8fcL Three 
takers and keepers of pheasants and partridges received 
2Sl. 8s. 9d. ; six officers of the leach received 10^. 8s. 4<d. ; two 
officers of the toils received 15^. 7s. 6d. ; eight keepers of 
Waltham Forest received 94Z. 15s. ; the officer of the crossbows 
Randolph Churchill, Esq., received 91. 2s. Qd. ; three keepers 
of the beares and mastives received 35Z. 15s., and John Pierce, 
" keeper of the warren of hares at Everley," obtained for his 
wages, for one year and nine months, ended in September 
1557, 6/. 14s. It will thus be seen that the entire cost of 
the Royal hunting establishment for the year 1557 amounted 
to 463^. 12s. lOfcZ. This is the first account extant of the 
Treasurer of the Chamber of the Household in the Audit 
Office series. The account of Sir John Mason, Knight, " one 
of the Queen's Majesty's most honourable Privy Council, 
Treasurer of the Chamber, and Master of the Posts," from 
Michaelmas 5 and 6 Philip and Mary (a.d. 1558) to 2 Elizabeth 
(a.d. 1560), is somewhat similar to the preceding. With the 
exception of Walter Godson, then deceased, all the officers of 
the Buckhounds were in receipt of the same salaries before- 
mentioned, except the grooms, who received for their hounds' 
meat "after the rate of 13L 6s. 8d. per annum." 

The account for the year ended at Michaelmas 1561, is the 
first clear annual audit of the Treasurer of the Chamber of 
Queen Elizabeth's Household. The entire cost of the Queen's 
" Hunts " is set down at 100?. Is., comprising the following 
payments — viz., to George Nodes, Sergeant of the Buckhounds, 
for his wages at 221. 16s. a year ; James Mapley and Henry 
Sell at 6d. each per day ; Humphrey Rainesford at 51. a year ; 
Ralph Mundy at 151. a year; John Lynde, Thomas Dodsworth, 
and Christopher Duck, each at Ql. 13s. 4<d. a year; and the 
Grooms of the Buckhounds, for hounds' meat ISl. 6s. 8d. 



60 THE HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

Besides the " Hunt " proper, we find a pack of harriers now 
mentioned, with a yeoman pricker, two j^eomen barrenters, 
two yeomen fewterers, and two grooms. These officials received 
only 11. 2s. Qd. each at Easter for their several liveries, 
amounting altogether to 71- 17s. Qd. per annum. The Sheriffs 
of Somerset and Dorset, however, were obliged to contribute 
certain fees * yearly towards the maintenance of this pack. 
It may be also noted that the Queen's falconers cost the 
Royal Exchequer 1191. 2s. 8d., the leach 101., the crossbows 
221. 13s. 2d., the toils 1171. Is. 6d, the keepers of Waltham 
Forest 89?. 14s. lOd., the takers and keepers of pheasants and 
partridges 24:1. 6s. Sd., and the keepers of beares and mastives 
48?. 12s. 8Ul. 

From 1562 to 1567 we find no material alteration in the 
annual cost of the Royal " Hunts," which were sustained at an 
expenditure of about 861. a year. In 1565 Henry Harvey 
succeeded George Nodes as Sergeant of the Buckhounds ; and 
in 1567 Thomas Brown succeeded Ralph Mundy as a yeoman 
pricker of the pack, with a salary of lol. a year, payable 
quarterly during his life, and 20s. yearly for his livery coat. 
In the account for the half year ended at Michaelmas 1567, 
John Lynde, Thomas Dodsworth, Walter Dodsworth, and 
Christopher Duck are specifically mentioned as "Grooms of 
the Buckhounds," and were in receipt of 13?. 6s. 8d. per 
annum for hounds' meat. We notice no change in the yearly 
cost or the personnel of the pack until the year 1571, except 
that John Grambold succeeded James Maperley, yeoman 
pricker, who it appears died on December 21, 1567, and 
Walter Godsone, one of the grooms of the Buckhounds, 
deceased, was succeeded by Thomas Forest. Henry Sell, 
another yeoman pricker, who died on February 21, 1565-6, 
was succeeded by Henry Woop, with a fee of 6d. a day during 
life, " and vj''. iij^ x*^. p ann. for his Lyveryes before tyme payed 

* Henry, Earl of Huntingdon, the Master, Is. ; Richard Lovelace, the 
Sergeant, l^d. ; two prickers of horses, i.d. each ; two kennel servants and two 
ground keepers, 2d. each ; two boys, \ld. ; food for two horses, 'i\d. ; forty dogs 
and twelve greyhounds, each %d. ; and three bloodhounds, \d. each per day. 



EGBERT DUDLEY, EAEL OF LEICESTER, SIXTH MASTER. 61 

in the greate Wardrobe dewe to him, viz., for fy ve hole yeares 
and thre q"rters endyd at Mic^'as anno xiij"'° D'D' Re^°, 
accompting from the daye of the death of the said Henrye 
Sell, w'^^ was the xxj*'> of Februarye 1565 [-6] vntill M'^" afore- 
said 1572, as by Certificate thereof remayning apperythe and 
the saide Henrye Sell payed vntil x'pas anno viij'"° D'D' 
Regine." 

In the account of (Sir) Thomas Henneage, Treasurer of the 
Chamber of the Household from Michaelmas (1.3 and 14 Eliz.) 
1571, to Michaelmas 1572, the name of the Earl of Leicester 
as Master of the Buckhounds heads the audit list of the ofiicials 
of the Royal Pack : — 

Also allowed for money paid to the righte honnorable Roberte, 
Erie of Leicester, m'' of the quenes ma*^ Buckhoundes for his fee at 
xxxiij^. vj^, viij^. p ann' paiable everie half yere at thannvm'ciacon' 
of o'' Ladie and S^ Michell tharchaungelP by even porcoiis, viz., Paid 
to hym for half a yere Due at m.^ last A° xiiij II. R. EUzabethe, by 
vertvie of her ma"*^^ libate' Dormaunte vnder the greate Seale of 
England. Dated at Westm' xxviij" die maij anno antedeo' . . . 
xvj'^ xiij®. iiij^. 

Each of the acting hunt servants above mentioned were in 
receipt of the same salaries and allowances, except Henry 
Wood, one of the yeomen prickers, who died on June 6, up to 
which date his wages were paid in full ; the whole cost of the 
pack for this year being set down at 125^. 1 5s. lOd. The 
following year it amounted to 161 Z. 4s. 6d., and continued at 
about that sum until the end of Elizabeth's reign, so far as 
relates to the annual accounts given in this series. Thomas 
Dodsworth, one of the grooms of the Buckhounds, died on 
January 10, 1574, "as appeareth by cirtificate subscribed w''' 
the hands of the Curate and Church Wardens of Lewesham, in 
the Countie of Kent." About the same time Henry Crockeson 
succeeded Henry Wood, yeoman pricker, deceased. During 
the following six or seven years no change had taken place in 
the officials or the cost of the pack, according to the accounts 
of the Treasurer of Chamber, save a trifling difference made to 



62 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

three of the hunt-servants in their annual allowance for their 
summer and winter liveries. 

Sir Robert Dudley, Baron Denbigh, Earl of Leicester, 
etc., fifth and sixth Master of the Household branch of the Royal 
Buckhounds, tem'p. Edward VI. (appointed November 11, 1551) 
and, secondly, temp. Elizabeth (May 28, 1572— September 4, 
1588), fourth son of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, and 
Jane, daughter of Sir Edward Guildeford, knight, was born 
about the year 1532. Having been introduced at the Court of 
Edward VI., where his father at the time was in high favour, 
young Dudley met with a cordial reception, and a brilliant 
career lay before him. On August 15, 1551, he was sworn one 
of the six Gentlemen of the Bedchamber to the King. In about 
three months afterwards, when his father resigned his post of 
Master of the Buckhounds, Robert, his son, obtained the honour 
of knighthood, and on November 11 he became fifth Master of 
this branch of the Royal pack which his father apparently 
relinquished in the young courtier's favour. How long he held 
the Mastership under Edward VI. we have not been able to 
ascertain. It is, however, safe to conclude that in consequence 
of his father's treason, attainder, and execution, his son's 
connection with the Buckhounds had, for the present, ter- 
minated on the accession of Queen Mary. Immediately after 
Queen Mary's accession, in July 1553, Sir Robert Dudley was 
committed to the Tower, and on January 15 following he was 
arraigned of High Treason, confessed the indictment, and 
was sentenced to be hanged, drawn, and quartered. But he was 
soon after pardoned ; the Queen restored him in blood, received 
him into favour, and made him Master of Ordnance, at the 
siege of St. Quintain. In this service he remained abroad for 
some time. On his return to England he seems to have lived 
in comparative retirement with his first wife, the unfortunate 
Amy Robsart, and to have given himself up, in a great measure, 
to the enjoyment of those rural sports in which he was so 
proficient. On the death of Queen Mary, in November 1558, 
Sir Robert Dudley rode to Hatfield, " mounted on a snow-white 
steed, being well skilled in riding a managed horse," and paid 



EGBERT DUDLEY, EARL OF LEICESTER, SIXTH MASTER. 63 

his homage to the Princess Elizabeth on his knees. At this 
time he is said to have been furnished with all possible 
advantages both of mind and body. His person was comely, 
and well proportioned, his countenance open and liberal, his 
bearing affable and engaging; and to these were added a 
graceful action and delivery, and such an absolute command 
of temper, that he could naturally adapt himself to every one's 
humour or designs, as he saw occasion. Thus when he pre- 
sented himself so opportunely before Elizabeth, his beauty, 
stature, and florid youth were such powerful recommendations, 
that she then and there nominated him Master of the Horse, 
and confirmed the appointment by patent under the Great 
Seal, dated Westminster, January 11, 1559, by virtue of which 
he obtained a fee of 100 marks (66^. 13s. 4c?.) per annum, 
payable out of the Exchequer half yearly, at Easter and 
Michaelmas, by equal proportions, in as full and ample manner 
as enjoyed by his predecessors in that office. It may, however, 
be mentioned that he held this appointment subject to the 
Queen's pleasure, in contradistinction to the various other 
grants and offices that had been showered on him, from time 
to time, during the reign of his Royal Mistress, which were 
usually given to him for life, or to him and his heirs for ever. 
From this time the gay young knight (who bore the courtesy 
title of Lord Robert Dudley until he was advanced to the 
Earldom of Leicester in 1554) became a star of the first 
magnitude at the Court of good Queen Bess, with whom he 
was a prime favourite. It would fill volumes to recount the 
many parts he played during the twenty-nine years of his 
sway at the Court of Queen Elizabeth, as he had not only a 
finger, but a whole hand, in every pie from which a plum 
could be extracted. From the highest honours, the richest 
emoluments, the greatest grants, and the best monopolies, to 
the most trivial things imaginable, over which the Crown had 
any dispensation, were grasped by this avaricious courtier. 
In commerce he was the leading merchant of the era. His 
speculations in mines and minerals savoured of insanity. He 
adventured largely " beyond the seas," while, as a manufacturer 



64 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

at home, his mills were to be found at work in all parts of the 
kingdom. Yet he was every inch a gentleman ; a dashing 
horseman, an expert sportsman, a good scholar, a fine linguist, 
a patron of literature, science, and art, and kept a company of 
"poor players." With such a variety of discordant elements 
before us, it is necessary to confine our brief memoir of this 
Master of the Buckhounds to some of the leading incidents of 
his remarkable career. 

No important preferment was conferred on Lord Robert 
Dudley from the date of his appointment as Master of the 
Horse until June 3, 1559, when, "to the admiration of all men," 
he was installed a Knight of the Garter with great solemnity. 
Up to this time he was by no means well off" in a pecuniary 
sense, consequently he kept a sharp look-out for wardships, 
monopolies, and similar accessories whereby he could put 
money in his purse. His all-powerful influence with the Queen 
was suflicient to secure him those advantages, and as such 
pickings cropped up, his lordship carefully gathered them to- 
gether without exciting that jealousy which was certain to 
follow if he had flown at higher game. Little by little this 
profitable mode of acquiring wealth and influence went on, 
gradually increasing in magnitude, so much so, that shortly 
after he was appointed Constable of Windsor Castle for life 
(February 23, 1562), he obtained the exclusive monopoly of 
exporting all sorts of wool and woollen cloths, wood, corn, and 
minerals. His comparative poverty was apparently well known 
to the Queen, as in the autumn of this year (October 22, 1562) 
she gave him an annuity of 1,000^ for life. The following year 
(June 9, 1563) he obtained a grant of the manor and castle of 
Kenilworth, with other vast estates in Derbyshire, Lancashire, 
Surrey, Rutland, Carmarthen, Yorkshire, Cardiganshire, and 
Salop. About this time the projected marriage between Mary 
Queen of Scots and the Archduke Charles was opposed on 
political grounds by Elizabeth, who did not wish the alliance 
to take place. Deeming that the bearing and the accomplish- 
ments of Dudley would not fail to make a favourable impres- 
sion on her Royal cousin, she despatched him in the following 



EGBERT DUDLEY, EARL OF LEICESTER, SIXTH MASTER. 65 

year on a pilgrimage of love, with instructions to cut out the 
Archduke, If he was successful in his suit, Elizabeth promised 
him that she would, with the authority of Parliament, declare 
Mary heir to the Crown of England, in case she died herself 
without issue. Owing, however, to the influence of France, the 
project was marred, and in the end Mary was married to Lord 
Darnley, On September 9th, 1564, Lord Robert Dudley was 
created Baron Denbigh and Earl of Leicester. The ceremony 
was performed in St. James' Palace in the presence of the 
Queen and all the high officers of State; and during the 
solemnity Her Majesty put on the Earl's robe of State, girded 
him with his sword of sway, and placed the coronet of dignity 
on his head, with her own right Royal hands. He was the last 
earl that was thus invested by the sovereign, the ceremony 
of investiture being abolished in 1615, when it was declared to 
be unnecessary ; and though the form of creation was thence- 
forth disused, it continued to be recited as the manner of 
creation until the reign of Queen Anne, shortly after which 
period a clause was inserted in all patents of earldoms, dis- 
pensing with the ceremony of investiture by express words. 
During this year the Earl of Leicester attended the Queen in 
her progress to Cambridge, where the Royal party were enter- 
tained by the heads of the University with great splendour, 
and during the Royal visit, the Earl (who had been elected 
High Steward in 1563) received the degree of M.A. The 
notoriety of these proceedings appears to have excited jealousy 
among the dons of the sister University ; and towards the end 
of this year (December 31, 1564) they appointed Leicester 
Chancellor of their alina mater — a proceeding they repented of 
at leisure, as his lordship ordered great reforms in the statutes 
of the institution, and enforced a discipline repugnant to them, 
but to which they were obliged to conform. 

From about this period the Earl of Leicester became one of 
the greatest magnates in the land. On August .3, 1565, he 
obtained licence to have a hundred persons in his retinue. He 
lorded it like a feudal baron of the old regime, yet he found 
it difficult to make both ends meet; and in order to defray 

5 



66 THE HISTOEY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

the heavy charges of his almost regal establishments he was 
obliged to part with many a fat manor. Thus within this 
year he alienated Hamsby, a splendid estate in Norfolk, to 
Sir Thomas Gresham, his great rival in commercial pursuits. 
However, Court favours continued to pour upon him. In June 
1556 he obtained vast grants of lands in Warwick, Somerset, 
Herts, York, Denby, Lincoln, Beds, etc., and on July 2 he was 
appointed Chamberlain of the County Palatine of Cheshire for 
life. During this year he received the Order of St. Michael 
from Charles IX., King of France, and was invested with it in 
the Chapel Royal at Whitehall with all the magnificence 
worthy of the occasion. No Englishman had ever been 
admitted before into this order, except King Henry VIII., 
King Edward VI., and Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk. 
Leicester, in his capacity of Chancellor, received the Queen on 
the occasion of her first visit to Oxford, in 1566. The royal 
sojourn extended over seven days, during which time Her 
Majesty was magnificently entertained, all the entertain- 
ments having been excellently carried out under the earl's 
supervision. He received great praise for his pains from his 
royal mistress, with whom he was then held in the highest 
favour. However, on the return of the Court to London, he 
indiscreetly advocated certain measures in Parliament relating 
to the Royal succession, whereby he incurred the Queen's 
displeasure, and for some time he was excluded from the 
Presence Chamber, and prohibited access to her person. But 
this hitch was soon adjusted, and the Earl again became the 
Queen's prime favourite. On November 28, 1567, he obtained 
a licence for twenty-two years for transporting all sorts of 
wood and timber growing in Shropshire. In 1571 he secured 
the reversion of the chief stewardship of Northamptonshire 
and Buckinghamshire for life. 

He was appointed Master of the Royal Buckhounds on 
May 28, 1572, with a yearly fee of S3l. 6s. 8d. for life, 
which office he held to the day of his death. About this 
time some serious disputes took place between the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury and the Earl of Leicester relating 



EOBEKT DUDLEY, EARL OF LEICESTEE, SIXTH MASTER. (37 

to the goods of the Church. The Archbishop got the best 
of the arguments, but the Master of the Buckhounds got 
the temporalities in question, which he appropriated for 
his own personal uses. The following year (April 20, 1574) 
he obtained another vast grant of Crown lands in various 
counties in sundry parts of the kingdom; and on July 19 
ensuing he received a grant of the old palace of Maidstone, 
with other estates in the county Kent and various other locali- 
ties. Some of these manors were soon after sold to different 
persons, and on February 13, 1575, he got licence to alienate the 
manor of Cumnor, county Bucks, to Henry Lord Norries, where 
his first wife, the Countess Amy, was done to death. The Queen 
gave him another annuity of 1,000^. a year for life by patent, 
dated Westminster, July 17 of this year, and two days after- 
wards he obtained a very considerable grant of lands in Mon- 
mouthshire. He was appointed Chancellor and Chamberlain 
(camerar) of North Wales, where he had large mineral works 
and plenary mining monopolies, by patent dated September 26, 
1575. It was in the summer of this year that he entertained the 
Queen at Kenilworth. Admitting the Royal visit entailed the 
heavy expense attributed to it, the magnitude of the grants 
the Earl received from the Queen during this year alone must 
have been ample recompense, and well repaid the cost of the 
festivities at Kenilworth. At this period the Earl of Leicester 
had many avowed enemies, and some rivals who aspired to 
supplant him in the mighty Court favour which he so 
absolutely controlled, having met with a sudden and unexpected 
death, were said to have been poisoned by his means. But 
to the impartial investigator of those intriguing times, little, 
if any, justification will be found in support of such charges, 
which most likely were the outcome of envy and disappoint- 
ment. At any rate, the Master of the Buckhounds continued 
in the favour of his sovereign until the arrival of the Duke of 
Anjou's ambassador in October, 1578, to negotiate a marriage 
contract between the Duke and Elizabeth. This envoy ex- 
celled in the accomplishments of a courtier — his manners, his 
wit, and his gallantry made an irresistible impression. Aware 



68 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

that his chief obstacle was the influence which Leicester 
possessed over the Queen, he made it his first object to wean 
her from her afiection for that nobleman, by disclosing to her 
the secrets of his amours, and informing her of his recent 
marriage with the relict of the late Earl of Essex, a marriage 
hitherto concealed from her knowledge. The Queen was 
mortified and irritated. Leicester added to her displeasure by 
his indiscretion and impatience. He attributed the influence 
of the envoy to philters and witchcraft, and occasionally let 
fall threats of personal vengeance. But the Queen ordered 
him to be confined at Greenwich, and by proclamation took 
under her special protection all the members of the Duke of 
Anjou's embassy, and subsequently invited Anjou to plead his 
own case, which he promptly accepted. He was favourably 
received, apparently prospered in his suit, but eventually, in 
deference to the wishes of her subjects and her council, 
Elizabeth declined his offer, in the determination to sacrifice 
her own happiness to the tranquillity and welfare of her 
kingdom. 

Before the Duke of Anjou returned to Antwerp the Earl of 
Leicester was restored to favour. In the meantime he acquired 
the manor of Wanstead and other large tracts of land in Wood- 
ford, Walthamstowe, Leyton, and Ilford, in the county of Essex. 
These properties were soon after augmented by further grants 
of land in Staff'ord, Wilts, and Herts, besides several rich 
wardships that had fallen to the Crown during this interval. 
He was appointed custodian of the New Forest and all the 
Crown lands in the county Southampton for life, by patent 
dated June 25, 1580. The following year he obtained various 
grants in England and Wales, including a lease for twenty-one 
years of the demesne lands of Grafton, county Northampton- 
At the same time he alienated some portion of his estates, 
including the manor of Gravesend, county Kent, This will 
not cause surprise, for the establishments he kept up were 
various and vast, and everything he did necessitated an 
enormous expenditure of money; and with this Master of the 
Royal Buckhounds it was " easy come, easy go." 



ROBERT DUDLEY, EARL OF LEICESTER, SIXTH MASTER. 69 

When the Duke of Anjou definitely decided to return to 
Antwerp, the Queen, to make up for having jilted him, resolved 
to see him off with befitting dignity. He had been elected 
King of the Netherlands, and his subjects were clamouring 
for the presence of their new sovereign. On February 1, 
1582, the Duke, accompanied by the Queen and a splendid 
retinue, departed from Greenwich en route to Sandwich, from 
which port he was to embark to Flushing. At Canterbury 
Elizabeth parted from him in tears. As he pursued his journey 
he received from her repeated messages of inquiry after his 
health; and for greater distinction she ordered the Earl of 
Leicester, with six lords and as many knights, and a numerous 
train of gentlemen, to accompany him, not only to the seaside, 
but as far as the city of Antwerp. On his arrival there he was 
solemnly invested with the ducal mantle as Duke of Brabant, 
and afterwards at Ghent was crowned as Earl of Flanders. 
During the summer, aided by England and France, he opposed 
with chequered success the attempts of the Prince of Parma ; 
but observing that the States were jealous of his followers, and 
that the real authority was possessed not by himself but by 
the Prince of Orange, he conceived the idea of giving the law 
to his inferiors, by seizing most of the principal towns in the 
country. However, the attempt failed in almost every instance, 
many thousands of his followers were slain, and he escaped, 
disheartened and ashamed, into France. His death on June 
10, 1584, freed Queen Elizabeth from a passion which might 
have led her into a repetition of her amour in that quarter, 
and removed the greatest rival in her affections that Leicester 
had ever encountered. 

On his return to England, the Earl of Leicester was gra- 
ciously received at Court, where he resumed his normal duties, 
and continued to be the recipient of remunerative emoluments 
which still flowed upon him with a prosperous tide. Thus, 
during the year 1582, he obtained, jointly with John Morley, 
Esq., a grant of every cloth-mill that could be appropriated, 
for their sole use and benefit throughout the country ; and on 
December 16, the former obtained an acquittance from the 



70 THE HISTOEY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

Exchequer of 5,000/. touching the purchase of the lordship and 
manor of Denbigh ; for which he obtained a clear grant on 
January 15, 1584. In political projects he took some active 
steps, as in the course of the last-mentioned year he prevailed 
upon the nobility and gentry to subscribe an association 
to pursue unto death whomsoever should attempt anything 
against Queen Elizabeth. This association was subsequently 
approved by Parliament, and a law was passed to carry it into 
execution. This enactment proved the ruin of Mary Queen of 
Scots, and the heads of the Roman Catholic party in England. 
On October 2, 1585, the Earl of Leicester was appointed 
Captain- General in Holland and Zealand in the English expedi- 
tion to the Netherlands ; and on the 22nd of the same month 
he was further nominated Lieutenant and Commander-in-Chief 
of the forces in Belgium. He embarked on December 8, and 
on the 10th arrived at Flushing, where he was received with 
extraordinary and long-continued rejoicings. The Queen, 
too, herself, absolutely refused the sovereignty of the United 
Provinces; but Leicester was induced, without consulting her, 
to accept the office of Governor and Captain -General of the 
country. On January 25, 1586, he was solemnly installed at 
the Hague, taking an oath to preserve their religion and main- 
tain their ancient rights and privileges, whilst the States- 
General and other persons in authority bound themselves by an 
oath of fidelity to him. On the same day proclamation was 
made consummating those proceedings, and declaring that the 
Earl, over and above the authority given him by the Queen, 
had the highest and supreme command, and absolute authority'' 
above and in all matters of warfare, with the administration 
and use of policy and justice over the United Provinces ; with 
all such powers as any former governor of the Low Countries 
had possessed, and with authority to receive and administer 
all contributions towards the maintenance of the war. This 
high-handed conduct aroused the Queen's indignation, nor could 
Burghley, Walsingham, and Hatton mitigate her fury. She 
despatched Sir Thomas Heneage to the Low Countries with 
instructions, the subject of which was that Leicester was to 



EOBEET DUDLEY, EAEL OF LEICESTER, SIXTH MASTEE. 71 

resign his authority with the same publicity with which he 
had received it. Heneage's instructions being subsequent!)^ 
somewhat modified, Leicester continued to retain his office for 
some time; but the States became uneasy and discontented. 
Having formally surrendered his authority, he embarked for 
England, arriving at Richmond on November 23, 1586. Not- 
withstanding all that had passed, His Excellency (who was 
the first Englishman that was so styled, this appellation of 
dignity having been conferred upon him by the Flemings), 
was well received by the Queen, who soon after constituted 
him chief justice in eyre of all the forests south of Trent. 
During the following year he received a royal warrant upon 
the Exchequer for 26,000Z. on account of Her Majesty's service, 
for his second expedition in the Low Countries. He also, by 
virtue of a like warrant, obtained 5,000^. due to him for furnish- 
ing 250 horses in that expedition, " after the rate of 2,000Z. for 
every hundred horses." This would be at the rate of 20/. a 
horse — a sum, in all probability, equivalent to about 200/. a 
horse in modern currency — an exorbitant price to pay for 
cavalry remounts, provided the expenditure had been incurred 
by any other person than the reigning favourite ; but he could 
silence any audit or expostulation in the Exchequer under this 
head, as the account was duly passed by the Master of the 
Horse — i.e., himself. 

In the meantime the Earl of Leicester had resumed his 
former sway at the Court, and exercised the authority invested 
in him as the Master of the Buckhounds, and in the multi- 
farious offices he held under the Crown. Nor was he content 
with those sweets of office. No vacancy was too large or too 
small for his avarice. For instance, we find him securing a 
Crown lease to farm the manor of Great Soukey, county Lan- 
caster, in reversion for thirty-one years from March 1, 1587; and 
on June 21, following, by another grant he secured all the fines 
on alienations " paid into the Court of Chancery for three years 
from March 25, last past," And here it may be noted as a 
singular circumstance that this, the most limited emolument 
which he ever had from the Crown, outlived him. However, 



i2 THE HISTOET OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

he had no thought of death, as five days after he had secured 
the rich chancery fees, he was made Lord-Steward of the 
Household for life. About the end of the same month he was 
sent to Zealand with a considerable force for the relief of 
Gluj's. The loss of that important town revived the misunder- 
standing between him and the States, who refused to re- 
establish him in the absolute authority he had formerly 
enjoyed, and the Queen recalled him by an instrument dated 
November 9, 1587, at the same time appointing Lord Willoughby 
Captain-General of her forces in those parts. On Leicester's 
return to England the Queen again admitted him into her 
former grace and favour, and Lord Buckhurst, who had accused 
him of misconduct in the management of affairs in the Low 
Countries, was censured, and confined to his house for some 
months. 

On the apprehension of the Spanish invasion, the Earl of 
Leicester was appointed Lieutenant-General of the forces 
which assembled at Tilbury. He also solicited the office of 
Lieutenant of England and Ireland, which the Queen consented 
to grant him ; but his patent was stayed in consequence of re- 
monstrances from Sir Christopher Hatton, the Lord Chancellor, 
and Lord Burleigh, the Lord Treasurer, who represented to Her 
Majesty the hazard she would incur by entrusting such large 
and unheard-of powers to a single person. Apart from this 
disappointment, his various other posts kept him fully occupied, 
particularly the onerous duties and responsibilities attached 
to conducting the defence of the country during the then 
imminent invasion. In a quaint epistle from Leicester to the 
Queen, which unites in a remarkable manner the character of 
a love-letter with a Privy Council minute of instructions, he 
completely'" directed Her Majesty's movements, under the veil 
of flattering anxiety for her safety. By this means he en- 
deavoured to induce the Queen to make Havering her head- 
quarters. This was fourteen miles from Tilbury, where the 
advanced lines of the defensive forces were encamped, and from 
this basis of operations he could control the whole army with- 
out the interference of the Queen, who was generalissimo in 



KOBEET DUDLEY, EAEL OF LEICESTEK, SIXTH MASTEE. 73 

command. Although he sought to keep her in the rear, and 
thus gratify his inordinate ambition, she proceeded in martial 
pomp to Tilbury, and there reviewed the royal forces, by 
whom she was received with sincere manifestations of loyalty 
and reverence. This event has been considered the most inter- 
esting in her life. Never, certainly, did she perform her part, 
as the leader of a heroic nation, with such imposing effect as 
on that occasion. She was then fifty -five years old, and had 
borne the sceptre and the sword of the Empire for thirty 
years. The destruction of the Armada delivered England from 
all immediate apprehension; the camp at Tilbury became a 
sylvan court ; the Royal Buckhounds were brought upon the 
scene to contribute to the pleasures of the gallant defenders, 
but, sad to say, the grand old style of hunting at force had 
then given place to the indolent method of driving the deer 
to " stands," from which the Queen and her courtiers fired as 
the quarry fled by. The records of the Court of attachment, 
which was held at Chigwell in those days (when Waltham 
Forest extended over immense tracts of Essex now disaf- 
forested), circumstantially record what bucks were shot by 
the Queen and the ladies and gentlemen of her suite on these 
occasions ; and, alas ! the fee bucks that were given to the 
Sergeant of the Buckhounds '•' in consideration that he hunted 
not," is an indelible satire of the venatic predilections of the 
Court. 

About the end of August the Earl of Leicester set out from 
London to Kenilworth, but on his way stopped at his house at 
Cornbury, in Oxfordshire, where he was taken ill, and there 
breathed his last on September 4, 1588. Up to the day of 
his death he carried the official horn of the Royal Buckhounds ; 
and although all the high offices of State which he had held 
during his career devolved on his demise upon other nobles 
and magnates of the Court, the Queen declined to appoint any 
one to succeed him in the Mastership of this branch of the 
pack, which remained vacant until Sir Thomas Tyringham 
obtained it from James I., soon after that monarch ascended 
the throne of England. 



74 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

The Earl of Leicester was married three times : firstly, to 
Amy, daughter of Sir John E-obsart, June 4, 1550, when the 
nuptials were honoured with the presence of King Edward VI., 
who has recorded that after the ceremony certain gentlemen 
strove who should first transfix with a sword on horseback the 
head of a goose hung alive across two posts. It is said that 
the Earl married, secondly, Lady Douglas Howard, widow of 
John, Lord Sheffield. The fact of this marriage is not free 
from doubt, and occasioned great controversy. By this lady 
he had a son (who was titular Earl of Warwick and Duke of 
Northumberland, a notable sportsman, and said to be the first 
person " that taught a dog to sit in order to catch partridges ") 
and a daughter. He married, thirdly, Lettice, daughter of Sir 
Francis Knollys, K.G., and widow of Walter Devereux, Earl of 
Essex. By her he had a son, Robert, called Lord Denbigh, 
who died July 19, 1584. By his will, made at Middleburgh, 
August 1, 1587, he appointed his widow sole executrix; and 
expressed in strong terms his fidelity and duty to the Queen, 
to whom he bequeathed three great emeralds, several diamonds, 
and a rope of fair white pearls to the number of six hundred. 

This Master of the Buckhounds enjoyed extraordinary power 
for nearly thirty years. There was no part of the kingdom in 
which he had not extraordinary influence, and in the counties 
around Kenilworth almost everything was dependent upon him 
either through hope or fear. It is almost impossible to enumerate 
all the local and subordinate offices which he held. They must 
have greatly strengthened his parliamentary influence, and he 
seems to have been a perfect master of those arts to which 
a subsequent age gave the appellation of boroughmongering. 
He had the sagacity to perceive the growing importance of 
the House of Commons, and took care to fill it with his 
dependants, and persons devoted to his interest. He was a 
patron of literature, the drama, and the arts, and, being well 
aware of the advantages of trade and commerce, warml)^ 
encouraged those voyages of discovery which redounded so 
greatly, if not to the honour, to the advantage of the kingdom. 
Of his mining operations, cloth and woollen manufactures, and 



STATE OF THE PACK TO END OF ELIZABETHS EEIGN. /O 

his monopolies, we have ab-eady given ample evidence. In 
short, there was no opportunity for the acquisition of wealth 
or influence that fell to his dispensation as minister of the 
Crown which he did not embrace for his personal use and 
benefit. Yet he was looked upon as a finished courtier in 
every respect. Elegant in his dress ; liberal in his way of 
living ; bountiful to soldiers and men of letters ; very adroit in 
choosing his time and carrying his point ; complaisant in his 
temper, but insidious towards rivals ; amorous in the former 
part of his life, but in the latter uxorious to a strange degree. 
As for the rest, as he preferred an envied height of power to 
solid virtue, he furnished matter for a multitude of malicious 
detractors to descant upon, who, even in the zenith of his glory, 
failed not to prosecute him with their libels, which were mixed 
with abundance of untruths. To sum up all, the Earl was a 
statesman for his own ends, and what was said of him in public 
had the air of praise and panegyric ; " but in piivate, and 
where people durst be free," he was represented in quite a 
different light. Thanks to the author of " Kenilworth," the 
Earl of Leicester has become one of the most familiar per- 
sonages of the sixteenth century ; nevertheless, there is 
hardly a circumstance in his career which the distinguished 
novelist has not misrepresented, either in chronological or 
historical accuracy. 

Although no one was appointed to fill the ofiice of Master of 
the Royal Buckhounds, appertaining to the Lord Chamberlain's 
department of the Household — which became vacant on the 
death of the Earl of Leicester on September 4, 1588 — until 
(Sir) Thomas Tyringham obtained it from James I. on June 21, 
1603, there is no doubt that this branch of the pack, and the 
subordinate officers attached to it, continued to be sustained as 
usual during the remainder of Queen Elizabeth's reign. The 
annual accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber from 1589 
to 1602 contain every detail relating to the officials, their 
several salaries, allowances for uniform, etc., as heretobefore 
recorded ; the total cost of the pack amounting, on an average, 
to about 140/. a year. During those fourteen years the 



76 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

Master's annual fee of '331. Qs. 8d. is conspicuous by its 
absence. In all probability the duties of the Master partly 
devolved on the Sergeant of the pack for the time being : 
Henry Harvey, Esq. (06. 1596), James Bond, Esq. (circa 1598), 
and Francis Joye, Esq., successively. Without going into 
details it may be noted, en passant, that Walter Dodsworth, 
one of the grooms to the pack from the time of Henry VIII., 
died in 1588, and was succeeded by " William Sale alias Dilly." 
Every particular bearing on the 'personnel of this branch of 
the Royal Buckhounds is thus circumstantially recorded. The 
fame acquired by those hounds, at the time now under notice, 
must have been notorious, as the following incident shows : 
When Sir Edward Wotton was sent on a special embassy to 
James VI., King of Scotland, in 1585, his best credentials to 
that sporting monarch were a draft of buckhounds from the 
royal kennels, and two race horses and four hunters from the 
royal stud. Unfortunately they were forgotten by the am- 
bassador. On his arrival at Edinburgh, James anxiously 
inquired for the hounds and horses. Wotton was obliged to 
pretend that they were on the road ; and, to remedy the 
blunder, he had to despatch a special messenger in hot haste 
to Sir Francis Walsingham, with a missive directing him to 
forward the hounds and horses without delay to the King. 
" Since his mynd doth so runn vpon them & he put in head 
of some in coming, the want of them might breed conceiptes 
which the adverse partis would work vpon." Wotton adds 
that he had also written to the Earl of Leicester as earnestly 
as he could to send six or seven couples of buckhounds, and 
urged Sir Francis to take order for their transmission " with 
all convenient speed." These hounds and horses soon after 
arrived in Edinburgh, and were formally presented on 
.lune 12 to the King, who declared them to be "the rediest 
hounds and horses that ever he had seen." This novel stroke 
of diplomacy had the desired effect ; the ambassador's object 
was instantly attained ; and, it is said, the King immediately 
after left his capital, the cares of State, and his own mother's 
fate to the tender mercies of her avowed enemies, for the 



LADIES IN THE HUNTING FIELD. 77 

hunting fields of the Fife of Falkland, there to practically test 
the Elizabethan present " in hunting of the buck." 

In all probability there were many similar requisitions made 
on the Royal kennels from time to time, as draughts of those 
hounds were frequently presented to foreign potentates and 
other distinguished personages at home and abroad. And in 
order to keep the Royal kennels " well replenished " in such 
essential accessories of the chase, the Sergeant of the Buck- 
hounds had a warrant authorising him to seize any hounds he 
chose "for Her Majesty's disport," as well as " horses, mares, 
and draughts for the carriage of the said hounds from place to 
place." It is therefore evident that this branch of the Royal 
Buckhounds was kept up to its normal efficiency, sans the 
Master; and there is no reason to suppose there was any 
diminution in the number of meets, or any falling off in the 
sport the pack gave to its followers during the last years of 
the reign of good Queen Bess. Unfortunately the records of 
such meets and runs are few and far between ; little or no 
notice was taken of such common-place events by the chroniclers 
of those times. Nevertheless we ascertain that the Queen con- 
tinued to patronise the hunt with her presence. Marshal de 
Bassompierre, happening to be at Calais in 1601, his friend, 
the Duke de Biron, " debauched " him into an excursion to 
England. Bassompierre got no further than London. Queen 
Elizabeth being then at the Vine in Hampshire, Biron followed 
her thither, and had the pleasure of seeing Her Majesty " hunt, 
attended by more than fifty ladies, all mounted on hackneys." * 

* Stowe gives a different account of the Duke de Biron's visit to Hampshire, 
to the following effect : " The fourth day [September 9] after the Queen's? 
coming to Basing, the Sheriff was commanded to attend the Duke of Biron at his 
coming into that county. Whereupon, the next day being the 10th of September, 
he went towards Blackwater, being the uttermost confines of that shire towards 
London, and there he met the said Duke, accompanied with above twenty of 
the nobilitie of France, and attended with about four hundred Frenchmen. 
The said Duke was that night brought to the Vyne, a fair large house of the 
Lord Sonds, which was furnished with hangings and plate from the Tower and 
Hampton Court ; and with seven score beds and furniture, which the willing 
and obedient people of the county of Southampton, upon two days' warning, 
had brought thither, to lend the Queen. The Duke abode there four or five 
days, all at the Queen's charges, and spent her more at the Vyne than her own 



78 THE HISTOEY OF THE KOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

A few days after he returned to rejoin his friend in London, 
and after a further sojourn of three days the travellers returned 
to France — Biron to lose his life on the scaffold, and Bassom- 
pierre to risk his in the field, and hardly less often in the 
intrigues of the Court. However, after many vicissitudes, he 
lived to represent his country at the Court of Charles I. This 
incident is important, as it establishes an irrefutable authority 
that the chase was patronised by the fair sex nearly three 
hundred years ago, and, as we shall have occasion to record 
hereafter, many ladies, fair and famous, continued to follow 
the Royal Buckhounds in the days of yore as they do in our 
own times. 

On March 23, 1603, Queen Elizabeth died at Richmond, 

Court for that time spent at Basing. And one day he attended her at Basing 
Park at hunting, where the Duke stayed her coming, and did there see her in 
such Royalty, and so attended by the nobility, so costly furnished and mounted, 
as the like had seldom been seen." However, we get the official account of 
this royal hunting progress in the subjoined extracts from the returns of the 
Lord Chamberlain for the time being : " To Richard Conningesby for the 
allow'nce of himselfe, one yeoman vsher, three yeomen, and twoe gromes of 
the chamber, twoe gromes of the wardrobe, and one grome porter, viz., for 
makeinge readie a standinge in the little P'ke at Windsor against y^ huntinge 
there, for two dales, mense Augusti 1601, xxxis^ iiij''. For makinge readie 
M''. Meredithe's house at old Wyndsor for her Ma"<^ to dyne at when she hunted 
in the foreste, by like tyme eod. mense, xxix^ iiij'i. . . . For makinge readie 
Sir Robert Kennington's house at Barraper for a dynninge place by the space 
of twoe dales, mense Septembris 1601, xxix^ iiij'i. For makinge ready 
a^ Humphrey Foster's house at Aldermanton by the space of x<=" dayes, mense 
Augusti 1601, ix". xvj^ viij*!. For makinge readie the Lord Marques [of 
Winchester] his house at Basynge by the space of xiiij"' dayes mense Septembris 
1601, xiij". x^ iiij''. For mukeinge ready the Lorde Sandes' house at the Vyne 
for the french Amhassadd'^ by like tyme mense ])red\(j^xiif\ xv^. iiij^. For 
makinge readie a standinge in Basynge P'ke for two dayes dco menseooxxiv^ 
iiij''. For makinge readie a chamber ouer the gate there for her highnes to 
dyne w'*' the Frenchmen by the space of iiijo"' dayes, mense Septemberis 1601,c« 
Ixxviii^. viij*^. For alteracons at Basynge in the presence and p'vie chambe''^ 
to retyre into after dinner by like tyme and in the same moneth,coxxxix^ iiij'i. 
For makinge readye the Ladye Marquesse, her house at Basynge for the 
Frenchmen to dyne by the space of twoe dayes, mense Septembris,col601 
xxxix^. iiij*. For makinge readie the Chappie at Basynge by the like time,oo 
xxxix^ iiij*. For makinge readie S"" George More's house at Losley by the 
space of x<=° days, mense Septembris,ool601, ix". xxvj^ viij'^."— Accounts of the 
Treasurer of the Chamber of the Household. E. L. T. R. Series 1, Box F, 
Bundle 3, m. 67fZ. MS. P.R.O. 



LADIES m THE HUNTING FIELD. 79 

where she had frequently patronised the meets of the Royal 
Buckhounds during the last year of her glorious reign. 
Windsor, Eichmond, and Eltham were the favourite localities 
where she hunted in that year. But beyond the formal entries 
of payments made to the apparellers for her accommodation 
during those royal venatic excursions, there is little known 
about the sport. Doubtless the sport was worthy of the 
splendour by which it was surrounded. The grand old Queen 
delighted to mingle with her subjects ; they reciprocated that 
feeling on all occasions, and in no place did she more amply 
experience their loving homage and sterling loyalty than in 
the hunting-field or on the racecourse. The public at large 
were the Queen's body-guards, and to them she trusted her 
royal person with implicit faith. It is a well-known historical 
fact that when Vitelli was employed to assassinate her in the 
hunting-field, where, as he was truly instructed, she was to be 
always found without the yeomen of the guard or police of 
any denomination, that, on observing the silent homage and 
unmistakable loyalty of what we would now technically call the 
field, he relinquished his intention in despair, and so forfeited 
all hope of earning the pension and title of nobility which were 
guaranteed to him by his vile employers, as well as the im- 
mortality which he was told awaited him in the world to come. 
Elizabeth survived her death in the affection of her people ; 
they continued to keep up her birthday as if she still occupied 
that throne which many held to have been usurped by " an 
alien race," In course of time her successor became a most 
popular monarch with his sporting subjects, though, unlike 
Elizabeth, he objected to a crowded meet or a large field riding 
to his hounds. His predilection for the chase, and for field 
sports of all sorts, is well known to all who are acquainted 
with the rural annals of his reign. We have already had an 
example of the high esteem he had for the hounds and horses 
of the Elizabethan sporting establishment, and we may well 
conclude that he anxiously looked forward to the day when he 
would become the proud possessor of the royal studs, kennels, 
and mews, of '' the Land of Promise." 



80 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 



CHAPTER IV. 

HEREDITARY BRANCH.— HENRY VIII.— CHARLES I. 

Sir Richard Pexsall,^ Tenth Master — Sir John Savage, Eleventh Master — Sir 
Pexsall Brocas, Twelfth Master. Dispute between James I. and the 
Master. — Critical Affairs of the Pack. — It is abolished by Royal Warrant. 
— The Functions of the Office conferred on the Sergeant of the Household 
Branch. — Order thereon for the Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex. — Passing 
Events. — The Hereditary Pack given to Charles, Duke of York. — Sir 
Pexsall Brocas continues to receive the Emoluments of their Office.— The 
Hunt- Servants. — Thomas Brocas, Thirteenth Master. — The Manor of Little 
Weldon, and with it the nominal Mastership of this Branch of the Royal 
Buckhounds, sold to Sir Lewis Watson. 

The first payment to Sir Richard Pexsall, tenth Hereditary 
Master of the Buckhounds, occurs on the Pipe Roll of the 
county Sussex, for the 11th year of the reign of Henry VIII. 
(April 22, lolO^August 21, 1520), when he received 50L 
from the Sherifl:' of that county, due since the 4th Henry VIII. 
(April 22, 1512 — April 21, 1513), the payments on account 
of this portion of the pack having been often in arrears during 
the reign of Bluff King Hal. About this time George Hunte 
was the huntsman, and John Bland and Hugh Carter the yeo- 
men berners. This Master obtained part payments on account 
of the usual stipend allocated out of the issues of the county 
Sussex, in support of his office, pretty regularly to the end of 
the reign of Henry VIII. Lapses sometimes occur where the 
roUs are imperfect ; and as it is hardly necessary to go into 
these details year by year, it only remains to mention that 
Reginald Harrington was the huntsman, and John Massey and 
Thomas Cook were the subordinate officers of this pack for some 



SIR RICHAED PEXSALL, TENTH MASTER. 81 

years before and for some years after the end of Henry VIII.'s 
reign. However, from the 34th regnal year of the reign of 
Henry VIII. (1542-43) to the time of Sir Richard's death in 
the 13th of Elizabeth (1570-71), he received the stipend of his 
office, amounting to 50/. per annum ; those payments having 
been derived from the issues of the county Sussex during the 
reigns of Henry VIII., Philip and Mary, Edward VI., and 
Elizabeth, except from the 9th to the 12th of Elizabeth, when 
the payments to him came out of the issues of county Surrey. 

Sir Richard Pexsall obtained a patent from Queen Mary, 
dated May 23, 1554, by virtue of which the office of Custodian 
or Master of the Royal Buckhounds, with the Manor of Little 
Weldon, etc., was confirmed to him, and also the office of 
''Custodian or Master" of the Queen's " Privy Buckhounds." 
This document contains some very strong expressions reflecting 
on the institution of the Privy or Household branch of the 
pack by Henry VIII., which, if uttered during his reign, would, 
inevitably, have brought the tenth Hereditary Master to the 
block. His status as " Custodian or Master " of the Household 
branch, pursuant to this patent, seems equivocal, as he was not 
recognised or recompensed in the same manner as were his 
predecessors and successors holding the office of Master of the 
" Privy " or Household branch of the pack. 

On the death of Sir Ralph Pexsall, in 1540, his second and 
only surviving son, Sir Richard Pexsall, claimed all the family 
honours, etc., including the Hereditary Mastership of the Royal 
Buckhounds. This claim, however, was disputed by Bernard 
Brocas, Esq., of Alton, county Hants, the lineal heir, on the plea 
that when the direct male line failed on the demise of William 
Brocas, Esq., of Beaurepaire, in 1509, the Hereditary Mastership 
reverted to him as the lineal representative of the family, 
through Bernard Brocas, Esq., of Alton, second son of Sir 
Bernard Brocas, the second Master of the Royal Buckhounds. 
Upon this plea Bernard Brocas, the lineal heir, sued the 
Pexsalls, the heirs general, for Beaurepaire, and sixteen manors 
in the county of Southampton, besides other estates in 
Wiltshire, Northampton, etc. ; and for ending all contentions 

6 



82 THE HISTOEY OF THE KOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

espoused Anne, the eldest of Sir Richard Pexsall's four 
daughters and co-heirs, who (by will, dated October 19, 1571), 
having all bequeathed to her, brought the ancient seat and 
hereditaments into the name again, after it had for sixty-five 
years been possessed by that of Pexsall. But Sir Richard 
Pexsall's widow. Lady Eleanor, having married, secondly, Sir 
John Savage, he began a suit to upset the family settle- 
ments — a subject which we need not go into here, as it is 
detailed in Professor Burrows' volume, the upshot being that 
from the death of Sir Richard Pexsall, in 1571, to the year 
1573 no payment was made by the Sheriff of Surrey and 
Sussex to any Hereditary Master of the Buckhounds. During 
those three years the post seems to have been in abeyance. 
In the interval Sir John Savage married Sir Richard Pexsall's 
widow, and by the subjoined deed of settlement, he, as the 
holder of the fourth part of the Manor of Little Weldon, 
became, by the family arrangement, the " Hereditary " Master 
of the Buckhounds : — 

" This Indenture, made the three and twentithe dale of Male in 
the fifteenthe yeare of the reign of our sov'igne ladie Elizabeth by 
the grace of God, of Engiande, Eraunce, and Ireland, defender of 
the faith, &c., Whereas S"" John Savage of Clifton in the countie 
of Chester knighte vpon the one '¥''tie : And the righte honorable 
Edward Earle of Rutlande, John Manners of Haddon ui the countie 
of Derbie esquire, Roger Manners esquire, one of the Queene's Ma"^* 
esqviires of the bodie, and Richard Buckley of Chednell in citie of 
Chester esquire vpon the other '^'ortic Witnessithe that whereas 
John Jobson late of the citie of London esquire, aiid EKzabeth 
Jobson wife of the said John, one of the daughters and coheirs of 
S"" Richarde Pexall late of Barow per aP Bewre per in the countie of 
Southampton knighte lawfidlie conveyed and assured as well by 
fyne as otherwise the fourthe %*''tes of the manners of Bawrep aP 
Bewreper &c. . . . with theh appiirtenances &c. . . . And also the 
forth p'tes of the manner of Little Weldon with thapp'tn'ces, and 
tenne toftes, ten gardens, two hundi-ed acres of land, fFoure and 
twentie of medowe, two hundreth acres y*^ pasture, and tenne acres 
of woode with th'app'tence's in Little Weldon : And the foui"th p'tes 
of the Bailiewicke of the custodie or keepinge of the kinges Bucke- 



SIR JOHN SAVAGE, ELEVENTH MASTEE. 83 

houndes, and fee of fyftie Pouiides by the yeare for the keepinge 
of the same Buckhoimdes to be paid yearlie by the hands of the 
Sheriffe of Suit' and Sussex in the countie of Northampton. ..." 

From 1574 to 1584 Sir John Savage apparently exercised 
his functions as the Hereditary Master of the Buckhounds, as 
he received 50/, per annum during those years from the Sheriff 
of Surrey and Sussex, by virtue of this office. From 1585 to 
1593 this post was again in abeyance, as no payment was 
made to any Hereditary Master until 1594, when Pexsall 
Brocas, Esq., succeeded to the office, the profits of which he 
held during the remainder of Queen Elizabeth's reign and in 
the reign of James I. 

Sir John Savage, knight, eleventh " Hereditary " Master of 
the Royal Buckhounds, the eldest son and heir of Sir John 
Savage, of Clifton, Cheshire, and Lady Elizabeth Somerset, 
daughter of Charles, first Earl of Worcester, enjoyed this office, 
temp. Elizabeth, from 1574 — 1584, by virtue of the deed of 
settlement dated May 23, 1573, as above set forth. During 
those ten years he received the sum of 50^. per annum from 
the Sherifis of Surrey and Sussex for his fee, and supplying 
the hunt-servants with their wages and liveries according to 
the customary regulations appertaining to this branch of the 
royal pack, as set forth (for instance) in the subjoined writ of 
Privy Seal and the entry of the payment on the Pipe Roll : — 

Pour Lez Buckhounds. 

Treshonor' Seigneur' violes faire ires de guarrante de sonbz' le 
privie seau de fire soveraigne dame la Royne Derect a le Vicecount 
de Surr' et Sussex pour faire payment dez issues de sa bailaye po"" lez 
gages des vennres et puture de chiens en manier de sonbz escrit. 
Oonftafavou- A John Savage mit. M*" dez Buckehoundes a Royne 
xij** le io'. A John Withers vealterer y** le io"". A AUano Bowet et 
Guillam GarcUn' valect barners chascn' de eulx j'^ ob'. le io'" pour leur 
gagies et pour le puture de vj lenryers et xxuij^'' chiens currants pour 
chascu de eulx ob' le io"". Comenceantz a la feast de sainct Michaell 
larchange dernivement passe Inques a xxiiij°'' io*" de Jugne lors pro- 
chaine ensuiuant lung et lautre io*^ accomptz pour prinst le puture 



84 THE HISTOKT OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

cle XV chiens currants pour chascu de eulx ob le io"'. Et lez gages pour 
ang varlect barner pour xl io'' en quai'isme que anly seront au lez 
Constages du diet John Savage pour lez Statuts dull' ostiell mesme 
nfe Dame. Et anxi quitts faire paiement a diet John pour lez gages 
en la Cote vij*^* ob le io"". Le susdict John Withers vealterer ij'^ le io' 
et a diet Guillam Gardin' et Allano Bowett pour chascii de eulx j'^ ob 
le io^ pour leur gage, vj lenryers et xxiiij°'' chiens currants chascti de 
eulx ob le io"^ de xxv'^° io"" de Jvigne debant diet, tanq'' a xxix™° io"" de 
Septemb'' adunq"^ prochaine ensuivant lung et lautre io"^ accomptz. 
Et Veltre plus quil faire payment a diet John Savage pour cez deulx 
Robes, pour la xl^. Et a lez vealterers et Barn's poui* lure Eobes 
chascu de eulx xiij® iiij''. Et pour chamicz povir chascu de evilx iiij*. 
iiij''. pour Ian. Don' a la maneir de Grenwiche le xxv™° io"" de 
Septembris Ian le Reign' de nre soverigfie Dame Elizabeth '^ la grace 
de dien Royne dangliterr' ffraiic et direlands def endo'^' de la f oye xx"'*'. 

Ex™ p Gregor' Lovell, Clerc, Compt. 
A Treshono*" Seignfe gardian du privie Seau de nre Dame la Royne. 

The French of Stratford-le-Bow, which had been immortal- 
ised by Chaucer about the time when the Royal Buckhounds 
were instituted under the first Hereditary Master in the reign of 
Edward III., compares favourably with the language of diplo- 
macy " as she was writ " by the scribe attached to the Court 
of Queen Elizabeth, when he indited the royal commands to the 
Keeper of the Privy Seal, directing him to issue a writ to the 
Sherifi" of Surrey and Sussex to pay Sir John Savage and his 
staff the several sums due to them on account of the cost of 
this branch of the pack for the year 1578, as transcribed yer- 
batim et literati7)i above. The Lord Privy Seal acted promptly 
on his instructions, as we learn from an entry on the Memo- 
randa Roll of that year, as also from the following extract in 
the Pipe Roll, showing that the Sheriff, by virtue of the Privy 
Seal in question, paid out of the issues of the county of Sussex 
the sum of 50^. to Sir John Savage for the purposes therein 
set forth : — 

" Di Johi' Savage militi magro canu dne Regine niic '^ damis 
capiendi xij** '^ diem '^ vadii' suis extra cur' ac Johi' Wether veantr' 



SIK JOHN SAVAGE, ELEVENTH MASTEE. 85 

ij'' '^ diem Alano Bowett & Wiitmo Gardiner valect Barus' utriq' 
eou' j'' ob '^ diem '^ vadiis suis & '^ putur' sex leporar' & xxiiij °'' 
canu curren' '^ quotts' ob '^ diem affesto Sci MichTs Arcbe' anno 
xx^° Begine buius usq' xxiiij ''° diem Junij tunc '^x sequen viltroq' 
die computato except putnr' xv canii currene' Et '^ vadiis unius 
valect barias' "^ xl dieb} in quadragesima qui erunt ad custodi dci 
Jobi' '^ statut bospicij diie Regne & eidem Jobi' '^ vadiis suis in 
cur' vij'^ ob'. '¥ diem Et '^'■fat' Jobi' Wether veante' ij^ ^ diem. 
Et f*'rfat' Alana Bowett & Wiitmo Gai-diner valect' barns' utriq*" 
ecu j*^ ob '^ diem W vadiis suis & '^ putur' sex lepoi-ar' & xxiiij°'' 
canii curren W quott' eou' ob '^ diem a xxv die Jvinii anno xxj'"" usq'' 
xxix diem Septemb'' tunc '^x sequen ultraq"^ die computato & '^'"fat' 
Jobi' ^ duab} Robis suis xP & '^ Robis diet veantr' & Barns' cuilt' 
eoii' xiij^ uy'* & "^ calcultar suis iiij** W diem viz de bomoi vadiis 
ffeodi & Robis '^ uno anno funt's ad ffestii Sci' Miches Arcbe' anno 
xxj™° Regine buius '^ JJ. '¥' '^'cessu uide & Cons' Baronu. in cons 
casii hit' & annotat' in memor'** ex '^te Remem Thes' de anno xv'"° 
Regine nuc Elizabeth viz int' precepta de termio sci Hitt Rotlo. In 
quodm '^ cessu tangen' Johem Pelham. Ac nup vie' com' '^dcor' de 
anno xiij™'' Regine '^dce. Ac '^ b're dfie Regine ntic de priuato 
Sigillo suo '^fat' vie direct' ac tras acquietafic Roberti Creswell ar' 
attornat' '^'dce' Jobi' de Recepcone."* 

Although we have not yet met with the actual — which was 
probably retained by the Sheriffs — Privy Seal (without the pro- 
duction of which the Hereditary Master could not recover his 
annual stipend, or the wages and other allowances of the hunt- 
servants under him, from the Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex), 
we obtain all necessary details bearing on this branch of the 
Royal Buckbounds, in the instructions here recited, the recapitu- 
lation of the missing document in the Memoranda Roll, and the 
full statement above quoted from the Pipe Roll. It will thus 

* Pipe Eoll, 20 Eliz., membrane, sub. tit. " Item, Sussex." As above 
explained, this is the earliest reference we liave met with, in the sixteenth 
century, to the Privy Seal, by which the SherifE of Surrey and Sussex was 
warranted to pay the Hereditary Master of the Buckhounds, for the time 
being, the fees, etc., appertaining to tlie office, amounting altogether to 50Z. a 
year. It is obvious, however, that privy seals were issued to and received by 
the said Sheriffs for this purpose, as they are recited every time the payment 
was made, the first to Sir John Savage having occurred in the year 1574. 



86 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

be seen that there was very little alteration in the constitu- 
tion of this part of the pack from the time of Edward III. to 
Elizabeth. As heretofore, the Master's fee was Is. a day and 
21. a year for his official uniform, and 7hd. per day additional 
when he was in attendance upon the Court. The same number 
of hunt-servants were employed, their wages, liveries, and 
allowances being substantially similar to those enjoyed by 
their predecessors in office. The cost of the hounds' meat is 
set down at the same figure as given in the original ordinance. 
The total expense of this department of the Buckhounds 
amounted to 501. a year. 

In 1565 Sir John Savage built " a fair new house " at 
Clifton (afterwards called Rock-Savage), which his posterity 
have ever since retained. Sir John was a very prominent 
personage in Cheshire during many years in Elizabeth's reign. 
He was Sheriff of the county in 1560, 1570, 1574, 1579, and 
1591, and Mayor of the City of Chester in 1569, 1574, and 
1597. In 1567 he was appointed, in conjunction with Sir Hugh 
Cholmondeley and Sir Lawrence Smith, to view and make all 
the levies for the expedition then fitting out and subsequently 
despatched from Chester for service in Ireland. For this 
purpose the Commissioners had to borrow certain sums of 
money from merchants and other persons in Chester ; but it is 
doubtful if they ever recovered the amount thus obtained from 
the Treasury. In 1569 he and his brother magistrates of the 
county Palatine formally made declaration to the Council of 
having conformed to and accepted the Act of Parliament for 
the uniformity of Common Prayer, out of duty to the Queen, 
by whom was opened up to them " the plain path of virtue to 
their eternal salvation." Sir John continued to take an 
active part in similar local transactions relating to the county 
Palatine until his death, which took place on December 5, 
1597, when he was, for the third time. Mayor of Chester. His 
descendants ascended, step by step, from knighthood, baronetcy, 
viscountcy, earldom, to the dignity of Marquis of Cholmondeley. 
This Sir John Savage married, first, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Thomas Manners, Earl of Rutland, by whom he had five sons 



SIK PEXSALL BEOCAS, TWELFTH MASTEE. 87 

and five daughters. She dying on August 8, 1570, he married, 
secondly, Elinor, relict of Sir Richard Pexsallj, but had no 
children by her, and in consequence of this alliance he became 
the eleventh Hereditary Master of the Royal Buckbounds from 
1574 to 1584, during which time he received 50^. a year from 
the Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex in support of the office, as 
above mentioned. 

Sir Pexsall Brocas, the twelfth Hereditary Master of the 
Royal Buckbounds, temps. Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I. 
— ^from 1584 to 1630 — was the eldest surviving son of Bernard 
Brocas, Esq., of Horton, county Buckingham, and Anne, eldest 
daughter of Sir Richard Pexsall, of Beaurepaire, county Hants. 
Professor Montagu Burrows, in his work on " The Family 
of Brocas, of Beaurepaire," tells us that young Pexsall Brocas 
was brought up with his father and mother at Ickenham, 
near London, from whence he was sent to Gray's Inn, of 
which he became a member. Before he came of age it seems 
he indulged rather freely in the dissipations of the Metropolis ; 
and, even after attaining his majority, he preferred life in 
London to hunting, home, and duty. Whether he claimed his 
right to the Hereditary office of Master of the Buckbounds or 
not when he came of age in 1584 we are unable to say ; but it 
is evident that no payment was made to him, by right of that 
post, by the Sheriffs of Surrey and Sussex, before the 36th 
year of Elizabeth's reign — i.e., in 1594. It consequently 
follows, so far as relates to the stipend usually allocated 
towards the support of this department of the Royal Buck- 
hounds, that it was financially in abeyance during those ten 
years. But in 1594 he received his first payment as the 
Hereditary Master of the Buckbounds — viz., 50^. This sum 
comprised the Master's fee of Is. a day for his wages, 21. a year 
for his livery, and the usual dole of 7^d. a day for his attendance 
in court. His huntsman, Thomas Browne, the two principal 
hunt-servants, Richard Mercer and Thomas Duke, received 
the usual remuneration, with allowances for uniforms, and 
for feeding and keeping the fifteen couples of hounds which 
constituted this portion of the pack. During the remainder 



88 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

of Queen Elizabeth's reign Pexsall Brocas continued to be 
paid 501. a year by the SheriS' of the county Sussex, as above 
recorded. 

In the meantime Pexsall Brocas married Margaret, daughter 
of Sir Thomas Sherley, of WistoD, county Sussex ; and was 
soon after elected M.P. for Steyning. These new responsibilities 
did not act as a curb on his wayward disposition, as he con- 
tinued to indulge in excesses, which got him into some serious 
scrapes. These transactions are related by Professor Burrows, 
and call for no recapitulation here.* However, some other 
events in connection with the office of this Hereditary Master 
of the Buckhounds, which are not given in Professor Burrows' 
volume, cannot be passed over. Thus, on January 27, 1590, 
we find he obtained a commission to take up hounds for 
her Majesty's service, "as heretofoi-e hath been accustomed"; 
the Sergeant of the Household branch of the pack and their 
several deputies being included in the commission. Doubtless 
those gentlemen continued to exercise the authority by which 
they were invested until the end of Elizabeth's reign, as shortly 
after the accession of James I. Sir Pexsall Brocas obtained a 
similar commission from the new King, by whom he was 
knighted at the Charter House, London, and in all probability 
the latter commission was given to him on that occasion, as it 
is dated May 11, 1603, the very day he was dubbed. At any 
rate. Sir Pexsall Brocas seems to have been on good terms with 
the King and the court favourites at this time, as his claim of 
the Hereditary Master of the Buckhounds was unquestioned, 
although his claim to officiate by virtue of his office at the 
King's coronation was not allowed.! At any rate, he invari- 

* Professor Burrows, in a letter to the Editor of the Times, dated November 
8, 1892, says : " When Pexall Brocas came of age in 1584 he entered on the 
hereditary mastership mthout licence ; but Elizabeth established him in his 
rights in 1589. In 1698 and 1599 he deputed Sir John Stanhope to do his 
duties." We can find no official verification or confirmation of these allega- 
tions. Are we to infer that they are based on the " forged deeds " mentioned 
on p. 90 ? 

t He received a dole of scarlet cloth, value 51., out of the King's great 
warbrobe for his livery on the occasion of the state entry of James I. into 
London. 



CRITICAL AFFAIKS OF THE PACK. 89 

ably received 50/. a year, by virtue of the sergeanty apper- 
taining to the Manor of Little Weldon, from the Sheriffs of 
Sussex, from this time until the end of the Kinor's reign. On 
the Pipe Roll of the 2nd James I. he is described as Pexsall 
Brocas, " late Esquire, now Knight," " magister canes regis " ; 
Thomas Browne, the huntsman, and Richard Mercer and 
Robert Duke, yeomen berners, being still the hunt-servants 
under him. 

Nevertheless, the affairs of the Hereditary branch of the 
Royal Buckhounds did not run smoothly. The ripple of dis- 
satisfaction which appeared on the surface of the establishment 
of this important adjunct of the Royal chase early in the reign 
of Henry VII. developed energy during the reign of Bluff King- 
Hal, producing, as we have seen, the Privy, or Household, 
branch — first as an auxiliary, soon afterward independent, and 
now, in the time of James I., in actual antagonism to the old, 
so-called, hereditary establishment. " Tempora mutantur ! " 
This branch of the Royal Buckhounds exhibited symptoms of 
decay early in the sixteenth century. Like the White Hart in 
the fable, although it was doomed to death early in the seven- 
teenth century, it was not destined to die at least for another 
hundred years to come. Throughout its history we find, from 
time to time, radical changes. Thus, under Edward III., when 
hunting " at force " became customary, and infused new life into 
the pleasures of the chase, the method then observed failed to 
meet the exigencies of the dashing horseman of the Tudor era, 
when led horses were introduced by Henry VIIL, and those who 
rode to the Royal Buckhounds. It is apparent the Hereditary 
pack did not meet the demands made upon it in those days. 
It may have suffered through the practical abolition of feudal 
service ; it must have been out of touch with a court whose 
headquarters were at Westminster and Windsor, where its 
Master was only obliged to appear in person during the forty 
days of Lent. These and other circumstances brought about a 
crisis in its fate soon after the accession of James I. 

We now find antagonism openly manifested between the two 
branches. Whether the Trojan Master of the Hereditary, or 



90 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

the Tyrian Master of the Household branch hath his quarrel 
right is a complicated question, and one for the jurist rather 
than the sportsman to determine. But the King took the part 
of the Household branch, and who durst gainsay the wisdom 
of the British Solomon ? 

According to the accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber 
of the Royal Household and contemporary warrants, it is 
evident that James I., as early as Midsummer 1603, was 
desirous to annex the Hereditary Kennel, so as to have those 
hounds under his direct control, with a view, probably, of 
amalgamating the two branches. At this time the King was 
not on bad terms with Sir Pexsall Brocas. For instance, in 
April 1604, he obtained a pardon for all riots and unlawful 
assemblies in which he had been implicated before the 20th of 
March last past, and for forging and publishing forged deeds, 
and of all forfeitures, due and depending, concerning the 
same ; but, soon after, affairs between them became invidious, 
and then ensued the rupture. It is possible that, at this 
time, Brocas was riding for a fall. At any rate, he offered 
no impediment when the administration of the Hereditary 
branch of the pack was practically taken out of his hands, 
and conferred upon Silvester Dodsworth, by a warrant under 
the signet, in August 1603. It is evident the Hereditary 
Kennel was not kept up to the maximum pursuant to the 
terms of the sergeanty, as certain drafts of buckhounds 
were requisitioned in the North of England, in order to 
" replenish " it. Moreover, the King had to find the money 
required to pay for the food of those hounds. This unsatis- 
factory state of affairs went on for five years. Then came 
a climax. On January 26, 1608-9, a royal sign-manual, 
by the King's command, was issued to the officers of the 
Household, " to forbear to make any warrant for a Privy 
Seal, to be directed to the Sheriffs of Surrey and Sussex, for 
the time being, for the payment of any sums and entertain- 
ment to Sir Pexsall Brocas, for himself and the keeping of 
a kennel of hounds, with offices appertaining, which, His 
Majesty's pleasure is, shall from henceforth cease." This was 



ABOLISHED BY ROYAL WARRANT. 91 

a strong manifestation of royal wrath ; yet it was as mild 
asithe note of a hunting-horn compared with the ultimatum 
at the end of the King's letter : " And to insert in the said 
warrant instead of him (Sir Pexsall Brocas) the name of 
Robert Rayne, now Sergeant of the Buckhounds for that 
Kennel, requiring in the same, the said Sheriff to make all 
payments, mentioned in the said Privy Seal, to the said 
Robert Rayne, until His Majesty's pleasure be signified to 
them to the contrary." To conform with the King's arbitrary 
behest would be illegal, as, pursuant to the Patent of the 
27th Henry VI., no one, other than the holder of the 
Manor of Little Weldon, was entitled to receive the stipend 
appertaining to the Hereditary Master of the Royal Buck- 
hounds, and payable to him. in that capacity by the Sheriffs 
of Surrey and Sussex, for the time being. Without going to 
such an extreme, the King had the power of effectually stop- 
ping the Hereditary Master's annual stipend by simply 
withholding the Writ of Privy Seal. Without that warrant 
the Sheriff would not be authorised to pay the stipend levied 
on the issues of those counties. On the other hand, the fact 
of Robert Rayne having been foisted into the office held by 
Brocas, clearly indicates that the Hereditary Mastership was, 
at this time, practically considered obsolete. This opinion, how- 
ever, did not invalidate the financial obligations incidental to 
the office, nor did it affect the sergeanty of the custody of the 
hounds appertaining to the Manor of Little Weldon ; for, so long 
as the writ of Privy Seal could be obtained, the stipend could 
not be withheld, provided the Sheriff could raise sufficient 
money to meet the claim. That this view of the case was 
ultimately adopted (when calmer councils prevailed, after 
the storm had subsided) is manifested by the fact that Sir 
Pexsall Brocas obtained his Privy Seal, and the Sheriff of 
Sussex paid him 50/. by right of his office in 1610. At this 
time Thomas Brown was still the huntsman, and Richard 
Ailiff and Robert Duck the yeomen berners of this branch of 
the pack. 

Robert Rayne continued to officiate as sergeant of the 



92 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

Hereditary branch of the pack ; but whether his control ex- 
tended to the whole or to only a portion of it is uncertain. He 
enjoyed the same privilege and power as Silvester Dodsworth 
and Sir Pexsall Brocas previously exercised, with free ingress 
and egress to hunt in any grounds, parks, forests, and chases 
belonging to the King or his subjects, in order to train hounds. 
And he obtained an annuity of 50/. a year for life, over and above 
his salary, emoluments, and allowances, as set forth in the 
accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber. This arrangement 
continued, without any material alteration, down to Lady-Day 
1613, when the whole, or some portion, of the Hereditary pack 
and a draft from the Privy or Household pack was formed 
into a separate kennel for Charles, Duke of York. Timothy 
Tyrrell, Esq., was appointed Master of it ; Robert Rayne still 
continued to act as the sergeant. The other hunt-servants and 
some particulars of this pack are given in our Memoir of Sir 
Timothy Tyrrell, therefore it is unnecessary to further allude 
to it here. It reappears again when it was incorporated in 
the Household branch on the accession of Charles I. in 1625. 

The annual stipend of 50^., which had been paid by the 
Sheriffs of Sussex to Sir Pexsall Brocas, without intermission, 
from 1594 to 1625, terminated with the end of the reign of 
James I. No further payment was made to this Hereditary 
Master of the Buckhounds until the 3rd year of Charles I.'s 
reign (1627-8), when he received the sum of 50L out of the 
issues of the county Sussex, which is the final payment to him 
recorded on the Pipe Rolls. At this date Edward Remington 
was the huntsman, and Thomas Chaddock and John Mancell 
or Morrell were the two yeomen prickers appertaining to this 
branch of the Royal Buckhounds. Thus, during the thirty-six 
years that Sir Pexsall Brocas held the Hereditary office of 
Master of the Buckhounds, we find the annual fees allocated 
towards the support of this branch of the royal pack were in 
abeyance for fourteen years — viz., from the 26th to the 36th 
Elizabeth, and the 1st and 2nd and the 4th and 5th of Charles I. 
It is impossible to satisfactorily account for the nonpayment 
of the money in the years above-mentioned. If the Master's 



THOMAS BROCAS, ESQ., THIRTEENTH MASTER. 93 

title was good in the 3rd year of Charles I. it must have 
been equally valid in the two preceding and the two sub- 
sequent years. It is an obstacle we cannot negotiate, and the 
only way to clear it is by assuming that the Master was refused 
the writ of Privy Seal to the Sheriffs of Surrey and Sussex, 
and without the production of that warrant they were not 
bound to pay up. This document could be withheld by the 
King, and the Lord Privy Seal for the time being could fall 
back on many excuses, and refuse to stamp it, which would 
render it invalid. It is also possible in the latter years that 
the sheriffs may not have had funds to spare for these pay- 
ments, as many new claims were then being made upon their 
resources by the Crown, and the impending civil war had 
already cast its shadow on the land, to the great detriment of 
the chase and all its concomitants. We shall have many sad 
proofs of this presently, and it only remains to mention here 
that Sir Pexsall Brocas died in the 5th year of the reign of 
Charles I. (1630), leaving an only son, Thomas Brocas, the last 
of his family who bore the Hereditary insignia of the Royal 
Buckhounds. 

Thomas Brocas, Esq., thirteenth Hereditary Master of the 
Royal Buckhounds, from 1630-1633, the son and heir of 
Sir Pexsall Brocas, of Horton and Beaurepaire, county Hants, 
succeeded to the diminished estates and hereditaments of his 
family on the death of his father in 1630. His career was very 
uneventful, and calls for little notice at our hands. The vast 
estates once held by his ancestors had been gradually diminish- 
ing, and when he assumed the horn of this branch of the royal 
pack his territorial possessions were sadly curtailed. He sold 
the Manor of Little Weldon in June 1633, and with it the 
so-called Hereditary Mastership of the Buckhounds, which was 
held by the Brocas family for 270 years, passed by purchase 
to the Watsons of Rockingham Castle. In the meantime, 
Mr. Brocas, following the lead of other courtiers of the period, 
endeavoured to improve the shining hour in adding to his 
income by means of the monopolies which were a considerable 
source of revenue to Charles I., and to the favoured few who 



94 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

participated in the spoil. Thus, on October 27, 1625, Thomas 
Brocas and Abraham Chamberlain obtained from the king a 
lease for twenty-one years of all mines of gold and silver in the 
county Kerry, Ireland, without rent to his Majesty for the 
two first years, and afterwards during the residue of the term 
rendering to the Crown only the tenth part of the clear gains 
of gold and silver derived therefrom ; and on February 6, 
1626, Thomas Brocas obtained another grant of all the mines- 
royal in the said county for a further term of twenty-one years. 
It seems certain that this Hereditary Master of the Buckhounds 
did not realise a colossal fortune out of those gold and silver 
mines, as after he inherited his estates he was chiefly occupied 
in selling the remnants of the property left to him by his 
improvident father. With the exception of the Manor of 
Little Weldon those transactions are irrelevant to our subject, 
consequently it only remains to record that, during the three 
years which Thomas Brocas held the Hereditary horn of the 
Royal pack, he received the fees appertaining to the office 
from the Sheriffs of Surrey and Sussex for one year only 
— viz., in the 7th of Charles I. (1633), when he obtained the 
sum of oOl. out of the issues of the county Sussex ; Edward 
Remington being at the time the huntsman, and Thomas 
Chaddock and George Chase the other hunt-servants under 
him. As above mentioned, with the sale of the Manor of 
Little Weldon to Sir Lewis Watson, the Mastership of this 
branch of the Royal Buckhounds went to the new owners of 
that property, by virtue of the terms of the patent of the 27th 
Henry VI. This Thomas Brocas, Esq., married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir R. Wingfield, by whom he had seven sons and 
two daughters. He died in 1663. 



95 



CHAPTER V. 

HOUSEHOLD BRANCH.— J AMES I. 
1603—1624. 

Annual Cost of the Pack during the Reign of James I. — The Master and the Hunt 
Servants. — Their Annual Salaries, Fees, and Emoluments. — Sir Thomas 
Tyringham, Eighth Master : July 21, 1604, to March 25, 1625. 

Queen Elizabeth died March 24, 1602-3,* when James VI., 
King of Scotland, became the reigning sovereign of England, 
Scotland and Ireland, under the style of King James I. On 
his accession to the dominions of England and Ireland, the 
Privy or Household branch of the Royal Buckhounds reverted 
to him, by whom it was probably esteemed as the greatest 
jewel in his diadem. 

Reverting, for a moment, to the state of this pack, as we 
find it constituted in the last complete account of the Treasurer 
of the Chamber, for the last whole year of Elizabeth's reign, 
ended at Michaelmas 1002, we ascertain that it cost the Royal 
Exchequer 164^. 6s. 7d. In this year, ended at Michaelmas 
1602, Francis Joye, the Sergeant, was in the receipt of 22^. 16s. 
a year for his wages, and 13^. 6s. 8cZ, per annum for his livery 
and other allowances — for lymes, chains, collars, etc. He also 

* It is necessary to bear in mind that the dates of the regnal years are cal- 
culated from the accession of James I. to the English crown. Previous to 
September 1752, the Civil or Legal Year in this country commenced on March 
25 (Lady-Day), whilst the Historical Year began on January 1. Consequently, 
according to the former computation, the reign of James I. commenced on 
March 24, 1602, and, according to the Historical computation, on March 24, 
1603 ; nevertheless the second day of his reign, according to both systems, was 
March 25, 1603. 



96 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

received 13^. 6s. 8d. a year "for hounds meat for the said 
hounds." Thomas Forest, groom, obtained 61. 13s. 4cZ. a year. 
He had no livery. Robert Ducke, yeoman pricker, at 6d. a 
day for his wages, and 6^. 3s. 10c?. per annum for his summer 
and winter liveries, was paid lol. Qs. 4!d. Richard Mercer and 
John Broughton, yeomen prickers, had 151. a year each for 
their wages, and 11. per annum each for their liveries. Four 
grooms in livery — viz., William Sale, alias Dilly, Richard 
Monday, Thomas Murralde, and Anthony Duck received 
61. 13s. 4<d. each, a year, for their wages, and 81. 3s. lOd. 
per annum, each, for their summer and winter liveries. All 
these several sums were payable quarterly, and, as before 
mentioned, amounted in the aggregate to 164^1. 6s. 7d. Thus 
we find that the Household branch of the Royal Buckhounds, 
during the last whole year of Queen Elizabeth's reign, ended 
at Michaelmas 1602, consisted of the Sergeant, three yeomen 
prickers, and five grooms. 

1602-3. The next account of the Treasurer of the Chamber, 
from Michaelmas 1602 to Michaelmas 1603, only embraced the 
last half-year, minus two days (from Michaelmas 1602 to Lady- 
Day 1602-3), down to the death of Queen Elizabeth; and the 
half-year of the first regnal year of James I. plus two days 
(from Lady-Day 1602-3 to Michaelmas 1603). In this account 
we therefore obtain the staff and the cost of the pack as it ran 
down to the death of Queen Elizabeth, and the changes which 
ensued from Lady -Day 1602-3 to Michaelmas 1603 — the latter 
half-year being in the first regnal year of King James I.'s 
reign. Consequently the last half-year of Elizabeth's reign and 
the first half-year of the reign of James I. (to September 29, 
1603) constituted together, in these accounts, one whole year, 
from September 29, 1602, to September 29, 1603. A brief 
analysis shows that all the old staff" under the late Queen were 
now in the same service under James I., and that their 
remuneration and allowances remained substantially, for the 
present, as heretofore. 

Apart from this standing arrangement an increase in the 
officials of the pack immediately ensued. First, Anthony 



THE MASTEK AND THE HUNT-SERVANTS. 97 

Duck, one of the grooms under good Queen Bess, who had 
predeceased his royal mistress, was replaced by Richard Rea, 
with wages at 61. 13s. 4fZ. a year, and 8^. 4s. lOd. per annum 
for his winter and summer livery. Five " newlie erected " 
yeomen prickers were added to the staff — viz., Francis Dods- 
worth, Robert Rayne, Edward Dodsworth, John Broughton, 
and William Cocker, at 20d. each a day for wages, and 20s. 
each per annum for liveries, by virtue of H.M. warrant, 
dated at Woodstock, September 17 in the first year of his 
reign.* Richard Kilbourne was appointed (an additional) groom 
with ISd. a day for his wages, payable quarterly, and 20s. per 
annum for his livery, payable at Christmas. And Thomas 
Atkinson, " one other of the yeomen prickers," was appointed 
at 20d. a day for his wages, by virtue of the King's warrant 
dated " at Winchester the last day of September, in the first 
year of H.M. reign." It therefore appears that during this 
first half-year of the reign of James I. (ended September 29, 
1603), this branch of the Privy or Household branch of the 
Royal Buckhounds was augmented by six yeomen prickers 
and one groom, each of whom was paid his several salary and 
allowance down to date. But we must not omit to mention 
that Robert Walker was appointed to keep and feed sixteen 
couples of Buckhounds, at the yearly allowance of 100 marks, 
from Midsummer 1603, during His Majesty's pleasure, and a 
further allowance " unto him for his own maintenance, and 
keeping one horse or gelding to serve with the said hounds," 
the sum of dl. 12s. monthly, by virtue of H.M. warrant under 
the signet dated at Winchester September SO, 1603. This 
charge does not appear, wholly or in part, in the Account of 
the Treasurer of the Chamber above mentioned ; nevertheless 
it comes out, as we shall presently see, in that for the year 
ended on September 29, 1604, when Mr. Walker was paid in 
full for one year and a quarter, amounting to 137^. 7s. 8d. 

* By a waiTant dormant to the Treasurer of the Chamber, subscribed by the 
Lord Treasurer and the Chancellor of the Exchequer, dated at Woodstock, 
Sejjt. 17, 1603, the additional names of Eobert Walker and Thomas Holland, 
yeomen prickers, are also mentioned. 

7 



98 THE HISTOKY OF THE KOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

In the next account we obtain the expenses of the pack for 
the first whole year in the reign of James I. — viz., from Sep- 
tember 29, 1603, to September 29, 1604. It amounts to 
642^. 16s. 5ld. The officials consisted of the Master, two 
sergeants, eleven yeomen prickers, six grooms, and one 
waggoner or keeper of the hound-van. The pack numbered 
sixteen couples of hounds, and a subsidiary draft of the Here- 
ditary branch under the control of Silvester Dodsworth and 
Sir Pexsall Brocas. The technicalities and the various wages 
and emoluments of these gentlemen may be ascertained by 
any reader of sufficient courage to follow the subjoined 
verbatim et literati'ni copy of this account : — 

Alsoe allowed foi- money payde to Thomas Tyrriugham esq'' M'' 
of his Ma*''^^ Buckhoundes at xxxiij^. vj**. yH]^. '^ ann. for his fee 
or wages due to him for one whole yere and Cxxj dayes begon the 
first day of June Anno Regni Regis Jacobi primo by vertue of his 
Ma*^ ires pattents vnder the greate Seale bearing date at Westm 
the firste day of June Anno primo — xluj''. ix. ij''. 

Alsoe allowed for money payde to ffrauncis Joye esq'' S'giaunt 
of his highnes Buckhounds at xxij^' xvj^. '^ ann. for his wages tfc 
xiiij^'. xj^. vij'^^ '^ ann. for his lyverie and the other allowaunces for 
loames, Cheanes, &c. all payable quarterlye due to him for one 
quarter of a yere ended at X'pnias anno Regni Regis Jacobi primo — 
ix''. vj^ x''. ob. qr. 

Also allowed for money payde to Thomas fforest groome of his 
Ma*'«^ saide Buckhoundes at vj''. xiij^. iiij'J. '^ ann. for his wages 
due to him for one whole yere ended at Michas Anno Regni Regis 
Jacobi scdo — vj". xiij^. iiij*^. 

Alsoe allowed for money payde to Wiitm Sale ais Dillie grome 
of his Ma*i«s sayde Buckhoundes at vj". xiij^. iiij'*. W ann. for his 
wages and viiij''. iiij^. x'^. W ann. for his wynter and somer lyveries 
all payable quarterlie due to him for halfe a yere ended at o"" Ladie 
daye anno p'd — vij". ix*. i''. 

Alsoe allowed for money payde to Robert Duck yeoman pricker 
of his Mamies sayde Buckhoundes at vj^l V diem for his wages and 
vj". iij^. x'\ "^ ann. for his wynter and somer lyveries all payable 
quarterlie due to him for the lyke tyme — xv". vj^. x'^l 

Alsoe allowed for money payde to Thomas ]\Iurrall groome of 



ANNUAL SALAKIES, FEES, AND EMOLUMENTS 99 

his Ma*^'^^^ sayde Buckhoundes at vj^'. xii'f. iiij''. for his wages and 
viij''. iiij^. x''. '^ ann. for his wynter and sorrier lyveries all payable 
quarterlye due to him for three quarters of a yere ended at mydsomer 
Anno Regni Eegis Jacobi scdo — -xj". iij®. vij''. ob. 

Also allowed for money payed to ffrauncis Dodsworth, Walter 
Rayne, Edward Dodsworth, John Broughton, Thomas Holland, 
William Cocker and Thomas Atkinson, yeoman prickers of his Ma*'*^-" 
pryvie Buckhoundes, everie of them at xx'^^. '^ diem for- theire wages 
payable quarterlye due to them for one whole yere ended at Michas- 
Anno, p'd — CCxiij^'. x^ 

Alsoe allowed for money payde to the said ffrauncis Dodsworth, 
Robt. Rayne, Edward Dodsworth, Johir Broughton, Thomas Holland 
and William Cocker, everie of them at xx^. '^ ann. the peece for 
their lyveries payable at Xpmas due to them w'^'^in the fore sayde 
yere — vj''. 

Alsoe allowed for money payde to Richard Kilborne grome of his 
jyj^ties piyvie Buckhoundes at xiij'^. '^ diem for his wages payable 
quarterlye and xx**. '^ ann. for his lyverie payable at Xpiiias all 
due to him for one whole yere ended at Mychas Anno Regni Regis- 
Jacobi scdo — xx". xvj^. vj^ 

Alsoe allowed for money payde to Robte Walker at C M'ke V ann. 
for the keepinge and feedinge of xvj couple of Buckhoundes for his 
Ma*'® payable quarterly and Ixxij®. everye month for his mayntenance 
and entertaynement and for keepinge a geldinge or horse all due 
to him for one whole yere and a quarter begon at the fieaste of 
St. John Baptiste Anno Regni Regis Jacobi primo and ended at 
Michas Anno Regiri Regis Jacobi scdo by virtue of his Ma*'^^ warraunt 
dormant vnder the Signett bearing date at Wilton the xj^^ daye of 
November Anno Regni Regis Jacobi primo w*'^in the tyme of this 
Accompte — Cxxxvij^'. vj^. viij'^. 

Alsoe allowed for money payde to Richard Brassie one of his Ma*^ 
yeoman prickers of the pryvie Buckhoundes at ij^. '^ diem for his 
wages payable quarterlie due to him for the like tyme by vertue 
of the foresayde warrante — xlv^'. xiiij^. vj<^. 

Alsoe allowed for money payde to George Howme Keeper of the 
waggon for his Ma*^'^* pryvie Buckhoundes in the Soiner season and 
for the Harriers in the wynter tyme at xx'*. '^ diem for his chardges 
and allowaunces payable quarterlie due to him for one whole yere 
ended at Michas Anno Regni Regis Jacobi scdo by vertue of his 



100 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

higlmes warrant dormant vnder tlie Signet bearing date at Westin 
the xx*^'^ daye of ffebruarie Anno Regni Eegis Jacobi primo — 
xxx". X®. 

Alsoe allowed for money payde to Silvester Dodsworth S''giant of 
his Ma*'^ Buckhoundes appertayninge to thofiice of S"" Pexell Brokas 
at xxiji'. xvj®. '^ ann. for his wages and xiiij". xj^. vij*^. '^ ann. for 
his wynter and somer lyveries and for other allowaunces or other 
executinge the same before him had all payable quarterlie due to 
him for three quarters of a yere begon at Xpmas Anno Regni Regis 
Jacobi primo and ended at Michas then next foUowinge by \drtue 
of his Ma*''^ tres patents bearing the date at Harfeld the xxyj*-*^ daye 
of August Anno pred. — xxviij". viij^ !^. 

Alsoe allowed for money payde to Willin Sale als Dillie one of 
the yeoman prickers of his Ma*'^^ privie Buckhoundes at xx*^ '^ diem 
for his wages payable quarterlie and xx^. '^ ann. for his liverie 
payable at X'pmas due to him for his sayde wages for halfe a yere 
begon at o"" Ladie Day Anno Regni Regis Jacobi scdo and ended at 
Michas followinge by virtue of his Ma*'*^^ warrant dormant vnder 
the Signet bearinge date at Greenewich the last day of June Anno 
p'd — xv^'. iii]^. ij''. 

Alsoe allowed for money payde to Thomas Murrall one of the 
yeoman prickers of his Ma*^*^^ pryvie Buckhoundes at xx"^ "^ diem 
for his wages payable quarterhe and xx®. '^ ann. for his lyverie 
payable at X'pmas due to him for his sayde wages for one quarter 
of a yere begon at Midsomer Anno Regni Regis Jacobi scdo and 
ended at Michas Anno p'd by vertue of his Ma**'^'' warrant dormant 
vnder the Signet bearing date at Hamptoncourte the xx*'' day of 
September Anno p'd — vij". xij^, j*^. 

Alsoe allowed for money payde to Edward Willyams and Thomas 
Wyer gromes of his Ma*'"^ pryvie Buckhoundes everie of them at 
xiii"^. "^ diem the peece for theire wages payable quarterlie and 
xx^. '^ ann. for theire lyveries payable at Xpmas due to them for 
theire wages for one quarter of a yere begon at Midsomer Anno 
Regis Jacobi Regis Jacobi scdo and ended at Michas followinge by 
virtue of his Ma*'^^ fore sayde warrant dormant vnder the Signet 
bearinge date at Hamptoncourte the xx"^ daye of September Anno 
p'd — xiiij". xvj®. vj''. ob. cp-. 

Alsoe allowed for money payde to Richard Mondaye and Richard 
Rea, groomes of his Ma"*'^ sayde Buckhoundes eyther of them at 



ANNUAL SALARIES, FEES, AND EMOLUMENTS. 101 

vj". xiij". iiij''. 'W ann. for tlieire wages and viij". iiij^ x'^. "W ann. 
the peece for theire wynter and somer lyveries payable quarterlie 
due to them for one whole yere ended at Michas Anno Eegni Regis 
Jacobi scdo — xxix". xvj'* iiij'*. 
Sum total — vj'^xlij". xvj^ v'^ JJ. 

1604-5. In the Account for the following year, amounting 
to 895^. 15s. lO^d., we find the Master now styled Sir Thomas 
Tyrringham, Knight, in the receipt of SSL Qs. 8d. " for his 
fee or wages paiable q^rterlye and due to him for one whole 
yeare ended at Mchas anno tercio Jacobi regis." No material 
change is noticeable in the personnel of the officials of the hunt, 
each of whom was paid as on the establishment recited in 
the preceding account. It appears, however, that Richard 
Little had succeeded " in the roome and place " of George 
Howme as Keeper of the hound- van with the same salary and 
emoluments as enjoyed by his predecessor in that capacity. 
We also find that Francis Joy, the Sergeant, with his fee or 
wages set down in full at 51^. .3s. Sd., and due to him for one 
whole year and three-quarters, " begon at X'pmas anno primo 
regni regis Jacobi and ended at Michas anno regni dci dfii 
regis tercio by vertue of his Ma"'^^ ires pattents bearing date 
at Westminster the xix"^ daye of October anno regni enise. 
D'm. regis sc'do," and now amounting to the sum of four score 
nine pounds, ten shillings and eight pence. The yeomen 
prickers received in addition twelve pence each a day " by 
way of his highnes rewarde over and above their wages, from 
the feaste of St. John Baptiste anno tercio vntill Mychas nexte 
folio winge." Four grooms and Richard Little, the waggoner, 
likewise received six pence a-day each for the same time " in 
legarde of their painfull servyce and attendaunce on his 
highnes the somer laste paste anno tercio by vertue of his 
Ma*^'®"^ warraunte vnder the Signett bearinge date at Hampton- 
court the laste daye of September anno regni Jacobi regis tercio, 
am'^ountinge to the some of 65^. 9s. (5d. Sir Pexsall Brocas 
received 30/. (at the rate of 13/. 6s. Sd. per annum) " for the 
feedinge of certen of his Ma*^"^** Buckhoundes in his chardge and 
keepinge, dewe to him for two whole yeares and a q'^rter 



102 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

begone at Midsoraer anno regni regis Jacobi primo and ended 
at Mychas anno regis tercio, by vertue of his highnes war- 
raunte vnder the Signett bearing date at Greenw''''' the xxij*^*^ 
day of June pred. anno tercio." It seems some addition was 
made to the yeomen prickers enumerated in the first and 
in this account, as we now find the names of Thomas 
Dodsworth, Richard Vincent, Anthony Dodsworth, Francis 
Beckham, Thomas Pickney, Augustine Grigg, and George 
Harwell, in the receipt of sixpence per day, each, for their 
wages and 6Z. 3s. 10c?. for their several liveries, all payable 
quarterly and due to them for a year ended at Michaelmas, 
1605, b}^ vertue of H,M. warrant under the signet, dated at 
Westminster 8th October, 1605. Likewise, with regard to 
the grooms : Anthony Dodsworth, Jerome Medcalf and Robert 
Goulding were now on the establishment of the pack in that 
capacity, each of whom received 61. 13s. 4(i. per annum, for 
wages, and 81. 4s. lOd. for their several liveries, " by vei'tue of 
the said warrant." 

1605-6. The expences of this branch of the Royal Buck- 
hounds during the fourth year of James I., from Sept. 29, 
1605, to Sept. 29, 1606, as recorded in the Accounts of the 
Treasurer of the Chamber of the Household, is set down at 
9251. 7s. od. We find the Master and the hunt servants in 
the receipt of their several salaries and emoluments as pre- 
viously enjoyed by them. A new entry occurs " for money 
payde to Thomas Tyllesley, gent, of his Ma"®"^ pryvie Buck- 
houndes vnder the Chardge of S'' Thomas Tirringham, Knights 
at ij^ '¥*' diem for his enterteynement and chardges payable 
q'^rterly due to him for one q^rter of a yeare ended at Michas 
anno Regni Regis Jacobi quarto by vertue of his Ma^ warr^unte 
vnder the Signet bearinge date at Greenew'''' the xiiij'^'^ day 
of Julie Anno quarto," 91. 2s. 6d. Silvester Dodsworth, 
*' S''giaunte of his Ma*" Buckhoundes apperteyning to S'' Pexsall 
Brockas " at 22^. 16s. per annum for his wages and 14?. lis. 7d. 
per annum for his living due to him for one whole year 
ended at Michaelmas, 1606, received 37?. 7s. 7d. Sir Pexsall 
Erocas was likewise paid 13?. 7s. 8d. " for the feeding of his 



ANNUAL SALAKIES, FEES, AND EMOLUMENTS. 103 

]Ma*^' Buckhoundes in his Chardge and Keeping," within the 
period of this account. 

1606-7. During the period comprised in this account, 
this branch of the Royal Buckhounds entailed an expen- 
diture, from September 29, 1606, to the same date 1607, of 
948L OS. dhd. But as many of these payments to the officials 
of the pack were for the half-year ended at Lady Day 1607 ; 
others for three-quarters, and some for a quarter only, the total 
amount paid must be considered as incomplete and falling 
short of what the actual cost would have been if the incidental 
liabilities had been paid in full down to date. And, moreover, 
other changes had taken place in the remuneration of and in 
the staif of the pack. Thus we notice that Robert Walker (the 
successor of Francis Joy) was paid for the feeding and keeping 
of sixteen couples of Buckhounds at the rate of 66^. 13s. 4<d. 
(i.e. 100 marks) yearly, and ol. 12s. a month for himself and 
the keep of a horse or gelding down to Midsummer 1607 
"And thenceforth for his fee or wages at 51^. 3s. 3d '^ annum 
in the room and place of Francis Joy deceased, and 100^. "¥" 
annum for the keeping and feeding of sixteen couples of 
Buckhounds, due to him for a quarter of a year ended at 
Michaelmas, 1607, by H.M. warrant under the signet dated 
at Westminster the 17th day of January in the 7th year of 
his highness reign." Richard Brassy, one of the yeomen 
prickers, likewise received his salary at the rate of 2s. a 
a day for three-quarters of a year ended at Midsummer 1607; 
and thenceforth in the place of Robert Walker at 72s. per 
month ''for his maintenance and the keeping of a gelding, 
and 20s. for his livery, payable at Christmas, and due to him 
for one quarter of a year ended at Michaelmas, 1607, by H. M. 
warrant under the signet, dated at Hampton Court, Sept. 6, 
1607." William Sale, yoeman pricker, was promoted to the 
office relinquished by Brass}^, and obtained an increase in his 
salary from 20d. to 2s. a day and 20s. for his livery, payable 
at Christmas. Richard Kylbourne, one of the grooms, waa 
promoted to the place vacated by Sale, with an increase in his 
wages from Is. a day to Is. 8(^. a day. William Kellsy stepped 



104 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

into the place Kylbourne filled heretofore, and a few immaterial 
changes which are unnecessary to follow in detail occurred 
among the subordinate servants of the pack. We must not 
omit to notice that Sylvester Dodsworth was still in evidence 
in connection with the hounds appertaining to Sir Pexsall 
Brocas, and received his salary and livery for the whole year 
ended at Michaelmas 1607, amounting to 37^. 7s. Id. ; and 
that Sir Pexsall, " for keeping and feeding the Buckhounds in 
his charge and custody," received, for one whole year ended 
Michaelmas 1607, 13^. Qs. 8d. 

1607-8. The accounts for this year show an expenditure of 
1045^. 5s. o'id. As it is a fairly full and clear audit from 
Michaelmas 1607 to Michaelmas 1608, a brief recapitulation 
may be admissible here. First, in his pride of place, comes the 
Master, Sir Thomas Tyringham, for his not extravagant annual 
salary of 33^. 6s. 8(1, Robert Walker, the Sergeant, at 51^. 3s. 3d., 
and 100^. per annum for feeding and keeping 16 couples of 
hounds. Nine yeomen prickers, at Is. 8d. a day for their wages 
each, and 11. a year for their several liveries, payable at Christ- 
mas yearly : viz., F. Dodsworth, E. Dodsworth, J. Broughton, 
T. Holland, W. Cocker, T. Atkinson, T. Murall, R. Kilbourne, 
J. Owen. This is minus one yeoman pricker — viz., Robert 
Rayne, who was now made Sergeant of the Hereditary 
branch of the Royal pack. William Lampard was appointed 
a yeoman pricker vice Rayne promoted. Another yeoman 
pricker, Richard Brassy, for his maintenance and the keep of 
a horse, received 3^. 2s. a month, and 11. a year for his livery. 
The "gentleman" of the pack, Thomas Tillesley, Esq., under 
the Master, received 2s. a day for his entertainment, and for 
" chardges due to him for the aforesaid tyme," amounting 
altogether to 36/. 12s. Another yeoman pricker, William Sale, 
received 2s. a day wages and 1/. for his livery. Four groomes 
obtained Is. a day each for wages, and 11. each a 3' ear for 
liveries. Richard Little, waggoner for the Buckhounds in the 
summer season and for the Harriers in the winter time, was 
paid at the rate of 20d. a day. Silvester Dodsworth, Sergeant 
of H.M. Buckhounds appertaining to Sir Pexsall Brocas at 



ANNUAL SALAEIES, FEES, AND EMOLUMENTS. 105 

221. IGs. per annum for his wages and 14/. lis. 7d. per annum 
for his livery, received, in both, for this year ended at Michael- 
mas 1608, 271. 7s. 7d. Thomas Forest, groom, 6/. per annum 
sans livery. Five other grooms were rated at 61. 13s. 4<d. each 
for wages and 8/. 4s. lOd. per annum each for liveries. Seven 
other yeomen piickers, viz., R. Duke, E-. Vincent, A. Dods- 
worth, F. Beecham, T. Pinckney, A. Gregges, and G. Harwell, 
at Qd. each per day for their wages, and Ql. 3s. lOd. each per 
annum for their liveries, received within the peiiod of this 
account 107/. 7s. lOd. Thomas Dodsworth, yeoman pricker, 
was paid at the same rate for three-quarters of a year, ended 
at the Feast of St. John the Baptist 1608, "at which time 
he departed this life " ; on and after that festival he was 
succeeded by Richard Dodsworth in the same capacity. Sir 
Pexsall Brocas, " at 20 marks per annum for the feeding and 
keeping of certain of H.M. Buckhounds in his charge and 
custody, payable quarterly, due to him for one quarter of a 
year ended at Christmas 1607," received 3/. 6s. 8d, and George 
Howme, the waggoner, received, down to date, 61. 13s. ■id. for 
his wages and 8/. 4s. 10(/. for his livery. 

1608-9. The cost of the pack for this year, as recorded in 
this account, amounted to 1136/. 17s. 7hd. The hunt servants 
appear in their several capacities and emoluments as we find 
them in the preceding year. One important change must be 
noted, with regard to Sir Pexsall Brocas' connection with this 
pack, as exhibited in the preceding accounts. In the last one 
we find him paid down to Christmas 1607. Now we find, by 
the two following entries, that the afiinity hitherto subsisting 
between the Hereditary Master and a certain draft connected 
with the Privy or Household branch of the pack is brought to 
an end : — 

To Roberta Rayne Sergeaunte of his Ma*^ buckhowndes apper- 
teyninge to S"" Pexall Brocas Knight, in the place of Silvester 
Doddesworthe at xxij^'. xvj^ '^ ann. for his wages and xiiij". xj^ vij'*. 
V ann. for his winter and somer Hveries all paiable q'"terKe and due 
to him for one whole yeare ended at Michas 1609, anno septimo 
Jacobi regis by vertue of a warraunte vnder the Signett dated 



106 THE HISTOKT OF THE EOTAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

the xxix*'^ of Auguste 1608 anno sexto Jacobi regis pred., xxxvij''. 
vij^. vij'^. 

To Roberte Eayne aforesaid Sergeaunte of his Ma'"* saide Buck- 
houndes at twenty markes '¥' ann. for the feedinge and keepinge of 
the saide Buckhoundes, as S''. Pexall Brokas latelie hadd, payable 
q"rterly and due to him for one whole yeare and a halfe ended at 
Michas 1609 anno septimo Jacobi regis, by vertue of his highnes 
warraunte vnder the Signett dated the xx"^ of January in the sixth 
yeare of his Ma''* raigne . . . xx''. 

As the various phases bearing upon this incident are 
recapitulated in our memoir of Sir Pexsall Brocas, it is 
unnecessary further to refer to it here, It seems the salary 
of the " lymmerman " on the staff of this branch of the pack 
(yclept Richard Crockford) had been in arrears for " twoe 
whole yeares " : 20d. per day for wages and 20s, a year for 
livery, he was now paid in full 621. 16s. 8d. down 
to Michaelmas 1G09 ; and William Lampard was appointed 
a yeoman pricker vice Robert Rayne, promoted under the 
circumstances above mentioned.* 

1609-10. In the account now under review we find the 
Privy or Household branch of the Royal Buckhounds classified 
under two separate heads : viz., "The Huntes for his Ma*^ Privy 
Buckhounds," and " The Huntes for His Ma*^". Old Buckhounds." 
The cost of the first-mentioned portion, from Michaelmas 1609 
to Michaelmas 1610, is set down at 760/. 15s. 7d. ; the 
latter at 309/. 7s. 3c/. ; consequently the new subdivisions of 
this pack amounted altogether to 1070/. 2s. lOc/, A brief 
analysis of this account shows that, under the first division, 
the following held ofiice : viz., the Master, Sir Thomas Tyr- 
ringham ; the Sergeant, Robert Walker, salary 51/. 3s. Sd,. a 
year, and 100/. a year for keeping and feeding sixteen cuuple 
of buckhounds ; Richard Brassy, yeoman pricker, salary 

* By virtue of a warrant tinder the signet dated at Westminster, January 12, 
1608-9, Kobert Rayne, " Sergeant of the Buckhounds whereof Sir Pexsall Brocas, 
Knight, is master," obtained a grant of 407. a year during his life, "'as Silvester 
Dodsworth lately had." As we will presently see, this sum of 407. a year 
previously had been paid out of the King's privy purse. 



ANNUAL SALAEIES, FEES, AND EMOLUMENTS. 107 

21. 2s. per month, including his maintenance and the keep 
of a horse ; ten yeomen prickers, 20d. a day each for wages 
and 20s. a year each for their liveries ; Thomas Tillesley, the 
" gentleman " (huntsman ?), salary 2s. a day, including his 
entertainment and charges ; William Sawle, another yeoman 
pricker, a.t 2s. a dsiy for his wages and 11. per annum for his 
livery ; four groomes at 20cL a day each for wages and 20s. per 
annum for their several liveries ; John Hawke, waggoner for the 
privy Buckhounds in the summer season and for the Harriers 
in the winter time, 20d. a day for his wages and nothing per 
annum for his livery. Richard Crockford, lymmerman, re- 
ceived 20(1. a day for his wages and 20s. per annum for his 
livery. It thus appears that the Privy or Household branch 
of the Royal Buckhounds, per se, under the new arrangement, 
consisted of the Master, the Sergeant, one yeoman pricker keep- 
ing his own horse, eleven yeomen prickers, the " gentleman " 
huntsman, four groomes, a waggoner, and a lymmerman. 

Now, as to the " Huntes for his Ma"*^^ old Buckhounds " 
— evidently a draft if not actually the whole of the Here- 
ditary branch of the pack — we find the Sergeant of this 
division of the pack, Robert Rayne, in the receipt of 22^. 16s. 
a year for his wages, and 14^. lis. 7cl. for a winter and 
summer livery, as also 13^. Qs. 8d. "for feeding the said 
Buckhounds," and 40Z. per annum "formerly paid by the 
Keeper of the Privy Purse," all of which sums were pay- 
able quarterly and due to him for one whole year ended at 
Michaelmas 1610, amounting to 90^. 14s. Sd. Eight yeomen 
prickers received 6d. each a day for their wages at 61. oS. lOd. 
per annum each, for their winter and summer liveries. Six 
grooms received 61. 13s. 4(i. each per annum for their wages 
and 81. 4s. lOcZ. each for their liveries. The waggoner, George 
Howme, had 61. 13s. 4d for his wages, and 81. 4s. lOcZ. for 
his livery, per annum. It therefore appears that the "old" 
division of this pack now consisted of a sergeant, eight 
yeomen prickers, six groomes and a waggoner. According 
to evidence, apart from and not alluded to in this series, 
Timothy Tyrell, Esq., was the acting master of this appendage 



108 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

of the pack, which finally disappeared from the purview of 
these accounts after Christmas 1610, As we shall presently 
see, it was, soon after, given over to Charles, Duke of York 
(Prince of Wales). 

1610-11. The account for the year from Michaelmas 
1610 to Michaelmas 1611 is carried on with the distinction 
observed in the preceding one, so far as regards the division of 
this branch of the pack under the classification of the " Privy " 
and the " Old " rearrangement. The first part relating to 
the " Privy " division is calculated in full for the whole year 
ended at Michaelmas 1611. It amounts to 640^. 15s. 7d. 
The cost of the " old " portion is only made up for one 
quai'ter ended at Christmas 1610; therefore it does not tally 
with the full period comprehended in the other part of 
this now divided pack. The latter, for one quarter of the 
year ended at Christmas 1610, only totals the small sum of 
771. 6s. d^d. As this precludes any full analysis, it is un- 
necessary to dwell upon the financial affairs of the two sections 
collectivel}^ within the periods under review. It may be 
observed, however, that no material change had taken place 
in the officials of the " Privy " section, except that William 
Smith had succeeded William Lampbard as one of the jeomen 
prickers. And as the " Old " division does not reappear in 
those accounts after the quarter of the year ended at Christmas 
1610, we may conclude some new arrangement was provided 
for sustenance of that portion of the pack. The nature of this 
arrangement did not transpire until July 10, 1618, when we 
find, by a warrant under the signet, that the Treasurer of the 
Chamber was ordered to pay to certain yeomen and grooms of 
his Majesty's Old Buckhounds, " being dismissed from their 
attendance," the following pensions, to be paid unto them 
quarterly from Christmas 1612, during their lives — viz., to 
Richard Vincent, Thomas Pickney, and Henry Sams, yeomen, 
to each of them 19/. 2s. 4td. ; to Richard Monday, groom, 
14/. 18s. '2d. ; and to Thomas Forrest, groom, Ql. 13s. 4c?. per 
annum. 

It further appears, by virtue of a similar warrant, " sub- 



THE DUKE OF YORk's BUCKHOUNDS. 109 

scribed and procured by Sir Thomas Lake," dated at Green- 
wich June 10, 1613, and addressed to the Treasurer of the 
Chamber, that that official was ordered to pay Timothy Tyrell, 
" Master of his Ma'^ Old Buckhounds," the sum of 20^. 
per annum ; Robert Rayne, sergeant of the same hounds, 
19/. 14s. Sd. ; Anthony Dodsworth, yeoman, 40/. 6s. ; Augustine 
Griggs, Nathan Jackson, and Anthony Brakenbury, yeomen, 
each 26/. 13s. 4(:?. ; to Edward Staunton, yeoman, 36/. 16s. 8d. ; 
to William Reading, yeoman, 26/. 13s. 4<d. ; to William Raw- 
son, waggoner, 26/. 5s. 2d. ; to Jerome Metcalf, Anthony 
Dodsworth, William Gwilliams, and Francis Beachamp,groomes 
each 20/. per annum. Most of these former servants of the 
" Old " wing of the King's Privy or Household pack were 
reinstated when that division was revived as a separate pack 
on the establishment of Charles, Duke of York (Prince of 
Wales). 

1611-12. The account for this year, ended at Michaelmas 

1612, solely relates to the Privy or Household branch of the 
pack, under the entire sway of Sir Thomas Tyringham, the 
Master thereof, the cost of which amounted to 762/. 3s. 6d. 
The sergeant, Thomas Walker, is in receipt of the same salary 
and emoluments as heretofore ; Brassy, the yeoman pricker, 
and the keep of his horse ; the ten yeomen prickers, received 
the same wages and emoluments as they previously enjoyed ; 
Swale, another yeoman pricker, still obtained 4<d. a day more 
than the others ; four groomes as before ; and Thomas Lee 
in the place of William Kelsey, deceased, Crockford the 
lymmerman and Hawke the waggoner are still to the fore with 
the fees and liveries as previously enjoyed by them. As 
previously observed, the whole staff of the " Old " portion of 
this pack have entirely vanished from the purview of this 
account. 

1612-13. The account for the year ended at Michaelmas 

1613, amounts to 760/. 15s. 7d. There is no change in the 
officials or in their several fees and emoluments as we have 
found them set forth in the two previous accounts. 

In place of the " Old " branch of this pack, which was dis- 



110 THE HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

continued on and after Christmas 1610, we now find a new 
and separate pack instituted for "the Prince" — Charles, Duke 
of York. But, strictly speaking, it had no connection with 
the King's privy or Household branch of the Royal Buck- 
hounds j)er se, except that all the hunt servants formerly 
attached to it (save those who were pensioned), were re- 
employed in the separate service of the Prince. It does not, 
therefore, come within the province of this history here to go 
into its afiairs. Some particulars relating to it will be found 
in our memoir of Sir Tymothy Tyrell (p. 130). So, wishing it 
every prosperity and success, we respectfully bow-wow it out. 

1613-14. The account for the year ended at Michaelmas, 
1614, amounts to 758/. 15s. 7d. Thomas Tissley (the "gentle- 
man " to the pack, as heretofore, paid at the rate of 2s. a day) 
is now degraded or promoted to the ofiice of yeoman pricker, 
and in receipt of 3s. 8d. a day for his wages, by virtue of his 
Majesty's letters patents, dated at Westminster January 3, 
1613-14. Richard Hunt was likewise appointed one of the 
yeomen prickers at 3s. 4cZ. a day by virtue of the same patent. 

1614-15. The account for year ended at Michaelmas 1615 
amounts to 758/. 10s. 9d. All the hunt officials are still to 
the fore and in the receipt of their several salaries and emolu- 
ments save Thomas Wyer, one of the grooms, who died on 
January 14, 1615, when he was succeeded by George Fowler, 
with the wages of 20d. per day and 20s. for his livery payable 
at Christmas. 

1615-16. The account for this year amounts to 769/. 6s. 5d. 
One of the yeomen prickers, Thomas Murrall, died about 
Christmas 1615. He was succeeded by William Connock, 
with remuneration at 20d. a day and 20s. a year for his livery 
" by virtue of H.M. warrant under the Signet, dated at 
Newmarket the 28th day of February," 1615-16 ; and Edward 
Walworth, one of the grooms, who died some time before 
Lady Day 1616, when he was succeeded by Thomas Stevens, 
" at 20d. a day for his wages and 20s. per annum for his livery, 
during his natural life, the first payment thereof to begin at 
the Feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 



ANNUAL SALARIES, FEES, AND EMOLUMENTS. Ill 

1616." Anthony Holland was appointed yeoman pricker on 
July 14, 1616. 

1616-17. The account for the year ended at Michaelmas 
1617 amounts to 668/. 19s. od. Except the Master, Sir 
Thomas Tyringham, who is missing, there is no material 
matter to notice in this as compared with the officials, etc., 
mentioned in the preceding accounts. It appears, John, Lord 
Stanhope, surrendered his office of Treasurer of the Chamber 
to Sir William Uvedale on October 6, 1617. It seems this 
change of office occasioned some temporary omissions in the 
payment to certain officials who derived their salaries and 
emoluments through this department. In order to adjust the 
account and reimburse those who were accidentally or other- 
wise omitted, a supplementary account was made out by Sir 
W. Uvedale, in which such arrears were duly set forth, and those 
persons were eventually paid. Among those we find Sir 
Thomas Tyringham received 33/. Qs. 8cL " for his wages due 
to him for one whole year ended at Michaelmas 1617." In 
like manner Richard Brassy, for his wages and the keep of 
a horse, was paid lOZ. 16s. for a quarter of a year ended at 
Michaelmas 1617. Three yeomen prickers were paid for the 
half-year ; and Anthony Holland, another yeoman pricker, 
received at 2s. a day, for his wages, and 20s. per annum for 
his livery, due to him for one whole year ended at Michaelmas 
1617. 

1717-18. The account for this year amounts to 796/. 4s. 8d. 
Sir Thomas Tyringham, the Master, reappears in the full 
enjoyment of his salary as heretofore — viz., 100 marks or 
33/. 6s. 8r/. per annum, under whom all the subordinate 
officials appear in the receipt of their respective salaries and 
emoluments as previously mentioned. 

1618-19. The account for this year amounts to 796/. ^s. 7cL 
John Cocker succeeded William Smith, yeoman pricker, on 
September 15, 1619. That was the only change in the 
personnel of the pack during this year. 

1619-20. The account for this year amounts to 797/. 16s. 
John Holland, one of the yeomen prickers, deceased, was sue- 



112 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

ceeded by Robert Hancock, on November 2, 1620. The rest of 
the staff as heretofore. 

1620-21. The account for this year amounts to 814<l. 10s. 8d. 
It was on the usual line. Robert Patterson was now appointed 
yeoman harbinger with the wages of 12d. per day, payable 
quarterly, " by H.M. warrant under the Signet, dated the 
17th day of November, 1620." That is the only change in 
this and the preceding audit. 

1621-22. The account for this year amounts to precisely the 
same total as the foregoing one. On February 26, 1621-22, 
Roger Williams (ex-groom) succeeded William Connock as 
yeoman pricker, with 20d. a day for his wages and 20s. per 
annum for his livery. John Williams succeeded to the 
vacancy vice Connock promoted, while Connock stepped into 
the shoes of Thomas Tilsely, " yeoman pricker, at 3s. 8r/. per 
day " (sans livery), " by virtue of H.M. letters under the 
Signet, dated Feb. 6, 1621-22." Another of the grooms, 
Thomas Stevens, went out at Christmas 1621. His office was 
filled by Ralph Read, with an allowance of 20c/. a day for his 
wages and 20s. per annum for his livery, " by virtue of H.M. 
letters under the Signet dated at Westminster, 4th Feb., 
1621-22." 

1622-23. The account for this year amounts to 815/. 5s. 7^d. 
There is no change to record, save that by the death of 
Richard Brassy, Robert Hancock was appointed in his place, 
" by letters patents under the great seal of England, dated the 
29th day of September anno xxj, as well for his wages at 
ij"- XJ'^- *^lr ^^- ^^^- ^ diem payable quarterlie, and xx^ 1^ ann. 
for his liverie at Christmas, as also the wages of 20d. per diem 
in somer season as yeoman pricker &l 20s. '¥' ann. for his 
liverie payable at Christmas, due to him for one quarter ended 
at Michas 1623 " ; or in other words, 46/. 6s. 4|f/. a year for 
his wages, plus allowances for his liveries. 

1623-24. The account for this year amounts to 818/. 4s. 4ff/. 
Thomas Lee succeeded John Owen, yeoman pricker, deceased, 
" by virtue of H.M. letters under the Signet, dated Westminster, 
November 28, 1623," with wages at 20d. a day and 20s. per 



ANNUAL SALARIES, FEES, AND EMOLUMENTS. 113 

annum for his livery ; and William Hopkins was made groom 
to the pack vice Lee promoted. 

1623-24. The account for this year is the last one (for a 
whole year calculated from Michaelmas 1623 to Michaelmas 
1624) of the reign of James I. It amounts to exactly the 
same sum (818^. 4<s. 4ff/.) as in the preceding year. There is 
absolutely no change in the officials of the pack, nor in their 
respective salaries and emoluments, as we find it on the 
establishment down to date. On the accession of Charles I., 
in the following year, many changes necessarily ensued. As 
these changes are investigated in detail in Chapter VI., it is 
only necessary here to make a brief recapitulation of the Privy 
or Household branch of the Royal Buckhounds as we find it 
down to Michaelmas 1624. The Master, Sir Thomas Tyring- 
ham, wages 33/. 6s. 8d. per annum ; the Sergeant, Robert 
Walker, fee oil. Ss. 4<d. per annum, and 100/. a year for feeding 
and keeping 16 couples of hounds; Robert Hancock, head 
yeoman pricker (probably the huntsman), at 2s. 6^d. a day 
and no livery ; eight yeomen prickers at 20r/, each a day for 
wages and 20^. per annum each for liveries — viz., E. Dodsworth, 

F. Dodsworth, J. Cocker, W. Cocker, R. Crockford, Rt. Hancock, 
Roger Williams, and William Lee ; two yeomen prickers — 
Wm. Sale and Anthony Holland — at 2.s', a day each wages and 
20s. each for liveries ; one yeoman pricker, Wm. Connock, 
3s. 8d. a day for wages and no livery; one yeoman pricker, 
Wm. Hunte, at 3s. 4<d. a day wages and no livery; one wag- 
goner, John Hake, wages 20cZ. a day and no livery ; one yeoman 
harbinger, Robert Pattison, wages 12d. a day and no livery. 

Apart from these payments charged on the establishment of this 
branch of the pack, the Treasurer of the Chamber of the House- 
hold distributed an additional sum of 101/. 17s. to F. Dods- 
worth, E. Dodsworth, T. Lee, H. Dodsworth, W. Sale, W. Cocker, 
J. Cocker, J. Hake, Roger Williams, A. Holland, R. Pattison, R. 
Crockford, and R. Walker, "yeomen of H.M. Buckhounds, each 
of them at 12*:/. per diem " ; to Richard Hunter, Wm. Connock, 
and Robert Hancock, " each of them at 2s. per diem " ; and to 

G. Fowler, Ralph Read, William Hopkins, and John Williams, 



114 THE HISTOKY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

grooms, " each of them at 6d. per diem," as H.M. " free gift ' 
from the feast of St. John the Baptist, 1624, to Michaehnas 
following, " by virtue of H.M. Letters under the signet " dated 
September 28, 1624. These supplementary royal gifts to the 
hunt servants were apparently begun by James I. in the year 
1605, and were continued annually to the time of his death.* 
In some instances these free gifts to the hunt servants "for 
their pains and|travel " were granted to them for the natural 
term of their lives.f 

Sir Thomas Tyringham, eighth Master of the Household 
branch of the Royal Buckhounds, eldest son of Sir Anthony 
Tyringham, by his wife Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Sir Thomas 
Throckmorton, Master of the Hawks to Queen Elizabeth, was 
born on September 28, 1580, at Tyringham, county Bucks, 
which manor was held by his family from the time of Henry II. 
The earliest mention that we can find of him occurs in the sub- 
joined patent of his appointment of Master of the Buckhounds 
to James I., dated at Westminster, June 21, 16034 In this 
interesting document he is described as Thomas Tyringham 
Esquire, " one of the gentlemen pensioners." However, he was 
knighted at Syon, with four other gentlemen, during this 

* To H.M. Huntsmen of the Privy Buckhounds, by vertue of H.M. warrant 
under the signet bearing date at Hampton Court, October 6, 1610 — viz., to R. 
Brassy, F. Dodsworth, E. Dodsworth, W. Sale, J. Broughton, T. Holland, W. 
Cocker, T. MuiTall, R. Kilbourne, J. Owen, W. Lampard, T. Atkinson, and 
T, Tyllesley, yeomen, and to R. Crockford, lymmerman, at lOd. each per day, 
and to E. Walworth, and to R. Williams, G. Fowler, and W. Kelsey and J. 
Hawke, waggoner, each at 2d. per day, by way of H.M. free gift and reward in 
regard of their attendance on His Highness this summer — viz., from Midsummer 
Day, 1(310, until Michaelmas following, being 97 days — 801. Os. 6d. 

f In some instances the hunt servants obtained farther payments under this 
head. Thus, Robert Hancock, yeoman pricker, received a warrant under the 
signet dated November, 1620. authorising the Treasurer of the Chamber to pay 
him for his allowance for attending the said hounds in the summer season the 
fee of 20d. per diem dm-ing his natural life, and 20.s\ for his winter livery 
yearly. Robert Pattison, yeoman harbinger, was sunilarly favoured with a 
fee of i2d. '• of lawful money of England," by the day, for like services. 

J By a Privy Seal warrant dated Westminster, June 1, 1603, he was nominated 
to hold this office during his life " as Sir Robert Dudley had the same by 
Letters Patents of King Edward the Sixth." 



SIE THOMAS TYRINGHAM, EIGHTH MASTER. 115 

month, evidently on some day after June 21, when he 
first received the official insignia of the Royal pack, which he 
carried until he resigned it to his successor in October 1625. 
His patent is one of the earliest (per se) that we have met 
with relating to this branch of the Royal Buckhounds ; and as 
will be seen by it that Sir Thomas obtained the appointment 
for the natural term of his life, with an annual fee of 33/. (is. Sd., 
payable half yearly, in equal proportions, by the hands of 
the Treasurer of the Chamber of the Household. A further 
interest is attached to this patent, because it recites that he 
was entitled to hold the office in as full and ample manner as 
enjoyed by his predecessors, amongst whom are mentioned Sir 
Richard Long, Thomas Lord Darcy of Chiche, John Earl of 
Warwick, and Sir Robert Dudley (afterwards Earl of Leicester), 
or any other. 

The enrolment of his patent reads briefly thus : — 

" Rex om'ibu} ad quos, &c., sal'tm. Sciatis qu nos de gra nra 
spiali ac ex eta daencil & mere motu nris dedimu} & concessim}, Ac 
p' p'sentes p' nob' hered' & successorib5 n'ris damn'' & concedim} 
dirco & fideli suien' nro' Thome Tyringham ar' uni generos Pencionar' 
nr65 offic'm magri Canum nror vocat Buckhoundes. h'end ex'tend 
tenend occupand & gaudend idem offic p'fat Thome Tyringham p' de 
vel p' sufficien deputat sun' sine deputat suos sufficien ad tminu & p' 
tmino vite ip'ms Thome Tyringham recipiend' leband & an'uatim 
p'cipiend p' vad & feod suis in & p' eodem offic ex'cend et occupand 
triginta tres libras sex solid & octo denar' p' manus Thesaurar nr 
camere nr p' tempore existen ad tminos sn' Michls archi' et Pasche 
equis porc'oib} una cum om'b} al' vad feod p'sic allocat regard 
com'oditat et emolument dc'o offico quoquo modo spectan seu p'tineu 
in tam amplis modo & forma p'ut Ricus Longe miles vel Thomas 
d'nus Darcye de Chiche, aut Johes Comes Warwic aut Roburts Dudley 
mil aut aliquis alius dim aliqui alij offic illud antehac occupans h'uit & 
p'cepit h'uer & p'ceptr seu here & p'cip'e dehuer aut debuit in & p' 
eodem absq' compo seu aliquo alio nob' hered & successorib} nris 
p'inde reddend soluend seu faciend. In qo' expressa mencio, &c. In 
cuius rei, &c., &c. R. apud Westm' vi'esimo primo die Junij." 

On September 17 Sir Thomas received a royal commission, 
by which he was empowered " to take up, by himself or his 



116 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

assignes, hounds and greyhounds for His Majesty's disport." 
In August 1604 he received another commission from the 
King for the preservation of the red deer in the Manor of 
Knotting. By a warrant dormant, dated July IS, 1607, the 
Keeper of the Royal Wardrobe was commanded to supply this 
Master of the Buckhounds with " stuff for his livery." Un- 
fortunately, as in the case of all warrants dormant in the 
accounts of the Great Wardrobe in those days, no description 
is given of the materials from which the official uniforms of 
the Master or the subordinate officers of the pack were made ; 
nothing save the entry of the cost of the " livery " is given, 
consequently we are unable to tell at present (although we 
hope to do so later on) how those individuals were attired 
for the Royal chase. Early in the following year the King 
wrote to Sir Thomas Oxenbridge, to permit Sir Thomas 
Tyringham to follow the Buckhounds into his grounds, which 
were probably protected by a grant of free warren or free 
chase. On July 4, 1618, Sir Thomas obtained a grant in 
reversion, after Sir Charles Howard, of the Keepership of the 
Great Park of Windsor. In July 1614 a warrant was issued 
under the Great Seal to furnish him with sixteen beds and 
provision for thirty horses, and for the King's hounds, in all 
places adjacent to the Court, " at reasonable prices " ; and in 
April 1621 he received a similar warrant, empowering him to 
take up, in places adjacent to the Court, beds, stable room, 
etc., on his own terms, which must have been a questionable 
blessing to those who had such valuable places to let. In 
July 1623 the King wrote to the Earl of Nottingham, Chief 
Justice in Eyre, south of Trent, expressing a desire that Sir 
Thomas Tyringham should succeed Mr. Creswell, lately de- 
ceased, as the Keeper of one of the walks in Windsor Great 
Park, " his office rendering him the fittest man for it," a royal 
recommendation that had the desired effect. Some curious 
circumstances occurred at Windsor Park during this Master of 
the Buckhounds' term of office upon which he had to adjudicate. 
A keeper there, who committed an assault on a man, was con- 
demned in a fine of 71. or imprisonment ; while another keeper. 



SIK THOMAS TYKINGHAM, EIGHTH MASTER. 117 

who killed a poacher " in the execution of the duty of his 
place," the case was referred to the King, who decreed that the 
assassin should be held harmless in the matter, as the offence 
(if any) occurred within the precincts of the Royal park, there- 
fore it came under the Royal prerogative, and consequently the 
common law could take no cognisance of it. The most curious 
part of this case was that, when it was submitted to the law 
officers of the Crown, they concurred with the judgment of 
the British Solomon, On another occasion, Henry Sawyer, of 
Holme, Huntingdonshire, a professional mole-catcher, while 
exercising his vocation in a field near Windsor, was overheard 
to remark that the King would be assa.ssinated during his pro- 
gress in Scotland. Sawyer was therefore arrested and arraigned 
before Sir Thomas Tyringham, who carefully investigated the 
alleged " plot " ; but he, finding there was neither high nor 
low treason in the matter, let the indiscreet mole-catcher off 
scot-free. Sir Thomas Tyringham, by virtue of his keepership 
of Windsor Park, apparently made free with the King's deer ; 
but he did not forget absent friends, as frequent mention of a 
" huntsman's token," i.e., two venison pasties, " a brace of 
buck's shoulders and ambles," and occasionally a haunch or 
two, are mentioned as presents sent to his friends and patrons, 
by whom such gifts were thankfully received and gratefully 
acknowledged. 

These were not mere expressions of ordinary courtesy ; they 
meant very much more than the words conveyed. In those 
days the sale of venison was prohibited, and the savoury viand 
could only be obtained from the King, or surreptitiously, 
through the officials of the royal forests, parks, and chases — 
hence the proverb : Non est inquirendum unde venit venison. 
This probably indirectly led to subsequent abuses, as we 
find Sir Thomas Tyringham was ordered by warrant, dated 
November 1G33, not to kill any deer in Windsor Park without 
he had special directions under the Royal sign manual to do so. 
Keepers of ordinaries, hotels, etc., were prohibited to buy any 
venison ; nor were they allowed to buy any pheasants, par- 
tridges, or grouse to sell again. 



118 THE HISTOEY OF THE KOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

Sir Thomas Tyringham resigned his office of Master of the 
Buckhounds in 1625. His successor, Sir Timothy Tyrell, had 
been Master of the privy Buckhounds to Charles, Prince of 
\N'ales, from 1611 to the death of James I. ; and on the acces- 
sion of Charles I., Sir Timothy obtained the horn of the Royal 
pack from the new monarch by Privy Seal, dated October 12, 
1625, which he held till his death in 1032. 

On May 20, 1633, Sir Thomas Tyringham was re-appointed 
to the office, and consequently became the tenth Master of the 
Household branch of the pack, which he filled to the satisfaction 
of all concerned until the day of his death. He died in 1637, 
and was buried at Tyringham on January 24 of that year, in 
the fifty-sixth year of his age. 



119 



CHAPTER VI. 
HOUSEHOLD BRANCH.— CHARLES 1. 

1625—1649. 

Annual Expenses of the Pack during the Reign of Charles I., from 1625 — 1640. 
— The Masters and the Hunt-Servants. — Their Salaries, Fees, and Emolu- 
ments. Sir Timothy Tyrell, Ninth Master : March 26, 1625 to May 19, 1633. 
—Sir Thomas Tyringham (ii.), Tenth Master : May 20, 1633 to January 1637. 
—Robert Tyrwhitt, Esq., Eleventh Master : May 4, 1637 to January 6, 1651. 
—Reflections on Sport with the Pack from 1603 to 1640. — Hunting-Horses. 
— Hunting Matches. — The Royal Studs.— Deer and Hound-Vans. — The 
Equerries of the Hunting Stables. — Hunting with the Pack during the 
Commonwealth. — Poaching. — Destruction of the Deer. — Fate of the Royal 
Hunt-Servants. 

1624-25. — The first Account of the Treasurer of the Chamber 
of the Household, in the reign of Charles I., from September 
29, 1624, to September 29, 1625, includes the expenses of 
the "Privy," or Household branch of the Royal Buckhounds 
for the last half year (plus two days) of the reign of 
James I. (who died on March 27, 1625), and for the half 
year of the first regnal year of Charles I. (minus two days), 
ended on September 29, 1625. In this audit we there- 
fore ascertain the cost and the 'personnel of this pack as it 
was on the establishment down to the death of James I., 
and as it was reorganised during the first half year of the 
reign of Charles I. It will serve our purpose here to briefly 
mention that no material change had taken place in the state 
of its afiairs down to the death of James I. ; but on the 
accession of Charles I. many changes supervened, as we shall 
have occasion presently to notice. However, as this account of 



120 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

the Treasurer of the Chamber is carried on from September 29, 
1624, to September 29, 1625, we ascertain that the cost of 
the pack, as chargeable on this Department, within this year 
amounted to 965/. 8s. 5^d. This was an increase — compared 
with the last half and the two preceding whole years of the 
reign of James I. — of 147/. 4.s. Ofc?., chiefly incurred during 
the first half year of the reign of Charles I. 

From a brief investigation of the facts and figures now 
before us we find that Sir Thomas Tyringham, the Master, 
under James I. was paid his fee at the rate of 33/. Qs. 8d. 
per annum, for the half year, ended at Lady Day 1625, 
when " Sir Timothy Tirell, Knight, Master of H.M. Privy 
Buckhounds, succeeding Sir Thomas Tyringham," received 
for his fee, payable quarterly, " by vertue of H.M. letters 
under the signet, dated October 13, 1625, due to him, began 
at Lady Day 1625 and ended at Michaelmas next following," 
the sum of 16/. 13s. 4c/. Robert Walker, the Sergeant, re- 
ceived, as heretofore, 51/. 13s. 4<d. for his fee, and 100/. per 
annum for feeding and keeping sixteen couples of buckhounds. 
The eight yeomen prickers, mentioned in the last account, at 
20d. each a day for wages and 20s. each per annum for livery, 
were paid as usual, except Francis Dodsworth, who died at 
Christmas 1624, when he was succeeded by Henry Dodsworth, 
and paid at the same rate down to date. Robert Hancock, 
another yeoman pricker, sans livery, was still in receipt of 
2s. 6fc?. per diem. Sale-Dilly and Holland also received 2s. 
a day each and 20s. each per annum for livery. Connock and 
Hunt, yeomen prickers, obtained 3s. 4f/. a day each for their 
wages. Hake, the waggoner, had 20(/. a day as heretofore. 
And Robert Pattison, the harbinofer, received his usual remu- 
neration at the rate of 12c/. a day for the time being. Thus 
far we find the old stafi" as in the last years of the reign of 
James I. 

But we are now introduced to George Fowler, John Williams, 
Ralph Reade, and William Hopkins, " grooms of the said buck- 
hounds," each of whom were paid 12c/. a day for their wages 
and 20s. per annum for their several liveries. Thomas Lee, an 



THE MASTERS AND THE HUNT-SERVANTS. 121 

additional yeoman pricker, obtained 2UcZ. a day for his wages 
and 20s. per annum for livery. Robert Jackson and William 
Rawson, " twoe of his Ma'^"^'* Huntesmen [yeomen prickers] for 
the said Buckhounds at xxvj". xiij^ iiij'^^ per ann. to either of 
them for theire wages payable quart'ly ; and xxl the peece 
for theire Lyveryes payable at Xpmas, By vertue of his Ma'"* 
Lres. vnder the Signett, dated the said xij"' of October 1625, 
due to them for halfe a yeare ended at Michas 1625, Ao. RR. 
Caroli primo — 26Z. 13s. 4cZ." Richard Ray, Paul Story, and 
Thomas White, " three other Huntsmen [yeomen prickers] for 
the said Buckhounds at xxvj". xiij^ iiij'^. the peece ^ ann. for 
theire wages, and xx^ the peece '^ ann. for theire Lyveryes, due 
to them for the same tyme and payable as aforesaid by vertue 
of the warraunte beforemconed " — 40Z. Anthony Dodsworth, 
" one other of the said Huntesmen [yeomen prickers] at iiij^ ij^ 
per diem for his wages payable quarterly, and xx\ '<^ ann. for 
his Lyvery payable at Xpmas, due to him for the like tyme " — 
o8^. Os. 5d. William Gwilliams, James Medcalfe, and James 
Kipling, " Huntesmen [grooms] likewyse, at xx^'. the peece 
^ ann. for theire wages payable quarterly, and xx^ ^ ann. for 
their Lyveryes payable at Xpfnas, due to them by the same 
warr**", for thaforsayd tyme " — 30^. And to Robert Walker, 
junior, yeoman of the said Buckhounds, 20cL a day for his 
wages and 20s. ^ ann. for his livery, by vertue of the said 
letters under the Signet, dated October 12, 1625, received 

151. 4:8. 2d. 

1625-26. — The account for this year, ended at September 29, 
1626, amounts to 9ldl. 5s. (j§d. All the officials, as in the 
preceding year, being in the enjoyment of their posts and 
emoluments, the subject calls for no comment. However, 
apart from this, and not included in the above, some of the 
staff were allowed an additional honorarium, " being H.M. 
free guift to them for one quarter of a year ended at Michael- 
mas 1626," amounting to 157/. 12s. CkI., " by vertue of H.M. 
Signet dated 25th of September, 1626 " — viz.,R. Hunt, W. Con- 
nock, R. Hancock, A. Dodsworth, and R. Raye, yeomen of the 
Buckhounds, to each of them 2s. a day ; R. Jackson, W. Reading, 



122 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

P. Stacy, W. Rawson, W. Cocker, T. White, A. Holland, T. Lee, 
H, Dodsworth, R. Walker, junr., E. Stanton, R. Norman, J. 
Cocker, E. Dodsworth, W. Beale, J. Hake, R. Crockford, and R. 
Pattison, yeomen of the said Buckhounds, to each of them I2d. 
a day; R. Eldridge, J. Kipling, G. Fowler, R. Read, J. Williams, 
W. Hopkins, W. Gwilliams, F. Becham, and J. Metcalfe, grooms 
of the said Buckhounds, Qd. a day each. This was a considerable 
increase under this head compared with the amount distributed 
in the time of James I. 

1627-28. — The account for this year amounts to 
1,214/. 14s. 6^d. We find all the hunt-servants as before 
paid at the usual rates down to date ; and in addition the 
names of Ralph Reade, John Williams, William Hopkins, 
and George Fowler — in what capacity not stated — engaged 
at 12fZ. each for their wages, and 205. each for their several 
liveries. Henry Dover was appointed a yeoman pricker in 
the place of Richard Hunt " at xx'^. ^ diem being the one 
halfe pay to be paid quarterly. By virtue of his Ma*^l ires 
vnder the Signett dated the xxvij*^*^ of Septemb'" Anno Tertio 
Regis Caroli due to him for the like tyme." An increase in 
the wages and emoluments of some of the stafi" is noticeable 
in this audit. Thus, Richard Eldridge, yeoman pricker, 
received for his wages 40/. per annum and 40s. for his livery. 
The other instances recorded, being of less significance, call 
for no minute notice here. The Kind's " free guift " to the 
yeomen prickers, the waggoner, and the grooms of the Privy 
Buckhounds, for their attendance from the Feast of the 
Nativity of St. John the Baptist (June 24), until Michaelmas 
1628, in addition to the above total, amounted to 158/. 5s. Qd. 

1628-29. — The account for this year amounts to 
1,338/. 185. 6f(i. The only change that had taken place 
within this year was the appointment of Thomas Oxley 
'■ groom of H.M. Buckhounds in the room and place of John 
Williams, deceased, at 13<:/. per day for his wages payable 
quarterly, and 20s. for his livery payable at Midsummer, by 
vertue of H.M, letters under the signet dated the 11th of 
September in the 5th year of H.M. reign, the first paj'^ment 



THEIE SALARIES, FEES, AND EMOLUMENTS. 123 

to begin from the death of the said John Williams, due to 
him in full at Michaelmas quarter 1629, 4/. 9s. l^fL" The 
King's "free guift " to the yeomen prickers, the yeoman of 
the waggon, and the grooms, from Midsummer to Michaelmas 
1629, was 158/. 

1629-30.— The account for this year exhibits a nominal 
decrease, in consequence of some of the hunt-servants having 
been "put to pension." It amounts to 986/. 18-s. 8§d. for the 
acting staff; but if we include the payments to the other 
individuals affiliated therewith who were now pensioned at 
a charge of 296/. Ss. Id. per annum, the total cost of the 
pack for this year, ended on September 29, 1630, would 
be 1,283/. Is. d§d. Apart from the hunt-servants " put to 
pension," there is very little alteration in the personnel or 
the remuneration of the staff as we find it heretofore on 
the establishment. It may be noted, however, that William 
Connock, a yeoman pricker, at 3s. 8^/. a day for his wages and 
40,*?. per annum for his livery, was awarded an increase of 
20.S-. per annum for his uniform, " by vertue of H.M. letters 
under the signet, dated the 20th of September anno regis 
Caroli decimo [sic], due to him for a year — together with the 
arrears of the said 20s. per annum, formerly disallowed, 
and due for six years ended at Michaelmas 1630," was now 
paid down to date, in full, the sum of 73/. 18s. 4f/. Thomas 
White, another yeoman pricker, obtained an increase in his 
wages (which had been at the rate of 26/. 13s. 4f/. a year, 
and 20s. per annum for his livery down to Midsummer 1630). 
He now received 3s. l^d. a day for his wages and 40s. per 
annum for his livery, " payable quarterly during his life, by 
vertue of H.M. letters patents under the great seal of England 
bearing date the 13th day of July anno sexto regis Caroli, 
the first payment to begin from the 20th day of June then 
last past and due to him for a quarter of a year and ten days 
ended at Michaelmas 1630." 

The officials now pensioned were Edward Stanton and 
William Sale, yeomen prickers, at 2s. a day each for wages 
and 20s. per annum each for liveries ; William Reading, 



124 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

yeoman pricker, at 8(7. a day for wages and 20.s. per annum 
for livery; William Norman, yeoman pricker, at 2GI. 13s. 4c7. 
a year for wages and 20s. per annum for livery ; Robert 
Pattison, yeoman harbinger, at 12d. a day for wages and 
no livery ; Edward Dods worth, yeoman pricker, at 20d. a 
day for wages and 20.5. per annum for livery ; Richard 
Crockford and John Hake, yeomen prickers, at the same 
rate; William Darrant, yeoman pricker, at 14/. 18s. a year 
for wages, sans livery. Greorge Fowler, groom, at ISd. a day 
for wages and 20s. per annum for his livery ; Henry Sams, 
at 19/. 2s. -id. for his wages per annum. And though last, 
not least, among those venatic " pensioners " is Edward 
Kingesley, " in the Roome and place of Richard Vincent, 
Bonesetter, at xix". ij^ iiij'^. ^ ann. by virtue of his Ma*^ ires 
vnder the Signett dated the xx*'^ of November Anno quinto 
Regis Caroli. The first payment to begin from Midsomer 
then last past, and due to him for a yeare ended at Michas 
aforesaid — xix". ij^ iiij'V The King's free gift to the hunt 
officials, from Midsummer to Michaelmas, amounted to 
157/. lis, 2d. 

1630-31. — The account for this year ended on September 29, 
1631, amounts to 1,290/. 3s. 7hi^d. There is no change 
in the staff of sufficient importance to particularly notice, 
consequently we pass on to the next account, comprehending 
an apparent lapse, as this audit only embraces a period 
from September 29, 1632, to September 29, 1633, during 
which the pack cost the Royal Treasury 1,266/. and 15||^|(7. 
A brief analysis shows that Sir Thomas Tyringham was 
re-appointed to his former office of " Master of H.M. Privy 
Buckhounds in the room and place of Sir Timothy Tirell, 
deceased, for his wages at 33/. Qs. 8c/. per annum, payable half 
yearly, by equal portions, by vertue of H.M. letters patents 
under the Great Seal of England, bearing date the 20th day of 
May, anno 9 regni Caroli, and due to him for half a year ended 
at Michealmas 1633." Robert Walker, senior, the Sergeant, 
at 51/. 3s. -if/, a year for his wages and 100/. per annum for 
keeping the hounds, received, as heretofore, 151/. 3s. 4<:/. Eight 



THEIE SALARIES, FEES, AND EMOLUMENTS. 125 

yeomen prickers — viz., R. Hancock at 4s. 2h^^d. per day for 
wages and 40s. per annum for livery; Anthony Dodsworth, 
at 4s 2d. a day for wages and 20s. per annum for livery ; 
W. Connock and R. Walker, junr., at 3s. 8d. a day for wages 
and 40s. per annum for livery ; Thomas White, at 3s. Id. a day 
for wages and 40s. per annum for livery ; A. Holland and 
E. Stanton, at 2s. a day for wages and 20s. for livery ; 
Paul Stacey, at 2s. lie?, a day for wages and 40s. per annum for 
livery. Eight grooms — viz., R. Ray, W. Rawson, R. Norman, at 
2QI. 13s. -id. a year for wages and 20s. per annum for liveries ; 
R. Reade, T. Ockley, W. Hopkins, G. Fowler, at ISd. a day 
for wages and 20s. per annum for liveries. Then we have the 
following (but in what capacity not mentioned) — viz., W.Cocker, 
J. Cocker, T. Lee, H. Dodsworth, H. Dover, F. Dodsworth, 
R. Crockford, J. Wake, at 20d a day wages and 20s. per annum 
for liveries ; J. Metcalfe, W. Gwilliams, J. Kipling, at 201. a 
year for wages and 20s. per annum for liveries ; R. Eldridge 
at 40?. a year for wages and 40s. per annum for liveries ; W. 
Reading, at 18c?. a day for wages and 20s. per annum for livery; 
R. Pattison, at 12d. for wages, sans livery ; H. Sames and 
Edward Kingesley, at 19?. 2s. 4c?. a year; and, lastly, to 
William Darrant, at 14?. 18s. a year, payable quarterly, and due 
to him for one quarter of a year ended at Christmas 1632, and 
to Edward Lambert, succeeding him, at 61. 13s. 4<d. a year for 
his wages, and 8?. 4s. lOd. per annum for his summer livery, 
both payable quarterly, by virtue of H.M. letters under the 
Signet, dated September 27, anno 9, Charles I., and now due 
to him for one quarter ended at Michaelmas 1033, 74s. Gc?. 

1633-34. — The account for this year, ended on September 29, 
1634, amounts to 1,290?. 3s. 9|^|c?. There is no change in 
the staff nor in their several remunerations and allowances. 
The King's free gifts to " huntsmen of the Privy Buckhounds " 
for their attendance in the summer season, amounted to 
157?. 17s. 

1634-35. — The account for this year amounts to 
1,325?. 2s. 4|^^c?. Robert Walker, the Sergeant, died some 
time prior to Christmas 1634, when he was succeeded by 



126 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

Anthony Dodsworth, who was accorded 50/. a year for his 
wages, and " a new fee " of 50/. more per annum, besides the 
usual allowance of 100/. yearly " for the keeping of sixteen 
couple of hounds for His Majesty's service," in all 200/. per 
annum, payable quarterly, by virtue of H.M. letters under the 
Signet bearing date February 12, anno regis 10th Charles I., 
to hold and enjoy the said several wages, fees, and allowances 
to him or to his assignees during his natural life, the first 
payment to begin at the Feast of the Annunciation of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary (March 25) then next following, due for 
three-quarters of a year, ended at Michaelmas 1635, amounting 
to 150/.* 

Anthony Holland was promoted to the place of yeoman 
pricker, now vacated by the elevation of Anthony Dodsworth 
to the Sergeantship of the pack. But whereas Dodsworth's 
wages had been at the rate of 4s. ^d. a day, the wages of his 
successor was dd. a day less, and an annual allowance of 20s. 
per annum for his livery. Thomas Lee, yeoman pricker, died 
in November 1634. He was succeeded by William Reading, 
at 2{)d. a day for his wages and 20s. per annum for his livery. 
Robert Norman, groom, died at Midsummer 1635. He was 
succeeded by William Goodwyn, with the wages of 26/. 14s. 4c/. 
and 20s. per annum for livery. These changes occasioned 
some further promotion among the subordinate hunt-servants, 
which it is hardly necessary to detail. 

1635-36. — The account for this year amounts to 1,335/. 4s. 5|d 
Anthony Dodsworth, the Sergeant, is set down as having 
received 100/. for his wages and 100/. for " keeping of xv] 
couple of hounds." He also received 50/. (not included under 
this heading), under the classification of annuity or pension ; 
consequently he was paid altogether at the rate of 250/. a year. 

* Apart from the direct expenses under this head, the following ent^y occurs 
under " Annuities and Pensions " : " To Anthony Dodsworth sergeant of the 
privy Buckhounds, in consideration of keeping the hounds at 501. per annum 
payable quarterly by virtue of H.M. letters under the signet, dated the last of 
August anno regis Caroli 11™". — the first payment to begin at the Feast of the 
Nativity of St. John the Baj^tist last past, and to continue during his life due 
for half a year ended at Michaelmas 1635, 251.'' 



ROBERT TYRWHITT, ESQ., ELEVENTH MASTER. 127 

Paul Stacey, yeoman pricker, who was succeeded by Francis 
Dodsworth (December 11, 1(335), was paid at the rate of 2s. Qd. 
a day for wages and 40s. per annum for livery. William 
Wetherall was thereupon a[)pointed to fill the vacant post. 
William Basse obtained Wetherall's place ; and John Crockford 
became lymberman vice Richard Crockford, dead or retired, by 
virtue of H.M. letters under the signet, dated June 2.3, 1636. 
The King's free gifts to the hunt-servants for their attendance 
during the summer season amounted, in addition, to 1.54/. 7s. 

1637-38. — The account for this year, from September 29, 
1637, to September 29, 1638, amounts to 1,338/. Os. OhUd. 
There is no change in the personnel of the staff, except the 
appointment of George Fryer, groom, vice William Rawson; 
Robert Bedborough, vice R. Pattison and W. Pitman, vice 
William Connock, deceased. The King's free gifts to the hunt- 
servants were 157/. 10s. The Master is called Sir Thomas 
Tyrwhitt, knight — clearly a mistake by the engrosser, who 
should have written " Robert Tyrwhitt, Esq." 

1638-39.— The account for this year, ended at September 29 
1639, amounts to exactly the same sum as the preceding one. 
The Master is here styled " Robert Terwhitt, Esq." He received 
33/. Qs. Sd. " for his wages per annum, payable quarterly and 
due for one whole year ended at Michaelmas 1639." 

1639-40. — The account for this year, ended on September 
29, 1640, amounts to 1,340/. 6s. b\d. It is the penultimate, 
and, moreover, the last complete one preserved in this series 
during the reign of Charles I. It is consequently replete with 
the establishment of this branch of the Royal Buckhounds. 
A brief analysis of the interesting facts and. figures contained 
therein must be especially welcome here, particularly as we 
shall find no further details during the ensuing dark and 
dismal twenty years. 

First and foremost comes Robert Tyrwhitt, Esq., the Master, 
at the head of the hunt-servants of this branch of the pack, 
whom we find in the receipt of his salary in full, for one whole 
year ended at Michaelmas 1640, amounting to the usual sum 
of 33/. 6s. 8c/. 



128 THE HISTOKY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

Anthony Dodsworth, the Sergeant, received 200/. " for his 
fee and wages due and payable as before " ; and apart from, 
and not included under this head, 50/. additional in the form 
of an annuity or pension " for an increase of allowance towards 
the feeding and keeping of new hounds, payable quarterly and 
due to him for the aforesaid time," amounting altogether to 
250/. per annum. 

The following yeomen prickers were paid at the under- 
mentioned rates — viz., Robert Hancock, wages 4.s. 2^h^d. a 
day and 40.S'. per annum for livery; Anthony Holland, 4s. 
a day wages and 20.s. per annum for livery ; Robert Walker, 
3s. 8d. a day wages and 40s. per annum for livery ; W. Cocker, 
W. Reading, J. Hake (" waggoner "), J. Cocker, H. Dodsworth, 
J. Crockford, and W. Pitman ("yeomen"), each at 20(?. a day 
wages and 20s. each per annum for livery ; E. Staunton, W. 
Wetherall, and W. Ledman, " yeomen prickers," 2s. a day each 
wages and 20s. each per annum for livery ; Francis Dodsworth, 
"another yeoman pricker," at 2s. lid. a day wages and 40s. 
per annum for livery ; Thomas White, yeoman pricker, at 
8s. l^d. a day wages and 40s. per annum for livery; James 
Kipling, at 22c/. a day wages (" as yeoman pricker ") and no 
livery; W. Basse, " yeoman," 18d. a day wages and 20s. per 
annum for livery. 

The following grooms are specifically mentioned — viz., R. Ray, 
W. Goodwin, and George Fryer ("waggoner "), at 26/. 13s. 4d. 
a year each wages and 20s. each per annum for livery ; 
G. Fowler, W. Hopkins, and T. Ockley, at ISd. a day each 
wages, and 20s. per annum each for livery ; W. Gwilliams, 
J. Metcalfe, and T. Fowkles, 20/. a year each wages and 20s. 
per annum each for livery. '' And to Ralph Read one of the 
grooms of the said Buckhounds for his wages at ISd. a day 
and 20s. per annum for his livery (the wages payable quarterly 
and the livery at Christmas) and due to him for one quarter 
and sixteen days in part of this year, 6/. 18s. S^d., and to 
Bartholomew Dixon, succeeding him in the said place, by vertue 
of H.M. letters under the signet, dated the 10th of March, anno 
regis Caroli pred. 15*^", the first payment to begin from the 



SIR TIMOTHY TYRELL, NINTH MASTER. 129 



death of said Ralph Read, and to continue during his life, and 
due to him for the residue of this year, ISl. 18s. Ifc?. ; in 
all, 20/. IGs. (kl" 

Redward Roe, " Harbinger for the Huntsmen, in the place of 
Robert Bedborough at 12d. a day for his wages, payable 
quarterly, and due to him for the like time, by vertue of H.M. 
warrant under the Signet, dated the 26th of October, 1639, 
the first payment to begin from the Feast of St. Michael 
the Archangel last past and to continue during his life." 

Henry Sames and Edward Kinsley, "bonesetters," "to each 
of them 191. 2s. 4id. per annum for their wages, and due to 
them, for the aforesaid time," received 38/. 4s. 8d. 

In what capacity, not stated, Richard Eldridge received at 
the rate of 40/. a year for wages and 40s. per annum for his 
livery. Edward Lambert was in the receipt of 6/. ISs. 4cZ. a 
year wages and 8/. 4s. 10c/. for his livery. 

1642. — The final account preserved in this series, so far as 
our subject is concerned, only relates to the payment made 
to this branch of the Royal Buckhounds for one half year 
ended on Lady Day 1642. It only amounts to 710/. 10s. 4d. 
Nearly all of the officials appear to have been paid at the 
established allowance as indicated in the preceding audit for 
the year ended at Michaelmas 1640. As previously observed, 
we shall not hear anything further relating to the expenses, 
or of the individuals who constituted the executive, until 
the Accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber of the Royal 
Exchequer were again resumed spon after the Restoration. 



Sir Timothy Tyrell, or Tirell (as the name is generally 
written in the official documents), the ninth Master of the 
Privy or Household branch of the Royal Buckhounds — from 
March 26, 1625, to May 19, 1633— was the second son of Sir 
Edward Tyrell, Knight, M.P. for Oakley, county Bucks, and 
Margaret, daughter of Thomas Aston, Esq., of Aston. The 
family is reputed to have descended from Sir Walter Tyrell, 
who killed William Rufus accidentally with an arrow when 



130 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

hunting in the New Forest, county Hants, on August 2, 1100. 
The date of the birth of this Master of the Royal Buckhounds 
has not been recorded ; and the first mention of him to be 
found in official documents occurs in the year 1610, when he 
was appointed by James I. Master of the " Old " pack, on the 
occasion of the annexation of the Hereditary branch, and its 
amalgamation with the Household kennel, at that time, under 
the circumstances already recorded. It appears his salary, in 
this capacity, was at the rate of 201. per annum, and that this 
stipend and the concurrent cost of this •' Old " branch of the 
pack was defrayed out of the King's Privy Purse from Christ- 
mas 1610 onward to Christmas 1612. However, in the ensuing 
year, when it was formed into a separate pack for Charles, 
Duke of York, we find the whole cost and particulars included 
in the Accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber, and payable 
out of the Royal Exchequer for three-quarters of a year ended 
at Michaelmas 1613, viz. : — 

HuNTESMEN FOR THE Princes Buckhoundes : To Tymothio Tirrell 
Esquire Master of the Princes buckhoundes at xx" '^ ann. for his 
wages payable quarterlie due to him for three quarters of a yeare 
ended at Mychas, 1613, by his Ma*^ war*unte vnder the signett 
dated at Grenewiche the x"^ day of June 1613 — xv^'. 

To Roberte Rayne Sergeaunte of the saide buckhoundes by the 
same warraunte at iiij''. xiij^ iij''. '^ ann. for his wages payable 
quarterlie, due to him for the same tyme — Ixviij'^. viij''. qr. 

To Anthonie Dodesworthe yeoman by the same warraunte at 
xP. vj''. '^ ann. for his wages due to him for three quarters of a 
yeare ended at Michas 1613 — xxx". iiij''. vj'l 

To Augustyne Crigges, Nathan Jackson, Anthonie Brackenburye, 
WilPm Readinge and Richarde Raye yeomen of the buckhoundes 
by the foresaide warraunte at xxvj^. xiijl iiij''. '^ ann. for theii-e 
wages payable & due for the same tyme — C". 

To Edwarde Stanton yeoman at xxxvj". xvj^. viij*^. '^ ann. & 
Will'^m Rawson yeoman waggoner at xxvj*^. v^. ij**. '^ ann. 
for theire wages by the same warr both payable quarterlie, and 
due to them for three quarters of a yeare ended at Michas 1613 
— xlvij". vjl iiij''. ob. 



SIR TIMOTHY TYRELL, NINTH MASTER. 131 

To Jerome Metcalfe, Anthonie Dodesworth, WilPm Gwillams, 
& Francis Beawchampe grooraes of the said buckhoundes by the 
said warr* at xx''. the pece '^ ann. for theire wages payable quarterlie, 
and due to them for the aforesaid tyme — Ix"* 

Total CCCxx". vj^ vj". ob. ;,'. 

During the year ended atj Michaelmas 1614 the Duke of 
York's pack of Buckhounds was sustained by the Royal 
Exchequer at a cost of 427/. 8s. 9d. In 1615 and 1616 similar 
sums were allocated for its support. Mr. Tyrell was still the 
Master, nor was any change made in the hunt-servants, except 
that Sergeant Rayne surrendered his office to Edward Hart,* 
by virtue of H.M. letters under the Signet, dated at New- 
market, February 30, 1615-6. When the Duke of York was 
created Prince of Wales, on November 4, 1616, he entered 
upon an establishment appertaining solely to himself and sus- 
tained by himself, consequently we lose all trace of this tail, 
or appendage, of the Royal Buckhounds, its Master, and its 
staff, from Michaelmas 1616 until Michaelmas 1625. On the 
Prince's accession to the throne this tail of the Royal Buck- 
hounds again reverted to the parent kennel, and was again 
amalgamated with the Household branch, under the Mastership 
of Sir Timothy Tyrell, vice Sir Thomas Tyringham, resigned. 

In the meantime, we must hark back, and record in proper 
chronological sequence that Mr. Tyrell, in 1614, married 
Eleanor, daughter of Sir William Kingsmill, of Sidmanton, 
county Hants, by whom he had issue four sons and three 
daughters. He was knighted at his " Lodge in Oxfordshire " 
by James I., when that sporting monarch was his guest there 
during a hunting expedition on August 29, 1624. 

As previously mentioned. Sir Timothy retained his post of 
Master of the Buckhounds to the Prince of Wales until the 
death of James I., and on the accession of Charles I. he was 
doubtless promoted to carry the horn of the regal hunting 
establishment, and became pro foriYia Master of the Buck- 

* He obtained a pension of 90Z. 14s. id. a year on the accession of Charles I., 
and was paid at that rate down to Michaehnas 1640. 



132 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

hounds to the new King, with whom he was evidently a prime 
favourite and a faithful servant. We have been unable to 
Und any patent* of his appointment of Master of the Buck- 
hounds to Charles I., but he is specifically mentioned as the 
holder of that high ofiice in the grant of a pension of 100/, 
a year for life given to him by the King, dated October 6, 
1625. Burke asserts that Sir Timothy Tyrell was Master 
of the Buckhounds to Henry, Prince of Wales, and an officer 
of the bedchamber to Charles I. (" Dormant and Extinct 
Baronetage "), but both of these assertions are probably in- 
accurate. At all events, this Master of the Buckhounds was 
in high favour at the court of Charles I., and that he knew 
how to play his cards to his own advantage we have ample 
evidence. Thus, in October 1628, Sir Timothy Tyrell and 
Timothy Tyrell, his son, obtained a grant from the King 
during their lives successively, of the custody and stewardship 
of the Forest of Shotover and Stoe Wood, county Oxford, and 
the herbage and pannage thereof, with all fees, liberties, and 
commodities thereunto pertaining. Practically this amounted 
to the disafforestation of those forests, and it soon afterwards 
led to great disputes between the Admiralty and the grantees 
concerning the timber required by the former for the wooden 

* In the patent of Master of the Buckhounds, which is transcribed in the 
preceding chapter, it will be seen that James I. granted Sir Thomas 
Tyringham the office for the natural term of his life. There is also a clause 
by virtue of which he could transfer the office to a sufficient deputy, hence 
it is obvious that on the accession of Charles I. some mutual arrangement 
was made between the King, Sir Thomas, and Sir Timothy, whereby the 
last-mentioned knight continued to act as Master of the amalgamated packs 
— the Privy Buckhounds of the new King and the regal pack of the late 
monarch. Sir Thomas Tyringham received his salary, amounting to 
161. 8s. id. for the half year ended at Lady Day 1625 ; and the first payment 
to Sir Timothy Tyrrel, succeeding Sir Thomas Tyringham as Master of the 
Buckhounds to Charles I., occurs in the accounts of the Treasurer of the 
Chamber for 1625 — "due to him for half a year began at Lady Day 
[March 25, 1625] and ended at Michaelmas next following, 16Z. 8s. id." The 
authority given for the latter payment is " H.M. letters under the signet, 
dated at Westminster, Oct. 12, 1625." Unfortunately we have not been able 
to find that warrant ; it would likely recapitulate the particulars of the 
transaction, and probably confirm our conjectures upon that point. 



SIR TIMOTHY TYRELL, NINTH MASTER. 133 

walls of Old England. About the same time this Master of 
the Buckhounds obtained a similar grant of Hickshill in 
Barnes wood Forest, county Bucks, at the fine of 1,650^., and a 
yearly rent of 2/. 4s. Sd. reserved to the Crown for ever with 
a tenure of socage. By virtue of this grant, Sir Timothy, 
his heirs and successors, acquired waifs, strays, felons' goods, 
and free warren within the same, and freedom from tithes, 
with licence to construct woodlands into arable or pasture. 

As the Shotover Forest grant gave rise to some curious 
complications between this Master of the Buckhounds, the 
Admiralty, and the royal prerogative (in connection with 
the forest laws), and as the proceedings exhibit some quaint 
phrases in rural economy at this period, perhaps a brief 
account of these bickerings may be admissible here. It seems, 
according to a survey made by the Admiralty, that about 
this time there were 32,366 trees suitable for shipbuilding, 
in Shotover Forest, which were valued at 11,321Z. Is. 8d. 
Most of this timber was claimed by the Admiralty, but 
whenever that Board sent any of their officials to take view 
of the trees they proposed to fell, the Master of the Buck- 
hounds and his keepers came to loggerheads with them, and 
prevented them executing their commissions. As a natural 
consequence, complaints were made on both sides, but it 
seems that the influence of the Master of the Buckhounds 
with the King, to ward off the Admiralty, eventually pre- 
vailed, and the disafibrestation of the forest proceeded slowly 
but surely until it was, by the grantees, denuded of all its 
best timber. Among those who participated in the spoil 
was Archbishop Laud, who obtained a great quantity of 
timber from the forest to complete St. John's College, Oxford. 
When all of the best trees were cut down and disposed of, 
Sir Timothy Tyrell was summoned to attend at the chambers 
of the Attorney-General, in Lincoln's Inn, for the purpose of 
having the validity of his grant investigated. And when 
the dispute was formally submitted to Charles I., he decided 
in favour of his Master of the Buckhounds, and so the matter 
ended. A rather remarkable feature (but not an uncommon one 



134 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

in cognate circumstances) in the dispute was that Sir 
Timothy's keepers were, at this time (1G32), ten years in 
arrear of their salaries. 

In conclusion of our brief memoir of this Master of the 
Buckhounds it only remains to be stated that he, and Sir 
Thomas Badger, and Thomas Potts, enjoyed a royal licence 
to transport to any parts beyond the seas all manner of 
hounds, beagles, and sporting dogs, with a special command 
to the officers of ports not to admit any other person to 
transport any kind of sporting dogs without their permission 
first obtained in that behalf. Sir Timothy Tyrell died in 
December 1632, to the great regret of the King, who con- 
tinued to extend his favours to Lady Tyrell and her children, 
as we find a warrant under the Privy Seal was issued, in 
April 1633, to the Master and other officers of the Court 
of Wards and Liveries authorising them to discharge Lady 
Tyrell of the sum of SOOl. payable to the Crown by way 
of composition of a fine for the custody, wardship, and 
marriage of the son and heir, and also the yearly com- 
position and rent of 30^. payable during his minority. Sir 
Timothy's eldest son was knighted by Charles I. September 24, 
1643. 

As above mentioned, Sir Thomas Tyringham was reap- 
pointed on May 20, 1633, and thus became the tenth Master 
of this branch of the Royal Buckhounds, and that he held 
the office until his death, in January 1637. 

Robert Tyrwhitt, Esquire, eleventh Master of the House- 
hold branch of the Royal Buckhounds, temp. Charles I., from 
May 4, 1637, to January 6, 1651, was the second son of Robert 
Tyrwhitt, Esquire, of Scrotter, county Lincoln, and Anne, 
daughter of Edward Bassett, Esquire, of Fledborough, county 
Notts. He was placed in the household of Thomas Howard, 
first Earl of Sufiblk, Lord High Treasurer, temp. James I., and 
about this time he unfortunately added to the troubles of the 
famous Sir Walter Raleigh, by fighting a duel with Walter, his 
eldest son. A few years after Robert Tyrwhitt was introduced 



EGBERT TYRWHITT, ESQ., ELEVENTH MASTER. 135 

by Lord Suffolk to the service of Charles, Prince of Wales, and 
remained in it thirty-two years. He was a dashing horseman, 
and seems to have inherited all the predilection for the chase 
for which his ancestors were so notorious in ancient times. 
As to his early prowess in horsemanship, Sir John Finett 
records that when the Princess Henrietta Maria landed at 
Dover, he rode thence with the news of her safe arrival, 
" within half an hour and six minutes," to the King at Canter- 
bury, a distance of fifteen miles. Considering the state of the 
roads in those days this was considered to be a remarkably 
expeditious journey. On the accession of Charles I. Robert 
Tyrwhitt was appointed Eldest Esquire of the Horse, or what 
we would now term Senior Equerry to the King, from whom 
he received a pension of 100?. a year for life, by writ of Privy 
Seal dated November 25, 1625. In conjunction with Sir 
Francis Clarke, he was appointed joint Lieutenant of the 
Forests of Aylesholt and Wolmer, county Hants, for life, by a 
similar writ, dated June 19, 1629. About this time he became 
one of the largest butter-merchants in England ; probably in 
this line he had no equal in the whole world. As we have 
already seen, some of the Masters of the Buckhounds largely 
participated in the monopolies of the era. This growing evil 
assumed great dimensions in the reign of Charles I., by whom 
monopolies were granted indiscriminately to court favourites, 
and eventually led to flagrant abuses, which soon became a 
potent factor in the dissensions that culminated in the Civil 
War. In the case in point Robert Tyrwhitt, Esquire, " His 
Majesty's servant," on November 25, 1625, obtained a grant 
for twenty-one years for the yearly transporting five thousand 
barrels of butter out of England, for which he had to pay the 
King 100/. per annum, over and above all commissions and 
duties payable on the same.* In the following year (Septem- 
ber 1629) this grant was amended and renewed to him for a 

* This grant is also entered under date of July 1628 — "by order of the Earl 
of Marlborough, late Lord High Treasurer of England, subscribed by Mr. 
Attorney-General and procured by Mr. Gary of the Bedchamber." The last 
mentioned became Mr. Tyrwhitt's successor in 1660. 



136 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

further term of twenty -one years, by virtue of which he 
obtained a monopoly to transport beyond the seas into any 
kingdom or country in amity with the King three thousand 
two hundred barrels of butter yearly to be bought in the 
counties of Norfolk, Lincoln, and York, and other counties 
north of the county of York ; he paying to the King 2s. 6d. 
for every barrel of butter so transported, in lieu of all customs 
and duties for the same. He was not to buy any butter 
to be sent to any places where the price thereof exceeded 
4c?. per lb. The grant was to be void in case the Lord High 
Treasurer, or the Lords of the Privy Council, for the time 
beinsf, declared it to be inconvenient. Remonstrances and 
protests having been afterwards made relating to the hard- 
ships and inconveniences arising therefrom, the grantee got 
over the difficulty by paying a further rent of lOOl. to the 
King, and so the matter rested in May 1631. In the meantime 
this gallant cavalier obtained a grant for issuing billets upon 
all suits commenced in His Majesty's Courts of Justice in 
Wales, and the marshes of the same, with a fee of 2d. for every 
billet so issued. The Lord President, the Chief Justice, and 
justices within the Principality of Wales were commanded to 
take notice thereof ; but the principal notice they took of this 
new-fangled monopoly was to protest against it left and right ; 
and the Attorney-General went so far as to draft a document 
declaring the grant illegal. The King, however, was true to 
his trusty servant, and quashed the Attorney-General's pro- 
ceeding, consequently the grant remained in force. Subse- 
quently a new difficulty arose between the grantee and his 
deputy, who, in 1640, obtained an order in Chancery to fill 
the office and perform the duties of it during his life. There- 
upon the Master of the Buckhounds presented a formal 
petition to the King, in which he set forth that " his daily 
attendance on His Majesty " in various parts of the country 
prevented him opposing the motion made by his deputy in 
the Court of Chancery; that he had not time to instruct 
counsel, and that as he dare not trust the management of 
his cause to a solicitor, he prayed that the Lord Keeper be 



ROBEKT TYRWHITT, ESQ., ELEVENTH MASTER. 187 

requested to stay further proceedings until the next term, 
when he would be prepared to show cause that the said order 
should not stand. Before the next term came round the 
Roundheads gave the King and the cavaliers other work to 
do, and in the troubles that ensued billets of another sort put 
the 2d. billets of the Master of the Buckhounds quite out of 
court, consequently the final issue of this curious legal tempest 
in a teacup is lost to posterity. 

In following the windings of these monopolies we have got 
somewhat ahead of other and more important incidents in the 
course of Bobert T3'rwhitt's eventful life. In May 1632 he 
obtained a gi-ant of the manor and park of Hendley, couatj^ 
Surrey, at an annual rent of 10^. and a fine of 850/. to the 
Exchequer. In December 1634 he had licence to travel beyond 
the seas with three servants, 50/. in money, and all his necessary 
carriages. On April 12, 1636, a despatch was sent by the 
King to the Lord Deputy of Ireland, with a petition enclosed 
in favour of Robert Tyrwhitt, Esq., " His Majesty's servant." 
This is the last time he is so styled in the contemporary State 
papers. Afterwards he appears as the Master of the Buck- 
hounds, having been appointed to that post, in succession to 
Sir Thomas Tyringham, by patent, dated at Westminster, 
May 4, 1637. * This document is substantially the same 
(mutatis mutandis) as that granted to his predecessor by 
James I. in 1603, except that the new Master's salary was 
payable quarterly instead of half yearly, as in the previous 
cases. Practically his tenure of office must have been a brief 
and sorrowful one. The times were sadly out of joint. 
Hunting, racing, and all our national field sports were almost 
abandoned during this appalling interval. As we have seen, 
Robert Tyrwhitt received his annual salary of 33/. 6s. 8d. 
down to the year ended at Michaelmas 1640, and the last 
payment to him was for half a year ended at Michaelmas 
1642. With that year the accounts of the Treasurer of the 

* He was appointed Master of the Buckhounds by writ of Privy Seal, dated 
April 16, 1637, but the patent was not enrolled until May 4, 1637, which probably 
accounts for the difference in the dates of the two documents. 



138 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

Chamber came to an abrupt end. Nor are they again resumed 
until the Restoration. Hence we lose sio-ht of all details 
relating to this branch of the Royal Buckhounds for nearly 
twenty-one years. Very little remains to be told of this 
Master of the Buckhounds. He followed his unhappy 
sovereign throughout the Civil War, and, to use his own 
words, was in "daily" attendance upon him, from 16-40, until 
the flight of Charles I. from Oxford, on the night of April 
27, 1646, severed the intimacy which had prevailed for 
many years between the King and this Master of the Buck- 
hounds. Tyrwhitt remained in the besieged city for nearly 
two months ; and when the royal garrison surrendered to the 
Parliamentary forces, he obtained from General Sir Thomas 
Fairfax a pass, dated June 22, 1646, to go forth with his 
servants, horses, arms, and all other necessaries, and to repair, 
without molestation, to London, or elsewhere, upon his 
necessary occasions, and with protection to his person, goods, 
and estate, and to have liberty at any time within six months 
to go with his servants, etc., beyond the seas. However, we 
find he remained at home, as on June 28 he presented " his 
humble petition" to the Committee for Compounding with 
Delinquents, at Goldsmith Hall, London, in which he describes 
himself as one of His Majesty's Equerries and Master of the 
Buckhounds. He stoutl}^ declared his loyalty to the King, 
confessed that he attended on His Majesty's person " ever since 
the begininge of theis troubles, but was never in armes or 
had any martiall imployment whatsoever." Unlike many of 
the cavaliers, he neither took the negative oath nor conformed 
to the National Covenant ; and for his delinquencies he sub- 
mitted to the Sequestrators his poor estate, which at the 
time only consisted of a rent-charge of 200Z. per annum out of 
the manors of Butters wick and Freeston, in the county of 
Lincoln, and Kirkdighton, in the county of York. He adds 
that he held, by letters patent, the oflice of Lieutenant of the 
Forests of Alice Holt and Wolmer, in the county of Southamp- 
ton, during the term of his life, the fees of which amounted 
to Sll. lis. lOcl. From his statement of his income we may 



EOBEET TYKWHITT, ESQ., ELEVENTH MASTEE. 139 

safely conclude that no payment or fees were received by him 
from his office of Master of the Buckhounds in 1646 ; in all 
probability his salary was in arrear from Michaelmas 1642. 
His rent-charge, above mentioned, was also in arrear from 
1643, so that he must have been in very embarrassed cir- 
cumstances ; nevertheless, the Parliamentary Sequestrators 
imposed upon him a fine of 200/., as appears in the subjoined 
transcripts of the transaction : — 

To the hon'^''" the Comittee' for Compounclinge with Delinquents 

at Goldsmithes hall. 
The humble peticon of Robert Terwhitt one of his Ma"'^'* Equeries 
& Master of the Bvickhounds. 
Sheweth, — 

That the pef did (as hee humbly conceiueth he was bound by 
Oath & y" duty of his place)* attend on his Ma'"^^ p'son ever since 
the begininge of theis troubles ; but was neuer in Amies or had 
any martiall Imployment whatsoer. Only he humbly confeseth that 
he adhered to his Ma*"' in this waiTe against the Pai-liament and 
for his delinquency therein his Estate is vnder or liable to sequestra- 
tion. 

The pet'' hvimbly praieth hee may bee admitted to a fauorable 
composicon for liis delinquency according to the Articles of 
Oxford he being comp''hended within the same. And hee shall 
pray &c. 
28th Jni. 1646. 

{Sicj7ied) R. TERWHIT. 

Robert Terwhitt of London, one of his Mat"* Equerries, and Master 
of his Buckhounds. 

His Dehnquency, that he deserted his dwellinge and went to 
Oxford and lined there whiles it was a Garrison holden for the 
Kinge against the Parliam*'^ and was theire at the tyme of the 
Surrender, and is to haue the benefit of those Articles as by 
S"" Thomas Fairfax Certificate of the 28th of June 1646 doth 
appeare. 

he hath neither taken the negative oath, nor Natoriall Couvnant 
but prayes to be therein spared, vpon the Articles of Oxford 
and vote of the house of Comons pursuant. 

* The words in the brackets are cancelled. 



140 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

he compounds vpon a perticuler deliuered vnder his hand by 

which he doth submit to such Fine &c. and by which it doth 

appeare, 
That he is seized of an Annuity or rent charge duringe tearme 

of I his life issueinge out of tlie manno'"* of Butterwicke and 

Freeston in the County of Lincoln, and Kirkdighton in the 

County of Yorke of the yeerely value of 200^\ 
Whereof there is foure yeers arreare, for which he also desires to 

compound. 
That he is Leiutenant by Ires Patents of the Forrests of Alice Holt 

and Wolmer in the County of Southampton dui'ingo tearme of 

his life, the fee thereof is 311. lis. lOd. 
19 December 1646. 

Fine 200/. 

His occupation gone, his estate sequestrated, and without 
hope for the future, Robert Tyrwhitt lingered unmolested at 
Hampton Court for a few years. He died on January G, 
1651, aged sixty-one, and was buried in Hampton Church, 
where a monument is erected to his memory. 



Now, in bringing this chapter to a conclusion, and in taking 
a retrospective view of the affairs of the Royal Buckhounds 
during the reigns of the first and second sovereigns of the 
House of Stuart, one is naturally struck by the absence of 
any full and reliable account of the " runs " with the pack, 
particularly as ample and authentic details abound relating 
to the annual expenses and the entire staff from 1603 to 
1640. Unfortunately we have no means to enable us to 
supply an omission so important and so interesting. It is the 
old story, and one that shall endure in these pages until we 
approach the reign of George II., when the chroniclers of that 
time devoted some attention in recording some of the passing 
events of the " Sport of Kings." There is, notwithstanding, 
no lack of inferential evidence by which we can, to some 
extent, picture to ourselves the pleasures of the chase as it 
was then enjoyed by the followers of the Royal Buckhounds. 
But no scribe or " intellenwer " of that era ever dreamt that 



KEFLECTIONS ON SPORT WITH THE PACK. 141 

an ordinary "run" with this, or with any other pack of 
hounds, would be worth the trouble to record or describe. 
Such common-place occurrences were enjoyed day by day 
" in the season of the year," perhaps talked of at the moment, 
and then emphatically forgotten. But, if happily some unto- 
ward incident occurred, and if some kind gossip happened to 
be writing, on the occasion, to some friend afar, in lieu of more 
important news, the untoward incident, in that emergency, 
might serve as a stopgap, and be unearthed in after ages, if not 
to point a moral and adorn a tale, it would prove to future 
generations that in hunting, at any rate, there is nothing new 
under the sun. Thus we find Mr. Chamberlain writing to Sir 
Dudley Carleton, September 4, 1624, that there was " great 
sport at Windsor at the hunting of Cropear, a noted and 
notorious stag, whose death was solemnised with so much 
joy and triumph as if it had been some great conquest, there 
wanting nothing but bells and bonfires." In this accidental 
bit of gossip we ascertain the fact that in those days, as in 
these, a quarry which had given rare runs, perhaps for many 
successive seasons, became popular with the followers of the 
hunt and identified by a specific patronymic. And, when 
" the King had a dangerous fall when hunting," or when 
His Majesty was thrown " into the river and nearly drowned " 
whilst enjoying the chase, these royal "spills" were occasionally 
noticed by the chroniclers of the times. But we seek in vain 
for further particulars. All the rural annals of the era, so far as 
a descriptive run with the Royal Buckhounds in those days, 
will, we fear, be drawn blank. 

In the absence of actual contemporary information giving 
the vicissitudes of a run with the Royal pack, during the 
period now under review, there is, nevertheless, ample evi- 
dence from which we may deduce that the riding was not 
only fast and furious, but that at the same time it was con- 
ducted under the rules and customs of the art of venery then 
in vogue. Then, as now, the horse was the primary element in 
the chase. Speed and endurance were the essential qualifica- 
tions of the hunter. He had to be proficient in all his paces 



142 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

and to take his fences without a blunder. There was a great 
demand for hunters of that class, and, apparently, hunters of 
that class were obtainable to meet that demand. Of course in 
this class there were degrees of quality. The choice and select 
hunter of the early Stuart period in England was tended and 
trained with all the care bestowed on the racehorse of our 
own times. The hunting match of those days corresponded 
with the steeplechase of our days, save that under the early 
seventeenth-century rules of racing and 'chasing the horse and 
horsemanship of the " tryer " was paramount, for the result 
and the honour of the " hunting-match " depended on the 
" tryer," and not upon the jockey and the horse by which he 
was represented in the match. These sporting events were 
ridden over many miles, intersected with such natural obstacles 
and fences as were peculiar to the course selected for the race, 
and the race had to be ridden under the complicated rules 
and regulations alluded to as above, which have long been 
obsolete and now are almost forgotten. 

These circumstances appropriately lead us on to the subject 
of hunting " at force " which prevailed in those dsiys. In the 
Accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber we find hardly any 
reference to the horses used in hunting the Royal Buckhounds. 
The hunters ridden to the hounds by the King, the Master, 
and hunt-servants nominally came under the cognisance and 
supervision of the Master of the Horse. But it further appears 
that, for this purpose, the Sovereign depended more on his 
own private studs for these mounts than upon the official 
studs under the control of the Master of the Horse. Thus, in 
treating this important element, we lose sight of the Sovereign's 
private and particular stud of hunters ; and the only informa- 
tion available on these points appertains to the lesser and more 
insignificant ofticial studs under the Master of the Horse. It 
is therefore almost impossible to get the actual number of 
hunting horses annually allocated to this particular service 
with the Hoyal Buckhounds. We find commissions issued 
from time to time, " according to the ancient form," to Sir 
Thomas Tyringham and to Robert Tyrwhitt, Esq., to obtain, 



HUNTING HORSES. 143 

wherever they attended the King in his royal disport, provi- 
sions for horses, the number of horses varying from forty-eight 
to eighty.* Snape, the marshal farrier, invariably pre- 
sented a heavy bill for extras on account of the Royal Stud, 
but independent of this, Woodcock, " yeoman farrier for His 
Majesty's hunting horses," made a separate claim, and had his 
claim allowed.! 

Horses were also required for the deer-van and the hound- 
van. These were ponderous four-wheel waggons. One men- 
tioned in the Accounts of the Great Wardrobe for 1630 cost 
236/. ; repairing an old one cost 94/. 14s. 4id. ; the total cost 
for incidentals, under this head alone, having amounted to 
511/. lis. Sd. And from another source we find all Mayors, 
Sheriffs, Justices, etc., were to see that due provision was 
made, when required, for a sufficient team of horses or oxen, 
with harness to draw the waggons to such place as the King 
shall appoint.! 

* The Master and the hunt-servants also enjoyed a preemj^tion to obtain hay, 
oats, and straw "at easy rates," which was ''a great benefit " to them. This 
privilege, however, terminated ■^\T.th the reign of Charles I. In a MS. Book of 
Stable Warrants, dated 1630, we find there were, at this time, "20 of the 
King's hunting horses maintained on the establishment of the Master of the 
Horse. Each of those animals was provided annually with a wattering head- 
stall and reins of red leather, a pair of pastrons, trammels, a double collar, a 
double reins, a white and green cloth, horse-howses lined with canvas and 
Ijordered with white and green cloth, a canvas hood, a leading reins, a 
sursingle of brown web, a horse-combe, a main-comb, a sponge, a round 
hair brush, 48 ells of canvas for a bag, a dusting cloath, a hunting snaffle, a 
girth, and a stirrup leather. The King was furnished through this Depart- 
ment with 10 hunting saddles a year, which were covered with coloured velvet, 
garnished with gold and silver lace and fringe. To each saddle there were 
4 silver-gilt nails and silver fringe. Each saddle had an undercloath garnished 
with silver and gold lace, stirrup leathers, gh'ths, stirrup irons, etc. All the 
principal officials of the Household are mentioned as being entitled to certain 
provision of horses and accoutrements for the same." — Lo7'd Chamberlain's 
Records, G.W., vol. i., R.L. 829, etc. 

f " Henry Woodcock yeoman farrier for H.M. hunting horees for divers 
drenches, oyntments and other medicines by him employed for H.M. service 
for a year ended at Michaelmas 1640, 2GI. is. 2d." 

% " Thomas Jones, Esq., Master of H.M. Toyles by warrant dated the 18th April 
1640 for his own, with John Wood and Asa Scandover, yeomen of the Toyles, 
their allowances for taking red deer in eight walks in Windsor Forest, and for 



144 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

Apart from the Master and the hunt-servants, it would 
appear that the " Equerries of the hunting stable," affiliated 
with the Royal Hunt, were a corps of gentlemen in the enjoy- 
ment of good appetites. By a writ of Privy Seal, dated 
February 10, 1626-7, the Treasurers of the Exchequer were 
ordered to pay the Cofferers of the Household " the sum of 
five hundred, three score, and nineteen pounds, for a diet of 
six dishes of meat every meal with bouche of Court and all 
other allowances incident to the same diet, for one whole year 
from henceforward to be fully complete, which we [Charles I.] 
are graciously pleased to allow to the equerries of our hunting 
stable." The grant was to remain in force, and the money 
to pay for their rations to continue until " such time as our 
pleasure shall be signified to the contrary." 



From these circumstances there can be no doubt -that every 
element conducive to give good sport with the Royal pack 
was in a thoroughly efficient state. It would also appear the 
pace was a cracker, and "grief" by no means infrequent. 
Accidents among the followers of the Royal Buckhounds in 
those, as in subsequent times, must have been a common 
occurrence in the hunting field, otherwise the services of 
Richard Vincent and Edward Kingsley, the " bonesetters " 
in ordinary to the pack, would not be required. These 
gentlemen probably filled a position similar to Dr. Frazer, 
" the hunting chirurgeon " to James II. And in those times 
there were casualties in the hunting field which are impos- 
sible in our day. For instance : on Friday, September 16, 
1686, when the Royal Buckhounds were hunting in Windsor 
Forest, Mr. Henry Percy — ^younger brother to Algernon, Earl 
of Northumberland, created afterwards by Charles I. Baron 

monies by him disbursed for tlie taking of them in Toyles and for, the carriage 
of those deer to H.M. new park at Richmond, which service continued from 
November then past to Michaelmas following [i.e., 1640], 212Z. 16«. id." [The 
salary of the Master of the Toyles was 66Z. I3s. M., that of the two yeomen 
1«. a day wages, and 40.'.-. each per annum for livery.] 



CHAELES I. AND THE NEW PARK, RICHMOND. 145 

Percy of Alnwick — and the King were up simultaneously 
when the stag was pulled down. Percy drew his coteau-de- 
chase to grarlloch the stag. His glove being wet, caused his 
hand to slip down to the blade, which cut two of his fingers 
so severely, that the surgeon by whom the wounds were 
dressed feared " he would hardly ever recover the use of those 
two fingers." 

Charles I. was a fine horseman. His knowledge of the 
manrge is testified by the Duke of Newcastle in his great 
work on the art and mystery of equitation, so far as perfect 
horsemanship was understood in those (the last) days of the 
Cavaliers. His equestrian portrait by Van Dyck is all dignity 
and grace. Indeed, he was the personification of culture and 
refinement, and of every attribute indigenous of the "real 
gentleman " of that era. He was devotedly attached to 
hunting and field sports, in which he could hold his pride 
of place against all comers. Like other mighty monarchs, he 
took his hounds with him in his military expeditions {Gal. 
Belvoir MS., vol. i., p. 520) ; but as these expeditions ended 
in disaster and ruin, the less we say of them the better. 
During the brief period dating from the League of the Covenant 
to the assembling of the Long Parliament, when the nation 
was comparatively free of acute agitation, Charles L formed 
the New Park, at Richmond, with the intention to make it 
the headquarters of the Royal Hunt, and stocked it with herds 
of red and fallow deer, which were derived chiefly from 
Windsor and Epping Forests. . It appears, however, the 
enclosure of the New Park could not be accomplished without 
the consent of those parishes which had a right of common 
on the wastes, and the owners of estates intermingled with 
them ; consequently the King was obliged to purchase their 
rights to 265 acres belonging to the Manor of Petersham, and 
483 acres in that of Ham, for 400^. Exclusive of these, 
Richmond New Park consisted of 650 acres in Mortlake, 
230 acres in Putney, about 200 acres in Richmond and 
Kingston, in all about 2,253 acres. But this intention of 
Charles I. was not carried out to the contemplated extent, 

10 



146 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

and the ensuing Civil War rendered its accomplishment 
impossible for the time being. Nevertheless it is a singular 
circumstance that the New Park, Richmond, was destined 
to become the headquarters of the Royal Hunt about a 
hundred years after this time, when the hereditary heir of 
Charles I. was a fugitive, and when another dynast}^ reigned 
in his kingdom. 

The domestic troubles so prominent in those days militated 
against the enjoyment of rural sports, consequently we hear 
very little of the proceedings of the Royal Buckhounds in the 
hunting field. The antagonism of the King with the majority 
of his subjects left few harmonious intervals during his unhappy 
reign. He had hardly ascended the throne when the Plague 
began to depopulate the land. Then, in rapid succession, 
followed the afl'air of Diggs and Eliot, shipmoney, Bucking- 
ham's fiasco at Rhe, — whereby the prestige of the nation was 
ruined for the time being, — troubles with the Parliament, 
the binef interval of quiescence from the Peace with France 
and Spain down to the appointment of Stafford and the 
republication of the " Book of Sports." Then John Hampden 
appeared, the Star Chamber, pillory and mutilation, the 
League of the Covenant, the expedition against the Scots, 
which happily ended in a Royal hunting journey, more 
trouble in Parliament, another Royal hunting journey to 
the North, the King in league with the Lords, the Long 
Parliament, the impeachment of Strafford and Laud, the 
Royal flight from London, the Standard set up at Nottingham, 
followed by eight dreary years of blood, fire, and rapine, 
terminating on the scaffold at Whitehall, January SO, 1649, 
with the word " Remember." Alas ! we only remember to 
forget; and often when we endeavour to ascertain what the 
Remembrancers have recorded, the oflicial dog in the manger 
snarls defiance, whining incoherentific yelps. 

On the outbreak of the Civil War, fish, game, and poultry 
in the British Islands had a bad time of it. However, rabbits 
and Roundheads seem to have got on pretty well, to the 
prejudice of higher game. About this time the coustableship 



POACHING — DESTRUCTION OF THE DEEK. 147 

of Windsor Castle, with custody of game in the forest and 
parks thereto appertaining, was conferred on the Earl of 
Pembroke, " basest among the base," but not until very little 
game was left for protection, as poaching was indulged in 
on a holy and a wholesale scale, truly commensurate with 
enlightened views inculcated by the worthy citizens who 
saved their country from such dire consequences in those 
Cromwellian days. Frequent orders were issued for the 
preservation of game. Sheriffs and justices of the peace were 
ordered to suppress all unlawful hunting of deer, nevertheless 
the abuse continued unabated. On February 18, 1641, the 
Earl of Holland informed the Lords " of the ofreat destruction 
and killings of His Majesty's deer in the Forrest of Windsor, 
especially in the New Lodge, where the people of the country, 
in a continuous and tumultuous manner, have lately killed a 
hundred of His Majesty's fallow deer, and besides red deer, 
and do threaten to pull down the pales about the said lodge." 
Investigations were ordered; some transgressors were occasion- 
ally ammerced, but poaching became so general that Cromwell, 
on September 4, 1649, was compelled to issue a proclamation 
prohibiting soldiers (who were the principal offenders) to keep 
hounds or greyhounds for killing deer in chases, parks, or 
warrens. According to a survey of Windsor Forest, made 
by order of Parliament February 27, 1649-50, there had been 
no deer in it for " several yeares past " ; '■' but rabbits were 
represented to be abundant. The deputy-keeper of the forest 
about this time narrates as follows : " I sent out my keepers 
into Windsor Forest to harbour a stag to be hunted to-morrow 
morning (August 23) ; but I persuaded Colonel Ludlow that 
it would be hard to show him any sport, the best stags being 
all destroyed, but he was very earnest to have some sport, 
and I thought not fit to 'deny him." A stag being found, 
his Republican friends met Colonel Ludlow next morning 
by daybreak. He adds, " it was a young stag, but very 

* According to a survey of the estates, etc., " of the late Charles Stuart," 
made, by order of Parliament, March 20, 1649-50, the deer in Windsor Great 
Park were then estimated to be of the value of 951/, 



148 THE HISTOEY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

lusty, and led the gallants at the first ring above twenty 
miles." (Memorials, p. 424.) 

It is a pure conjecture as to the hounds or the hunt- 
servants that followed the lusty young stag in the rare run 
enjoyed, on that occasion, by Colonel Ludlow and his Crom- 
wellian friends. As above mentioned, nothing is heard of 
the Royal hounds after the Civil War began. It is probable 
the hunt-servants, loyal to, and adhering to the King, would 
hardly participate in this " ring of above twenty miles." Who 
can tell where the latter were on that particular day ? Sad 
to say, the ultimate fate of some of those good and faithful 
servants is put beyond a doubt. Soon after the Restoration, 
a question arose in the department of the Great Wardrobe 
as to the liveries of the servants of the Buckhounds redivivus. 
It then and there transpired that the following " dyed before 
ye King's arrival " — viz., Thomas White, Edward Stanton, 
Anthony Holland, William Lowman, William Bathe, Edward 
Lambert, Edward Kingleys, John Hakes, John Cockers, 
William Cocker, William Ludman, George Fryer, Henry 
Dover, William Hopkins, G, Williams, George Fowler, and 
Ralph Read. Truly a sad finish to a sad chapter ! (Lord 
Chamberlains Records, Series III., Bundle 2.) 



149 



CHAPTER VII. 

HOUSEHOLD BRANCH— CHARLES IL, 1660-1G85. 

John Gary, Esq., Twelfth Master : July 7, 1661 to February 5, 1685.— The Hunt- 
Servants. — Their Salaries, Fees, and Emoluments. — The Cost and Affairs of 
the Pack during the Reign of Charles II. — Deer. 

John Gary, Esq., Twelfth Master of the Household branch 
of the Royal Buckhounds, temp. Charles II. — from July 7, 
1661, to February 5, 168.5 — was the son and heir of Sir 
Philip Cary, of Chaddington, county Herts. Who his mother 
was we are unable to say, as she is not even mentioned in 
any of the family pedigrees in print or in MS. available 
for reference, neither is her son, the subject of this memoir, 
whose life and career is a blank in biographical literature. 
His father was knighted by James I. at Greenwich, on 
March 2.S, 1605 ; he died in June 1631. Sir Philip Cary's 
eldest brother, Sir Henry Cary, first Viscount Falkland, was 
killed in Theobald's Park in September 1633, through the 
collapse of a stand upon which he was viewing some hunting 
or racing match. As to his Lordship's nephew, the Master of 
the Buckhounds to whom we are now referring, the earliest 
occurrence of his name in the State Papers of this period is 
in reference to the appointment, conferred upon him by 
James I., to the Custody of Marylebone Park, in the county 
of Middlesex — an office that had been held by his ancestors 
from the timo of Queen Elizabeth. In his patent to this 
ofiice (which is dated at Westminster Palace, February 7, 
1622), he, or his sufficient deputy, or deputies, obtained a 
grant (of the custody) of the whole of Marylebone Park for 



150 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

the natural term of his life, with the deer therein ; also all the 
lodges, barns, stables, houses, and edifices therein, with a 
salary of 8d. per day ; pasture for 32 cows, 2 bulls, 10 geldings^ 
4 breeding mares, one mare called a stalking mare, and one ox 
called a stalking ox ; 30 loads of hay, to be moved yearly 
upon the premises, and 20 loads of wood, called browse-wood, 
and windfall wood yearly in the said park during his life. In 
those days Marylebone Park was full of wild deer and other 
game ; a royal preserve that frequently afforded the King and 
foreign potentates rare sport. * It is now known as Regent's 
Park, situated almost in the heart of London ; a delightful 
retreat on a summer's evening, but at the very time when it is 
most enjoyable the public are expelled, why or wherefore it is 
impossible to say, except it is in fear they might (according 
to precedent) go stalking the lions or similar big game in the 
Zoo. Soon after the accession of Charles I., Mr, Gary obtained 
from that monarch a confirmation of the Custody of Maryle- 
bone Park, with all fees, rights, and privileges thereunto be- 
longing. At this time he was a prime favourite with the 
king, to whom he was one of the Gentlemen of the Privy 
Chamber. In this capacity he was in frequent attendance 
upon His Majesty until a few months before the surrender 
of the royal garrison at Oxford, in June 1646. It seems, 
however, that four years before the royal cause was abso- 
lutely lost, he was appointed to the ofiice of Master of the 
Privy Buckhounds to Charles, Prince of Wales, with the 

* The Duke of Holstein, " the Queen's Majesty's Brother," paid a hunting 
Tisit to England, and " sondiie times " enjoyed the pleasures of the chase in 
company with King James in the vicinity of the Metropolis, Windsor, etc. 
When in London the Duke lodged at the Earl of Derby's house in Channel 
How, then noted for its stables, etc. The Constable of Calais was also a 
distinguished visitor in the hunting field at this time. 

" To S'' Kicharde Connigesbie Knighte Gentleman vsher dailie waitor for 
thallowaunce of himselfe one yeoman usher fower yeoman twoe groomes of the 
chamber twoe gromes of the wardrobe and one groome porter for makeinge 
xeadie at Whitehalle for the Kinges Ma"'^ and the Duke of Houlsten twoe 
severalle times when his Ma''" rode a huntinge vnto Mariboue parke by the 
space of viij dayesmense Aprilis 1605 viij" xij*. iiij'^" {Wardrohe Ace. T. of C, 
Lord Stanhoj}c, B. 3, vi. 133 d. See, further, Ibid., m. 135 d.) 



JOHN CAEY, ESQ., TWELFTH MASTER. 151 

fee of 20/, a year and a pension of 100/. per annum. We 
can find no patent or lenrolment of this appointment; the 
office must have been a nominal one during those days of 
civil strife, and from 1641 to 1660 it was necessarily in total 
abeyance. We cannot find any payments to Mr. Gary by 
right of this office, nor to the hunt-servants under him ; but 
those officials asserted their respective claims after the P.,esto- 
ration, and had their claims allowed, as we find they were 
promoted to somewhat similar posts in the regal pack, when 
the Royal Buckhounds were re-established in 1660-61. 

As we have already mentioned in the preceding chapter, 
according to the terms of the capitulation of Oxford, Mr. Gary 
had the option of quitting the country, or to compound for 
his estates within six months. He adopted the latter course, 
apparently with great reluctance, having delayed to avail 
himself of the period of grace allowed to delinquents until 
the last moment. This conduct excited the suspicions of the 
Parliamentarians, by whom he was accused of infringing the 
terms of the treaty of Oxford; and although he escaped at 
the time, the charge was subsequently renewed, which in- 
volved him in serious consequences. By order of both Houses 
of Parliament he obtained licence, on December 12, 1646, to 
continue within the cities of Westminster and London, or 
elsewhere within the lines of communication, or within twenty 
miles distant of the said lines, for the purpose of proceed- 
ing with the composition of his estate. This proved a tedious 
affair, as his petition to the Committee for Gompounding 
was not presented until April 20, 1649. In this document 
he describes himself as " John Gary, of Maribone Park, in 
the county of Middlesex, Esq.," and he sets forth that, 
being a sworn servant in ordinary to the late King, he did 
by His Majesty's command attend his person at Oxford, 
and other garrisons held against the Parliament, and did 
adhere to the King, but never was in arms.* He then 

* It seems, nevertheless, he took an active part in the affairs of the King, and 
transacted, under cover, some delicate correspondence with the Loyalists out- 
side of Oxford, as appears from Baillie's Letters and Correspondence. 



152 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

gives a statement of his estate, which comprised a moiety of 
the Manor of Minster, county Kent, of the yearly value 
before the wars of 700/., the Manor of Hinslet, county York, 
and other lands and mills there, to the yearly value of 
126/. 135. M. ; a life interest in Maribone Park, by patent 
of the late King, which was to him before the war worth, 
yearly 250Z. ; a right to the Manor of Stanwell and its rectory, 
and a warren in Colnebrook, county Middlesex, of the yearly 
value of 300/., which was decreed against him in Chancery 
in Trinity Term 1649, and therefore he prayed a saving to 
compound for it, until such time as he could recover it ; an 
estate in the counties of Cardigan and Carmarthen, worth 
300/. a year, for which he had compounded with the seques- 
trators for South Wales. His debts and obligations amounted 
to several thousand pounds. Upon this statement he was 
amerced in a fine of 600/. This fine was confirmed in 
January 1651, when he was ordered to pay it with interest 
within fourteen days. 

In the interval pending the final settlement of Mr. Gary's 
delinquency, the tenants of his estate in Kent were ordered 
to hold the harvest and account to the sequestrators for the 
same. Thus we get the following agricultural curiosities of 
farm produce, as it stood in this part of Kent for the season 
ended at Michaelmas 1649 : 23 acres 12 perches of wheat 
3/. 10s. per acre ; 24 acres of barley, 2/. 2s. per acre ; 21 acres 
ditto, 2/. 6s. per acre; 7 acres of tares, 21. lis. per acre; 1 acre 
3 roods of beans, 2/. 15s. per acre; 14 acres 3 roods of peas, 
3/. Ss. Qd. per acre. 

The Parliament having granted, in 1645, 8,000/. a year to 
H.H. Charles Ludovic, Prince Palatine of the Rhine, and 
decreed that the vote was to be charged upon certain estates 
in delinquency, the sum of 381/. was paid out of the estate of 
John Cary, Esq., in the county of Middlesex, for that purpose, 
in the year ended January 20, 1649. On November 19, 1650, 
Mr. Cary took the national oath, and after this date we hear 
nothing further of him till the Restoration. 

Soon after Charles II. ascended the throne in 1660, Mr. 



JOHN GARY, ESQ., TWELFTH MASTEE. 153 

John Gary was among the first to welcome his quondam Royal 
Master on his return to his native land. The King thereupon 
included his ex-master of the privy Buckhounds in the general 
amnesty, by which he was purged of any treason, overt or 
intended, against His Majesty's sacred person and prerogatives. 
This was more a matter of form than of necessity, seemingly 
quite unnecessary for a person of Mr. Gary's undoubted 
loyalty, save so far as the circumstance of his having sub- 
scribed to the National Gonvention in 1650, which might 
possibly be afterwards raked up to his disadvantage, but this 
" pardon " rendered such a contingency impossible, even in 
the intrigues of the corrupt Gourt of the Merry Monarch. 
Mr. Gary did not lose much time in pushing his claims on 
the royal bounty, as we find that he petitioned the King in 
August 1660 to be restored to his right of the custody of 
Marylebone Park, of which he was deprived in 1642, as well 
as a grant of the timber felled therein and still on the ground, 
for repairing the lodges * in the said park. In this matter he 
was successful ; consequently, he at once resumed his duties, and 
enjoyed the profits and privileges of the post until Marylebone 
Park was disparked as a royal game preserve exactly eight 
years afterwards, when he and all the gamekeepers under him 
were discharfjed from further attendance or service in or 
concerning the same. On November 6, 1600, a special warrant 
was issued to the Lords of the Treasury to pay John Gary, Esq., 
and others, the sum of 1,000/. for His Majesty's service — for 
what purpose is not mentioned. As we shall presently see, 
this grant referred to re-stocking the Royal forests, parks, and 
chaces with deer. The reinstitution of the Royal Buckhounds 
had been engaging the attention of the King and the Gourt 
officials for some time, although Mr. Gary was not actually 
appointed Master of the Household branch of the pack until 
July 7, 1661 — the date of his patent to that office. This 
document sets forth that he was entitled to hold the Master- 

* The chief, or royal lodge, erected for James I., at the entrance of St, John's 
Wood, within the precincts of Marylebone Forest, is now the property of the 
Marquis of Bute. 



154 THE HISTOKT OF THE KOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

ship for the natural term of his life, with the wages and fee of 
83/. 6s. Hd. per annum, payable quarterly out of the Exchequer, 
at the usual feasts, and to hold the office in as full and ample 
manner as his predecessor, Robert Tyrwhitt, Esq., " aut aliquis 
al' offic'm ill' antehac." About a month prior to the date of 
this patent we find the following royal warrant bearing the 
King's signature was issued in Mr. Gary's behalf: — 

" Charles E.. 

" Our will and pleasure is That you prepare a Bill for our Eoyall 
Signature conteyning a Privy Seale to Warrant & authorise Our 
high Treasurer and vnder Treasurer of Our Exchequer for the time 
being, out of such treasure as shall from time to time bee & remaine 
in Our Receipt of Exchequer to issue and pay vnto Our Seruant 
John Carey Esq'' Master of Our Buckhounds the Sum' of fewer 
hundred pounds a yeare upon Accompt for the keeping of Our said 
Buckhounds and all other the charges incident and belonging to y® 
keeping of them excepting only the feeding for w'^^ there is an 
allowance of one hundred pounds a yeare formerly given vnto 
Francis Dodsworth by Lres Patents from Our Late Father of 
glorious memory. The said Summe of fower hundred pounds to be 
paid vnto the said John Carey or his sufficient Deputie or Deputies 
quarterly by euen & equall Por'cions ; the first payment to begin 
from the Feast of S*^ Michael last past, and to continue during Our 
pleasure. For wh^*' this shalbee yo"" Warrant. Giuen at Our Court 
at Whitehall the day of June 1661. 

By his Ma'® Command, 

Edw. Nicholas. 

To the Clerck of 

Our Signet attending." 

There are some conflicting circumstances in these two docu- 
ments not easy to reconcile. The Master's salary, according to 
his patent, is only 33/. 6s. 8d. a year, and he was only paid at 
that rate" for one quarter of a year ended at Michaelmas 1G60, 
viz., 8/. 6s. 8(/." B}^ the royal warrant his stipend is increased 
to 400/. a year. But on the ensuing August 24 his salary on the 
Civil List Establishment was further increased to 500/. a year 



JOHN GARY, ESQ., TWELFTH MASTEE. 155 

during the King's pleasure, as appears by the subjoined royal 
warrant : — 

Charles the Second by the Grace of God King of England, 
Scotland, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith &c. To the 
Treasurer and Under Treasurer of Our Exchequer now and for the 
time being Greeting. Our will and pleasure is and we do hereby 
require and authorise you out of such oiu' treasure as shall from 
time to time remain and be in the receipt of our Exchequer to pay 
and cause to be paid unto our servant John Gary Esq. Master of 
Our Privy Buckhounds or his asignees the sum of Five hundred 
Pounds of lawful money of England by the year, without account? 
for and towards all charges incident and belonging to the keeping 
of our said Buckhounds (excepting only the feeding for which 
Francis Dodsworth hath an allowance of One hundred Pounds by 
the year formerly granted by Letters Patents from Our Royal 
Father of glorious memory and lately confirmed by Us). The said 
sum of Five hundred Pounds to be paid to the said John Gary or 
his assinnee or assignees at the usual Feasts or Terms of the year, 
that is to say, the Feasts of the Birth of Our Lord God, the Annun- 
ciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Nativity of St. John the 
Baptist, and St. Michael the Archangle, quarterly by even and 
equal proportions. The first payment thereof to begin from the 
Feast of St. Michael the Archangle last past before the date 
thereof. And to be continued unto him for and during Our 
pleasure. In consideration of which allowance the said John Gary 
hath resigned and given up his right or pretence to any pensions 
or privy seals which were granted or intended him as Master of 
the Buckhounds to Us when We were Prince of Wales, and since 
our happy Eestoration amounting to Two hundred and twenty 
Pounds by the year. And these our letters shall be your discharge. 
Given under our Privy Seal at Our Palace of Westminster the 
24th day of August in the 13th year of our reign. 

Samuel Pepys Dep' Com'"' de Sandw"^''. 

Mr. Gary's pension of 
500^. per annum. 

To the Treasurer and Under-treasurer 
of our Exchequer now and for the time being. 
— State Pcvpers Domestic, Charles II., vol. xL, No. 53. 



15(3 THE HISTOEY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

The second payment to him in the accounts of the Treasurer 
of the Chambers is at the rate of 500/. a year, as appears by 
the following entry : — 

" To John Gary Esq. Master of His Majesty's Buckhounds for 
his wages and in consideration of all other charges incident and 
belonging to the keeping of the said Buckhounds (except only the 
feeding) by vertue of a warrant under the Privy Signet dated the 
13th of May 1662, and due to him for half a year ended at Lady 
Day 1661—250/." 

His remuneration continued at 500/. a year from 1661 to the 
year ended at Christmas 1678, except for the year 1677, when 
he appears to have only received 125/. for one quarter's salary. 
After the year 1678 his name does not again occur in the 
accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber, This final payment 
was not made to him till 1682, most of the payments to this 
Master and the hunt-servants being usually several years in 
arrears. 

Now, as to the yearly cost of this branch of the Roj'^al 
Buckhounds, as we find it re-established by Charles II. in the 
years 1660-61, it is almost impossible to get at the exact 
amount for any given year during the reign of the Merry 
Monarch, Not that the accounts of the pack are inaccurate or 
badly kept ; but the payments to the hunt-servants having 
been continually in arrears is where the difficulty lies. As 
will be seen in the subjoined details, the cost of the pack on 
the Establishment of the Civil List up to March 1668 was 
(nominally) 2,248/. 9s. *Jd. per annum.* This sum was appor- 
tioned to defray the charges of the Master, and thirty-four 
hunt-servants under him — viz., one sergeant, first and second 
yeoman, six yeomen prickers, thirteen yeomen, eight grooms, 
one harbinger, and two helpers. Each of those officials obtained 
their respective appointments for life ; their salaries were 
supposed to be paid quarterly out of the Exchequer of the 
Household, but they were only too glad to get any portion of 
their wages long after it was due, just as the finances of the 

* Add. M8. 28080, fo. 63. 8.P.D., Car. II., Bundle 239, No. 374. 



YEARLY COST DURING THE REIGN OF CHARLES II. 157 

royal treasury permitted. It seems the hunt-servants were 
entitled to sell, or otherwise dispose of their offices to any 
sufficient deputy — provided the King or the Lord Chamberlain 
approved of the transference ; but as the security was so 
equivocal very little business was done in that respect. Mr. 
Francis Dodsworth, the sergeant of the pack— who held the 
same office by patent in the reign of Charles I., with a salary 
of 50/. a year, a pension of 50/. a yeai", and an allowance of 
100/. a year for keeping and feeding sixteen couple of buck- 
hounds — now surrendered that patent into the High Court 
of Chancery to be cancelled, whereupon another patent was 
granted to him to hold the same office with the wages of 
10s. ll^d. per day, " which amounteth to the said sum of 200/. 
a year formerly allowed to him, wanting only the twice half- 
penny, to be paid to him, his assignees, &c., during the natural 
term of his life."* The other officers of this branch of the 
royal pack were entitled to a salary ranging from 4s. 2|f(Z. to 
lOd. a day each, and in most cases certain annual allowance for 
two suits of livery a year. To these sums must be added the 
King's free gift and reward to the huntsmen for their attendance 
from Midsummer to Michaelmas, an annual donation usually 
amounting to about 156/. 16s. 4c/. However, those halcyon 
days did not long continue. The Treasury of Charles II., 
always in a strained condition, exhibited grave symptoms in 
1677, for which year the total allocated to the officers of the 
Buckhounds was no more than 790/. 12s. 4f(^., principally 
arrears, and even this sum was not distributed until three 
years later (in 1680). The payments for 1678 were still worse 
— total 427/. 19s. 4|c/. ; while those for the following year 
dropped to 162/. 14s. 2d. As a matter of fact, the Royal 
Exchequer was practically bankrupt — the Civil List being 
almost suspended — most of the Court officials " utterly un- 
done." Yet the King continued to lavish vast sums on his 
favourite mistresses ! At the same time he had hardly a shirt 
to his own back, still he kept half-a-dozen laundresses who 

* He died some weeks before Midsummer l(ifi2. 



158 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUXDfe. 

had no work to do, and got nothing for doing it. Truly Old 
Rowley was a strange character. 

Reverting from the financial affairs of the pack to some 
other events in the career of John Gary, Esq., the twelfth 
Master of this branch of the pack, it behoves us, in the first 
place, to record that about the time of his appointment to the 
office of the Buckhounds he obtained a similar post to the 
King's Harthounds, in as full and ample manner as any of his 
predecessors in the said employment, with the usual fees 
thereunto payable annually by the Sheriffs of Somerset and 
Dorset. He soon after relinquished this appointment to Mr. 
Pott (who had been Master of the Beagles to Charles, Duke 
of York). On July 26, 1661, Mr. Gary obtained an exclusive 
licence, or monopoly, to transport all sorts of hounds and 
sporting dogs beyond the seas, free of duty, and without let 
or hindrance, for the natural term of his life, as appears by the 
subjoined patent : — 

Charles the Second by the grace of God &.'^. To all wliome these 
psents shall come Greeting Whereas it hath been a Custome to 
transport and carry beyond the Seas all manner of Doggs Hounds 
Beagles and Greyhounds of severall kinds and names to the hinderance 
of our owne store the decay of Breed and p'iudice of our Game and 
sport of hunting. Knowe yee therefore that Wee for pVention 
thereof of our speciall grace and favour haue given and granted and 
by these p'sents for our heires and Successors doe give and grant 
vnto our trusty and Wellbeloved servant John Gary Esquire Master 
of our privy Buckhounds full and free libertie lycence and authority 
for soe long tyme as he shall continue in that place to carry over 
convey and transport by himselfe his deputie or deputies asignee 
or assignes beyond the Seas out of this Realme of England and 
Dominion of Wales such and soe many hounds Beagles or hunting 
Doggs of what kinde or nature soever as he shall thinke fitt and 
then to goe sell and dispose of at his pleasure. And Wee doo hereby 
require and coinand the Comissioners of our Customes and other the 
Officers of ovu- Customes to permitt and suffer the said John Cary 
his Deputy or Deputies to transport the said Doggs accordingly 
without any account custome or other dutie to be rendered or paid to 
vs our heires or successors for the same. And our further will and 



AFFAIRS OF THE PACK DURING THE REIGN OF CHARLES II. 159 

pleasure is and Wee doe hereby comand that noe other p'sons 
Whatsoever during the said tyme doe p'sume to transport and convey 
any Doggs of what kinde soever without a passe from vs or the 
lycense of the said John Gary or his Deputies first had and obtained 
in that behalf And these our ires Patents shalbe as well vnto the 
said Gary as to all others whome it shall or may concerne sufficient 
Warrant and discharge in this behalfe. In witnes &'' Witnes our selfe 
att Westm the five and twentieth day of July, '^ipsa Eegem. — 
Patent Roll, 12 Gar. II., part 17, m. 12. 

About the same time he was appointed, conjointly with Lord 
Ogleby and others, to receive all moneys formerly collected in 
the county York, the Bishopric of Durham, the counties North- 
umberland and Westmoreland remaining unpaid to the King, 
the receivers to have a moiety of all sums so collected. On 
November 30 he was authorised to dispose, as he thought fit, 
of several herds of deer, to be provided both at home and 
abroad, for stocking the royal parks and forests. In December 
1663 he received a warrant on the Exchequer for -500/., "His 
Majesty's free gift and princely bounty." On October 28, 
1669, he was appointed to the office of Ranger, called the 
Riding Forester, in the New Forest, with the fee of Qd. a day 
during His Majesty's pleasure. About this time he obtained 
a grant of the benefit of a covenant between the king and 
Sir Francis Crane for keeping 300 deer, and convenient browse 
and shade for the same, in Stoke Bruerne Park, co. North- 
ampton, with power to sue in case of breach of the said 
covenants, and to take the benefit thereof for his own use. 

It would appear by the subjoined Royal Letter that about 
this time the Master of the Buckhounds had to observe and 
report when any damage was done to the vert within the 
precincts of the Royal Forests to the prejudice of the deer: — 

L*^ TreaQr. ^ Right Trusty &!^'^ Whereas Wee have been giuen 

Mr. Gary of ye to und'^stand That WiUiam Browne of Framby in 

Buckhoundes [Our County of Surrey is about grubbing some parts 

desire. j of a Cops called Merishwood in the Baly wicke of 

Sui-rey belonging to Our Castle of Windsor, the same being Our 

Demesne, & grubbing being contrary to law, Wee haue thought good 



160 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

to signify Our Pleasure to y" and accordingly Our Will and Pleasure 
is, That foi'thw*'' upon Receipt hereof, You glue order to, & require 
him y" s** Wm Browne of Framley to forbeare grubbing any part of 
the said Oops Wood called Merishwood being Our Demesne as 
aforesaid. And Whereas Wee are likewise giuen to understand, 
That Richard Taylor of Chersey is about to cut & fell a Cops Wood 
called Great Grove in the Parish of Chersey in Our County of 
Surrey, the growth of w*^^ Wood is und"^ seuen yeares, being also 
Our Demesne, & not Warrantable by Law, Our further Will and 
Pleasure is, y" give notice to y*^ said Rich*^ Taylor, that he forebeare 
from henceforth to cutt or cause to be cutt or felled the s*^ Cops 
Wood called Greate Groue, or any part therof, as he shall tender 
Our Displeasure. For w*^^ &'''' December 5*^ 1672. 

By his (fe*^* 

Arlington. 

To ye L'' Clifford 

L** High Treas'' 

of England. 
— Do7n. Entry Book. King's Letters, vol. xxxi., fo. 99^. 

In March 1677 Mr. Gary obtained (in conjunction with 
Sir Walter St. John, Sir Ralph Verney, and Sir Richard 
Howe) a grant of " all that peice or parcel of ground with the 
buildings thereon in St. James's Park, nigh the Cockpit, to 
them and to their heirs for ever." As above mentioned, the 
final payment, recorded in the accounts of the Treasurer of 
the Chamber to this Master of Buckhounds, occurred in the 
year 1682, viz., 500/. " for one year's wages ended at Michael- 
mas, 1678." Whether he received the arrears due on account 
of this office it is impossible to ascertain ; at any rate, there 
is no evidence forthcoming of his having ever done so. In all 
probability he retained the horn of this branch of the royal 
pack until the end of the reign of Charles II. On June 12, 
1685, James II. reappointed Mr. Carey to the office of Ranger 
and Riding Forester in the New Forest, county Southampton, 
which office he held during the pleasure of the late King, 
with the fee of ^d. a day, payable out of the Exchequer, 
and all privileges pertaining thereto. He did not enjoy his 



AFFAIRS OF THE PACK DUKING THE REIGN OF CHARLES II. 161 

reappointment to that office as this Master of the Royal 
Buckhounds was "lately dead " on or about October 19, 1685. 
(Luttrers Diary, sub dato.) 

In the meantime, there is one circumstance connected with 
the Mastership of this portion of the Royal Buckhounds to 
which we must briefly allude. In June 1675 Thomas Elliot, 
Esq., and John Neville, Esq., obtained the reversion of the 
office : " To hold and enjoy the same office successively after 
the determination of the estate and interest of John Gary, Esq., 
therein (who now enjoys the same) together with the usual 
fees and privileges to the same office belonging for and during 
the terms of their respective lives, and the life of the longest 
liver of them." But as neither of those gentlemen attained the 
post, it is sufficient to mention that Mr. Elliot was the chief 
manager of the racing establishment of Charles II. at New- 
market, and one of the Grooms of the Privy Chamber. Mr. 
Nevill was a " natural son of Richard Nevill, of Billinber, 
CO. Berks, Esq." {vide Patent). 

Before concluding this memoir we must mention the folio wins; 
singular event. In August 1679 Messrs. Powney and Gary, 
" of the Royal Buckhounds," were put forward as candidates 
to contest the Parliamentary representation of the borough 
of Windsor, in support of the Court party, in opposition to 
Messrs. Winwood and Starkey, the late members. The Court 
candidates were returned by a considerable majority through 
the votes of the retainers and servants of the Castle. On a 
petition to the House of Commons the royal huntsmen were 
unseated, and the old members reinstated, because their 
opponents were illegally returned " by the voice of the King's 
servants, who have no pretence of voting there but as such." * 
Another version (probably more accurate) is given by Messrs. 
Tighe and Davis in the A7inals of Windsor, vol. ii., p. 381 — 
viz., " Parliament was dissolved by a proclamation dated at 
Windsor, the 12th of July, 1679, and in August 1679 Mr. 
Starkey and Mr. Winwood were again returned by the inhabit- 
ants paying scot and lot, and John Carey and John Powney, 

* Diari/ of the Hon, Henry Sidneij, vol, i., p. 89. 

11 



162 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOTAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

Esqs., were returned by the mayor, bailiffs, and select bur- 
gesses." On November 4 the Committee of Elections and 
Privileges reported that in the Borough of New Windsor the 
inhabitants only who pay scot and lot had a right to vote in 
the election of burgesses to serve in Parliament for the said 
Borough ; that Messrs. Winwood and Starkey were duly 
chosen to serve in that Parliament for the Borough of New 
Windsor; and that Messrs. Carey and Powney were illegally 
returned and should be unseated, which report was adopted 
by the House. Probably this John Carey was the Master 
of the Buckhounds, but as there was another gentleman of 
the same name connected with the Court at this time, we 
are unable to say positively which of them was the person 
in question. 

The following is a summary of the financial affairs of the 
Household branch of the Boyal Buckhounds during the reign 
of Charles II., beginning with the payments for the year 
1600-01 :— 

1660-61. — John Carey, Esq., Master, for his wages at 33^. 6s. 8d. 

'^ ann., payable quarterly, and due for one quarter of a 

year ended at Michaelmas, 1660 — 8^. 6s. 8d. 
Francis Dodsworth, sergeant, for his wages at 200Z. '^ ann., due 

for one whole year ended at Midsumnaer 1661 — 2001. 
Edward Hart, late sergeant, for his annuity at 90^. 14s. 4:d. '^ 

ann., due to him for like time. 
John Davies, oldest yeoman, for his wages at 4s. W day, and 20s. 

■^ ann. for his livery, due at Christmas — 741, 
Bartholomew Montague, second yeoman, for wages and livery at 

the same rates, and due to him for three quarters of a year, 

ended at Midsummer — 55/. 15s. 
Robert Hancock, yeoman pricker, at 4s. 2^^^d. per day for his 

wages, and 21. '^ ann. for his livery, due to liim for one 

year ended at Midsummer 1661 — 79/. 7s. b^d. 
Robert Walker, yeoman jiricker, for his wages at 3s. 8f/. '^ daj', 

and 21. for his livery, due to him for like time — 68/. 18s. 4f/. 
James Kipling, yeoman pricker, at 3s. 4c/. '^ day for his wages, 



ANNUAL SALARIES, FEES, AND EMOLUMENTS, 163 

and 11. W ann. for his livery, due to him for like time — 

611. 16s. 8d. 
William Pitman, yeoman, for his wages at 3s. '2d. '^ day and 

21. 10s. '^ ann. for his livery, due to him for the like time 

—59^. 15s. lOd. 
Richard Allington, yeoman pricker, for his wages at 3s. lid. '^ 

day, and 21. 10s. '^ ann. for his livery, due to him for like 

time — 591. Os. l^d. 
Henry Dodsworth, yeoman, for his wages at 2s. Id. 'W day and 

2^. '^ ann. for his livery, due for the like time — 40^. Os. bd. 
Henry Bone, William Callis, William Wetherell, Thomas Oacely, 

and Thomas Field, 5 yeomen, to each of them at 2s. '^ day 

for their wages, and 1/. each '^ ann. for then- liveries, due 

to them for a whole year ended at Midsummer 1661 — 

187^. 10s. 
John Branch, Thomas Woolmer, John Crockford, Robert Lane, 

and John Batchlour, 5 other of the said yeomen, to each of 

them at Is. 8fZ. '^ day for wages, and 1^. each ^ ann. for 

their liveries, due for the like time — 157^. Is. 8d. 
Thomas Thorne, yeoman, at Is. '^ day, and lOd. '^ day for his 

wages, and 6^. 13s. 4fZ. and 8^. 4s. lOd. '^ ann. for his 

summer and winter liveries, due to him for the like time — 

48^. 7s. U. 
Robert Potter, yeoman, at Is. 6d. '^ day, and 11. for his hvery 

due at Christmas, due to him for the like time — 28^. 7s. 6d. 
James Metcalfe, Thomas Flowers, and Richard Brock, grooms, 

for their wages at 11. "W ann. each, and 11. '^ ann. each 

for their liveries, due for the like time — 63^. 
WiUiam Goodwin, groom, at 261-. 13s. id. '¥' ann. for his wages, 

and 11. '^ ann. for his livery, for like time — 211. 13s. 4cJ. 
George Hening, George Simpson, John Cant, and Wooley Minterne, 

4 grooms. Is. Id. 'W day wages each, and 11. each for their 

liveries, for the like time — 84^. Is. 8d. 
Richard Eldrige, for his wages at 40^. '^ ann., and 21. 10s. for 

his livery 'W ann., for like time — 42/. 
Henry Sames, for his wages at 19/. 2s. 4tZ. 'W ann., due to him 

for like time— 19/. 2s. id. 
Edward Roe [Harbinger], for his wages at Is. '^ day, due to him 

for like time — 18/. 5s. 



164 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

Robert Longville, yeoman, for his wages at lOd. W clay, and 
19?. 2s. id. '^ ann., and 11. for his livery due at Christmas 
for like time — 251. 6s. 6d. 

Under head of " annuities " we find extra payments to Henry 
Taylor, late groom of the Buckhounds, for his pension at 8d. 
a day, and to Francis Dodsworth, sergeant of the pack, "for 
his charges in feeding and keeping the said hounds by way of 
addition to his former allowance," 1561. 14s. ^d., for "his 
Majesty's free gift and reward, as formerly usually allowed to 
the huntsmen of the Buckhounds, for their attendance from 
Midsummer to Michaelmas 1661." 

1662. Year ended at Midsummer 1662, made up of arrears for one 

year and a quarter. Total, 2,378?. lis. l^d. 

1663. Total, 1,950?. 19s. 9|d 
1664-65. All payments in arrear. 
1665-66. Ditto. 

1666-67. Ditto. 
1667-68. Ditto. 

On March 16, 1668, it was ordered that the usual liveries 
and allowances heretofore enjoyed by the hunt-servants were 
to be discontinued after the ensuing Midsummer quarter, and 
that the cost of this portion of the pack was to be retrenched 
from 2,248/. 9s. Id. to 1,500/. a year (Add. MSS., 28,080, fo. 
63), whereupon they petitioned the King to annul the order and 
to restore them the remuneration which they were entitled to 
receive according to the original establishment on the Civil 
List. To this petition the King graciously assented ; but, so 
far as receiving any pecuniary advantages, the unfortunate 
hunt-servants were no better off than they were before. We 
subjoin the details of those curious transactions as they are 
found in the documents cited : — 

Statement by John Gary Esq. to the Council of State, August 22, 
1667, relating to the cost of the Household branch of the Royal 
Buckhounds : — 
May it please your Lordships 

This is a true account of facts stipends and salaries as are 



PETITION OF THE HUNT-SERVANTS. 165 

paid to the Master and huntsmen of His Majesty's Buckhovinds by 
the Treasurer of the Chamber, wherein there is no alteration of what 
was paid thereunto them in the late Kings time of ever blessed 
memory, but to the Master of the Office and John Davies and 
Bartholomew Montague, two of the huntsmen. 

The Master that now is, John Carey, had the same office in the 
year 1642, under his Majesty that now is when he was Prince of 
Wales, with a stipend of 20^. and pension of 100^. per annum. 

At the happy return of his Majesty, his Majesty was graciously 
pleased to continue the said John Cai'ey in the said office, and in 
consideration of many years service past, and the great expense 
incident to the execution of the said office, together with a relin- 
quishment of the 120^. per annum, before mentioned, and all other 
stipend, salary and pensions, such as Su* Timothy Tyi'ell, Sir John 
Tyrringham, Mr. Turwight (stc) (formerly Masters of the said 
office) had (who had several pensions out of his Majesty's Ex- 
chequer). 

First, to give to the said John Carey a pension of 5001. per annum 
during pleasure, after during life, to be paid by the Treasurer of the. 
Chamber for the time being. 

' John Davies and Bartholomew Montague were huntsmen to his 
Majesty when he was Prince of Wales, and upon their petitions to 
his Majesty, and relinquishing all former stipends did obtain their 
salaries before mentioned in the list, during their lives, but no others 
are to succeed in their places. 

Some small yearly pension should be paid to the huntsmen out of 
the Great Wardrobe : The particulars whereof I suppose your Lord- 
ships have an account of from thence ; very little of that had been 
paid : not so much as one years allowance. 

When his late Majesty of ever blessed memory had the ancient pur- 
veyance for his household, the Masters of the Buckhounds had a 
commission yearly from the Officers of his Majesty's Green Cloth, to 
require the High Constables of such Hundred as his Majesty's hunts- 
men and hounds were lodged in, during the time of summer hunting : 
which was from about the 20th of April to the 20th of September to 
bring in, to the Master and huntsmen, at easy rates provisions of hay, 
oats and straw, viz., hay at Qd. the truss, oats at 12d. the bushel, straw 
at 2d. the truss : which was so great a benifit to the said Master and 
huntsman, that after the said purveyance was no more taken by his 



166 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

Majesty, his Majesty was graciously pleased to give in lieu of the 
said commission to the Master of the Buckhounds 30^. per annum, 
to the Sergeant 201., to each yeoman 10^., and to the grooms 5L ; 
but since his Majesty's happy return that now is, they have not 
received any recompence for want of the same commission. 

Your Lordships 

Most humble servant, 

J. Caey.* 
Appending list of the ofl&cials of the 
pack in 1667, of the salary, etc., of each, 
amounting altogether to 2,249Z. isA^d., 
all of which were in arrears for 2^ 
years at Midsummer 1667. 

1637-67. Memorandum from Mr. John Carey, Master of the Buck- 
hounds, showing the difference hetvieen the ancient and 
present charges \of the pacU\. Received August 27, 1667. 
These are to certify [to] whom it may concern, that in the 
year 1637, the Huntsmen of the Privy Buckhounds were 
paid the sum of 1,485^. 13s. ^hl^d. as appeareth by the 
account of that year, Remaining in the Treasurer of the 
Chambers Oilice. 

Paid in 1637 

Mr. Carey's increase 

Mr. Davies and Montague 

Reward 

£2,251 14 10i|i 

Order for retrenching the cost of the Buckhounds : — 
Whereas We have found fitt in the present state of Our Affaires 
with the Advise of Our Privy Counsell, to make some considerable 
Retrenchment of Our Expenses in all the parts thereof, and amongst 
others in that of Our Buckhounds and Harriers which We have 
thought fitt henceforth to reduce according to the particulars hereunto 
annexed with direction to the Treasurer of Our Chamber where Wee 
will that all those Allowances for Our Buckhounds shall bee placed, 

* S. P. D., vol. ccxiv., No. 75, August 22, 1667. 



£1,485 13 
466 13 
146 


°248 
4 




£2,098 7 
153 7 


^^248 

10 



KETEENCHING THE COST OF THE BUCKHOUNDS. 167 

and likewise a further Significacon of Our Pleasure to Our Master of 
Our Horse that all Liueiyes, Horse Lueryes and other AUowanses 
whatsoeuer out of Our Aurey, as also to the Master of Our Standing 
Wardrobe and Officers of Our Greencloth, that all the Allowances, 
Lueryes, and Horse Lueryes usually made foi- Our Buckhounds & 
Harriers out of the said Offices respectively should from henceforth 
cease and determine ; which Wee haue thought fitt hereby to 
signify to you, To the end you may for the future give Order accord- 
ingly in the Payments that shall bee made out of Our Exchequer 
for the Expences and Entertainements of Our Buckhounds & 
Harriers aforesaid. Which Reductions Wee will that they begin 
& take place from Our Lady Day now next ensuing. For w'-'^ this 
shall bee yo'' Warrant. Guen att Our Court att Whitehall y" 16'^ 
day of March, 166|. 

By his Ma*'*' Comands.* 

1669. — The Order for retrenching the cost of the Buckhounds to he 
repealed. 

At the Court at Whitehall 

the 16th of July 1669. 

Present : 

The King's most Excellent Ma*^ 

His Royall Highness y** Duke of Earle of Orrery. 

Yorke. Loi'd B"^ of London. 

His Highness Prince Evipert. Lord Arlington. 

Lord Arch-PP of Canterbury. Lord Newport. 

Lord Keeper. Lord Ashley. 

Duke of Buckingham. Mr. Treasurer. 

Lord Chamberlain. - Mr. Sec""^ Trevor. 

Earle of Craven. Mr. Chancellor of y'' Dutchy. 

Vpon reading this day at the Board the humble Petition of his 
Ma*^^ Servants belonging to the Privy Buckhounds, who were lately 
retrenched. Praying that his Ma*^ would be graciously pleased to glue 
Order for setling the Pet''^ in then" respectiue Offices as formerly, and 
that they may receive their respectiue Salarys in the like manner as 
they did before any Retrenchment thereof ; their Wants being very 
great and pressing. It was Ordered by his Ma*^ in Councill, That 

* S. P. D., Bundle 239, No, 30U, Ms. P. K. 0. 



168 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

the Pef'* be continued in y" Establishment of his Ma*^'^ Privy Buck- 
hounds, And that S'' Edward Griffin Kn*^ Treasurer of his Ma*^* 
Chamber be, and he is hereby authorized and required to pay unto 
the Pet''^ their respective Salarys due unto them, as formerly, not- 
withstanding his Ma^y^^ Warrant of the 16*'^ of March 166| for 
retrenching the same, or any other Order or Dii-ections to the con- 
trary His Ma*y being graciously pleased to declare that the said 
Warrant (as to his Ma"'"'* Servants belonging to y" Privy Buck- 
hounds) be, and accordingly it is hereby repealed & made voyd. 

Whereof the said Treasurer of the Chamber & all others whom 
it may concerne are to take notice & governe themselves accord- 
ingly. 

John Nicholas. 

Endorsed : "A Repeale of the Order for Eetrenching the Hunts- 
men, 16 July, 1669." 

1668-69. As will be seen from the subjoined account of the 
Treasurer of the Chamber for the year 1668-69, the hunt- 
servants obtained the several sums of money mentioned in 
payment of some of the arrears due to them according to the 
original scale : — 

John Cary, Esq., Master, for his wages at 500/. '^ ann., payable 
quarterly, due to him for two whole years and a half ended at 
Christmas 1665—1,250?. 

WiUiam Pitman, sergeant, at 200/. "^ ann., for his wages, pay- 
able quarterly, and due to him for 2| years ended at 
Michaelmas 1669—950/. 

Robert Hancocke, yeoman, for his wages at 4s. 2^^^. '^ day, pay- 
able quai-terly, and 40/. '¥' ann. for his livery, payable at 
Christmas, and due to him for 2| years ended at Midsummer 
1666—197/. 8s. Ujl. 

Robert Walker, yeoman pricker, for his wages at 3s. 8cZ. '¥' day, 
payable quarterly, and 40s. '^ ann. for his livery, payable at 
Christmas, and due to him for 2| years ended at Midsummer 
1666—171/. 5s. lOd. 

Henry Dodsworth, another yeoman pricker, for his wages at 2s. \d. 
day, payable quarterly, and 40s. annum for his livery, payable 
at Christmas, and due to him for one quarter of a year 
ended at Lady Day 1664—9/. 10s. Id. 



PAYMENT OF AEEEAES TO THE HUNT-SEEVANTS. 169 

George Simpson, junior, another yeoman pricker in the room and 
place of the said Henry Dodswoith, deceased, for his like 
wages and livery payable as before, by vertue of H.M. 
warrant under the Signet, dated the 26th of July anno R.R. 
Caroli 16th, and due to him for 2| years ended at Christmas 
1666—110?. Il5. l|cZ. 

John Wotton, another yeoman pricker, for his wages at 3s. 2d. '^ 
day, payable quarterly, and 40^. '^ ann. for his livery, pay- 
able as before, and due to him for 3 years ended at 
Christmas 1666—179^. 7s. 6cZ. 

Harry Bond, one of the yeomen of His Majesty's Buckhounds, for 
his wages at 2s. '^ day, payable quarterly, and 22s. '^ ann. for 
his livery, payable at Christmas, and due to him for 2 years 
ended at Christmas 1665 — 751. 

John Plummer, another of the said yeomen, in the room and place 
of Harry Bond, deceased, for his like wages and livery payable 
as before, by vertue of H.M. warrant under the signet, dated 
March 16th, anno. R.R. nunc Caroli sedi 12th, due to him 
for half a year ended at Midsummer 1666 — 111. 5s. 

William Callie, Thomas Catley, and Thomas Feild, three of the 
yeomen of H.M. Buckhounds, to each of them for his wages 
at 2s. '^ day, and 20s. '^ ann. for his livery, payable quarterly 
as before, and due to them for 3 years ended at Christmas 
1666—337/. 10s. 

William Netherville, another yeoman, for his wages and livery, 
payable as before, and due to him for 2 years ended at 
Midsummer 1666—93/. 5s. 

William Goodwin, one of the grooms of H.M. Buckhounds, for his 
wages at 26/. 13s. 4f/. 1^ ann., payable quai-terly, and 20s. 
to him for his livery, payable at Christmas, and due to him 
for 2| years ended at Midsummer 1666 — 68/. 13s. 4f/. 

Robert Porter, another groom of the said Buckhounds, for his 
wages at Is. 6c/. '^ day, payable quarterly, and 20s. '¥' ann. 
for a livery, payable at Christmas, and due to him for 3 
yeai's ended at Christmas 1666 — 85/. 2s. 6d. 

John Palmer, yeoman of the waggons, for his like Avages and 
livery, payable as before, and due to him for the said time — 
85/. 2s. 6d. 

Thomas Thorne, another yeoman of the Buckhounds, for his wages 



170 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

at 12d. and lOd. ^ day, and 6^. 13s. id. and 8^. 4s. lOd. ^ 
ann. for his summer and winter liveries, all payable quarterly, 
and due to him for 2| years ended at Midsummer 1666 — 
120^. 18s. id. 

Richard Eldridge, for his wages at 40/. '^ ann., payable quarterly, 
and 40s. '^ ann. for his livery, payable at Christmas, and due 
to him for 2k years ended at Midsummer 1666 — 104/. 

John Davis, eldest yeoman of H.M. Buckhounds, for his wages at 
4s. '^ day, payable quarterly, and 20s. "W ann. for his livery, 
payable at Christmas, and due to him for 2| years ended 
at Midsummer 1666—184/. 10s. 

Bartholomew Mountague, second yeoman of the said Buckhounds, 
for his like wages and livery, payable as before, and due to 
him for 3 whole years ended at Christmas 1666 — 222/. 

John Kiplin, yeoman pricker, for his wages at 3s. id. '^ day, 
payable quarterly, and 20s. 1^ ann. for his livery, payable 
at Christmas, and due to him for 3 years ended at Christmas 
1666—185/. 10s. 

Richard Allington, another of the said yeomen, for his wages at 
3s. l|f/. '^ day, and 40s. '^ ann. for his livery, payable as the 
former, and due to him for the same time — 177/. Is. lO^d. 

Robert Longville, another of the said yeomen, for his wages at lOd. 
■^ day and 19/. 2s. id. '^ ann., payable quarterly, and 20s. '^ 
ann. for his Hvery at Christmas, and due to him for 2| 
years ended at Midsummer 1666—87/. 16s. 3d. 

John Crockford, Thomas Wolmer, and John Branch, three other 
of the said yeomen, for their wages at Is. Sd. each '^ day, 
payable quarterly, and 20s. each for their liveries, payable at 
Christmas, and due to them for 3 years ended at Christmas 
1666—282/. 15s. 

Robert Lane and John Batchelor, two other of the said yeomen, 
for their wages and livery, payable as before, and due to them 
for 2| years ended at Midsummer 1666 — 156/. Is. 8d. 

Thomas Fowkes and Richard Brocke, two of the grooms of H.M. 
Buckhounds, for their wages at 20/. each '^ ann., and 20s. 
each a year for then- liveries, payable as before, and due to 
them for 3 years ended at Christmas 1666 — 126/. 

John Plummer, another of the grooms of H.M. Buckhounds, for 
his like wages and livery, payable as before, by vei'tue of H.M. 



PAYMENTS TO MASTER AND OFFICERS. 171 

warrant under the signet, dated the 26th of August, Anno 

16th R.R. Caroli Scidi, and due to him for 2i years ended at 

Midsummer 1666— 52^. 
George Simpson, Wolley Minterne, and John Cant, three other of 

the said grooms, for their wages at Is. Id. W day each, and 

20s. each "^ ann. for their Hveries, payable as before, and due 

to them for 3 years ended at Christmas 1666 — 186/. 18s, 9d. 
George Penning, another of the said grooms, for his Hke wages and 

livery, payable as before, and due to him for 2| years ended 

at Midsummer 1666 — 511. 8s. 6|fZ. 
And to Edward Roe, harbinger, for his wages at Is. '^ day, 

payable quarterly, and due to him for 3 years ended at 

Christmas 1666 — 54/. 15s. 
Sum total, 5,622/. 16s. 10|d 

Summary of payments to the Master and officers of the 
Buckhounds (continued) : — 

1670. John Gary, Master, received 1,000/. in payment of his 

salary at the rate of 500/. a year for 2 years ended at 

Christmas 1667. 
Other hunt-servants as before paid salaries more or less in 

arrear for some time back. 
Total amount 2,510/. 15s. 8|f/. 

1671. Master's salary paid for 1| years ended at Midsummer 1669. 
Other hunt -servants as in foregoing accounts. 

Total 2,099/. 12s. 8d. 

1672. Master's salary paid for 2 years ended at Midsummer 1671, 
Other hunt-servants certain arrears as before. 

Total 2,159/. Is. 10|d 

1673. Masters paid, and in consideration of all other charges 

incident to the keeping of the said Buckhoinids (except 
only the feeding) at 500/. '^ ann., and payable quarterly 
during his life, and due to him for a year ended at Mid- 
summer 1672—500/. 

Other hunt-servants as before. 

Total 1,987/. Is. 6|(Z. 

1674. Master 500/. for his salary as before for the year ended at 

Midsummer 1673. 



172 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

1674. William Pittman, now Sergeant, for his wages at 200?. "^ 

ann. payable quarterly, and due to him for a year 
ended at Michaelmas 1674 ; and 50/. more for feeding 
and keeping the Buckhounds for the same year. 

Other hunt-servants, certain payments for salaries and 
liveries due and in many cases in arrear 

Total 1,9791. 6s. 4fZ. 

1675. Master 250?. j year ended at Christmas 1673. 
Others as before. 

Total 1,694/. lis. 5|cZ. 

1676. Same ^ year ended at Midsummer 1674. 
Others as before. 

Total 1,278/. 18s. 6|ir/. 

1677. Same 500/. for year ended Midsummer 1675. 

John Branch, sergeant in the place of Wm. Pitman, 200/. 

for year ended at Michaelmas 1677. 
John Field, assignee to the said Mr. John Branch as 

huntsman to the Buckhounds, for his wages at 3s. 2^d. 

■^ day and 40s. '^ ann. for a livery at Christmas, 

due to him for | of a year ended at Lady Day 1674, 

59/. Is. O^^^d. 
Total 1,789/. 12s. 4|c/. 

1678. Master 500/. for year ended at Midsummer 1676. 
Others paid some arrears as before. 

Total 1,999/. 8s. 7iU^. 

1679. Master 500/. for year ended at Midsummer 1677. 
Others as before. 

Total 1,685/. 13s. 4|c?. 

1680. Master 125/. for :|^ of a year's salary due to him ended at 

Michaelmas 1677. 
Others in arrears as before. 
Total 790/. 12s. 4|(Z. 

1681. Master 500/. for 1 year's wages ended at Michaelmas 1678. 
Others paid in part as before. 

Total 1,134/. 13s. 6|f/. 

1682. Master 500/. for year ended at Christmas 1478.* 

* In John Chamberlain's JVot. An/j. for 1682 he gives "John Gary, Esq., 
Master of the Buckhounds, and under him a Sergeant, John Branch, and 34 
other persons." 



EEPLENISHING THE DEER IN THE PAEKS. 173 

A few payments of arrears to others as before. 
Total 427^. 12s. ^d. 

1683. No Master mentioned. A few of the hunt-servants paid 

their salaries in arrear up to various times, including the 
sergeant, whose fee is still returned at 200/. a year and 
501. a year for keeping the hounds. 
Total 162/. 14s. 2d. 

1684. No Master mentioned. The Sergeant and three other hunt- 

servants only were paid their several salaries and livery 
money, altogether amounting to 180/. Ss. id. 

Now, with reference to the quarry, we have seen, in the 
preceding chapter, that in consequence of excessive poaching 
and other abuses during the Commonwealth, the deer in the 
Royal forests, parks, and chases had a bad time of it in those 
days. At, and for some time after, the Restoration, the Royal 
preserves were almost denuded of cervus of all species, con- 
sequently most energetic action had to be taken to " replenish " 
the stock of those antlered monarchs of the glen. To accom- 
plish this a patent was issued on November 7, 1660, authorising 
the Royal Exchequer to provide and advance the sum of 1,000^. 
for H.M. service in that behalf, the same to be payable to 
John Carey, Esq., and Sir William St. Ravy, who were com- 
missioned to caiTy it into effect. 

Operations commenced in December 1660 and January 
1661, by removing certain deer from St. James' Park to 
Wanstead, at a cost of 107/. 16,s. 10c/. Removing deer from 
Sir John Cutts' park at Chelderley, county Cambridge, and 
conveying them to several of H.M. parks and forests, cost 
68/. 5s. For taking deer in the Earl of Warwick's park at 
Lees, and other places in April and May 1661, " and for hay 
and oats to keep them, with several other charges incident 
thereto," entailed an expenditure of 37/. Ss. 10c/. For taking 
deer in Hunsdon Park, and conveying them into several of 
H.M. parks and forests, " and for taking 33 Jermayne Deere 
out of a shipp at Tower Hill and Conveying them in five 
waggons to Waltham fforest with several other charges 



174 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

incident thereto," 148^. Is. Harman Splipting, Master of the 
ship Angel Gabriel, for freight of the stags that came from the 
Duke of Oldenburgh, was paid 44Z. The officers of the Toils 
received 22^. lis, for keeping the said stags at Sir Thomas 
Connisby's. Sir Richard Ford was paid 176/. 8s. 8d, for the 
freight and other disbursements at Hamburgh, " for a parcel of 
deer that were sent to H.M. by the Duke of Brandenburgh in 
the year 1661, with other charges relating thereunto, as by 
Sir Richard Ford's account and receipt the said appears." A 
sum of lol. was paid to several keepers for their fees at 5s. 
per head for 300 deer, presented to H.M. by several noblemen 
and others, and delivered into Windsor Forest, Waltham Forest, 
and Enfield Chase. The incidental expense of feeding with 
hay and oats the King's deer at Hunsdon Park, from February 
1660 to May 1663, was 108L 4s. M. Sir William Hicks, " for 
keeping the Geruiaine Deere at Wansted in the winter [of] 
1662," received 15Z. Bringing "three brace" of fallow deer 
from the Earl of Lindsey's to St. James' Park cost 5L Three 
new "Dog waggons," which were bought in the year 1660 to 
remove the deer from place to place, "and several repairs for 
them since, with 26s. Qd. for rent of a house to set them in," 
involved an expenditure of 42/. 5s. 6ti Mr. Gary's coach hire 
and travelling charges to view the King's deer, " with Ql. paid 
to a Dutchman for freight of the deer that were taken by 
Mr. Pittman," amounted to 10/. 

A few items of miscellaneous accessories were mixed up 
with and included in the total of this account — viz.. Twelve 
brass horns for the King's Huntsmen, 18/. To a mariner that 
brought " ftbwle " from " Roane," * in Normandy 30s. To the 
King's gardener in the New Garden at St. James' 100s. To 
a woman that brought strawburys and cherries to H.M. 20s. 
Freight and cellarage of wine that came out of France for 

* The caneton de Boucu was, in those days, as in these, highly appreciated by 
the hnn vivant. But the gastronomic excellence of the Rouen duck is solely 
acquired by gentle suffocation, through closing the mouth and nostrils until it 
is dead, by which process no blood escapes from the body, all the flavour being 
thereby retained. The " Humanitarian League " should aboUsh the French 
Republic for permitting such "cruelty." 



KEPLENISHING THE DEEE IN THE PAEKS. 175 

H.M. own use, 211. 10s. And, for the fees paid in the Exchequer 
to the accountants and tellers upon receipt of the money 
charged upon this account, and for a copy of the Letters 
Patents, and two impressed rolls, 18/. lis. "In all the afore- 
said several charges and disbursements according to two 
accounts upon oath, the first made by both the said account- 
ants upon their oaths jointly, taken before Sir Christopher 
Turnor, Knight, late one of the Barons of H.M. Court of 
Exchequer, the 2oth day of May, 1663, and the other made 
by the said John Cary alone upon his oath, taken before 
Mr. Baron Spelman the 14th day of February 1G77-8 (after 
the decease of the said Sir William St. Ravy) as by the said 
several accounts together with the several bills, acquittances 
and other vouchers maintaining the same appeareth the sum 
of 980/. 2s. ofZ." 

Besides the deer mentioned in this document occasional 
supplies were given to the King by many noblemen and 
gentlemen, of which the particulars need hardly be gone into 
here. An informal close time, comprehending a period of from 
three to five years, was ordered to be observed in all the 
Boyal forests, during which it was decreed that no fallow or 
red deer were to be killed therein. 

During the reign of the Merry Monarch there are very few 
specific references to be found relating to the operations of the 
Boyal Buckhounds in the hunting field. In the seasons 
immediately ensuing after the Restoration, the scarcity of deer 
must have somewhat impeded sport with this particular pack. 
In those days the King was not impartial to the pleasures of 
the chase, in which he not only held his own but moreover 
distanced the field.* He was a thorough good horseman, but 
preferred to display his prowess in the saddle on the fiat. He 
bred, run, and rode his own racehorses. Later in his reign he 
attained notoriety " on shanks' mare," his favourite morning 
walk being from Westminster to Hampton Court. His 
recommendation to the Prince of Denmark was : " Walk with 
me, hunt with my brother, and do justice to my niece." His 

* Pejnjs' Diary, August 10, 1661. 



lib THE HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

brother, the Duke of York, at that time was passionately 
devoted to the chase — probably the most ardent huntsman in 
the kingdom. His correspondence invariably contains allusions 
to hunting, but as H.R.H. had a separate pack of Buckhounds, 
it is impossible to determine when he was referring to the 
King's pack or to his own. And lack of money must have 
been an obstacle of difficult negotiation with the officials of the 
Royal Buckhounds in those days, for sport hath its proverbial 
" sinews," as well as war. As an example of the characteristic 
good nature so frequently manifested by the Merry Monarch, 
we may instance his appeal to " all the nobility and gentry " 
and "all other loving subjects of what degree and quality 
whatsoever," on behalf of E-ichard Blome's ponderous folio 
volume on field sports, entitled The Gentleiman's Recreation, 
which H.M. enjoined such persons, by their subscriptions, to 
encourage the author, " to perfect and finish the said work." 
This royal advertisement is dated Whitehall, February 14, 
1682-3. Blome boiled down all the old writers on the "Art 
and Mistery of Venery," and effectually murdered them in the 
process. It is a wretched compilation, nevertheless a perfect 
copy is now worth 100/. It was published in 1686. 



177 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE HOUSEHOLD BRANCH: JAMES II. (1685-1688). 

Colonel James Graham, Thirteenth Master : March 25, 1685, to September 29, 
1688 — Expenses of the Pack during the Eeign of James II. 

With the termination of the reign of Charles II. all the 
interesting details given in the Accounts of the Treasurer of 
the Chamber from the time of Elizabeth, of the hunt-servants, 
their several salaries and emoluments, come to an abrupt end. 
The accounts of this department of the Royal Household are 
continued (save a few lapses) to July 5, 1782, but the par- 
ticulars relating to the hunt-servants formerly given are 
omitted in them from the accession of James II. to the 22nd 
year of the reign of George III. Instead of finding the name, 
office, and remuneration of every hunt-servant as heretofore 
recorded, we now only get the name of the Master for the time 
being, and the payments to him in a lump sum (apparently) 
to defray all the ordinary charges incident to the pack. 

The Masters of the Household branch of the Royal Buck- 
hounds were appointed for life, with the power to them to 
transfer or otherwise dispose of the office to a sufficient deputy 
or deputies, subject to the Sovereign's approval, from the time 
of Edward VI. to the time of Charles II. ; but in the last men- 
tioned reign the patent salary of the Master was supplemented 
by an additional grant on the Civil List establishment, the 
latter to be held during the King's pleasure. When James II. 
ascended the throne, the patent office of the Master of the 
Buckhounds was discontinued ; consequently no patent to the 

12 



178 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

Mastership can be found after that granted to John Gary in 
1C61, and that relating to the reversion of his office in 1675 
(which became null and void by the death of Charles II., in 
1685); and from henceforward the Masters were appointed 
by the sovereigns during their pleasure, and so continued 
until the appointment subsequently became a quasi-political 
office, changing with a change of ministers. Thus the first 
payment recorded in the Accounts of the Treasurer of the 
Chamber of the Household, on the accession of James II., is 
as follows : " To James Grahme, Esq., Master of His Majesty's 
Buckhounds, for the wages of himself, the serjeant, and hunts- 
men of the said Buckhounds, according to the establishment, 
at 1,320/. per annum, pa3^able quarterly, to continue during 
his Majesty's pleasure, by warrant under the Signet dated the 
1st of September, 1685, and here allowed for the first quarter 
of a year ending at Midsummer, 1685, 330/." This Master's 
annual allowance on the Civil List was paid at full for the 
years ended at Midsummer 1686 and 1687, and for the year 
ended at Michaelmas 1688, when he ceased to hold the office : 
James II. having been deposed, and William of Orange elected 
by the Parliament to fill the vacant throne. 

Before closing these Accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber, 
we may mention that 100/. was paid in 1686 to Thomas Frazer, 
" His Majesty's chirurgeon, to ride with him a-hunting." This 
" hunting chirurgeon to his Majesty " was sworn into his office 
by the Lord High Chamberlain on May 8, 1685 ; he was pro- 
moted to the office of Surgeon to the Household (with a salary 
of 280/. a year, to begin at Christmas 1686), when Francis 
Beaulieu was sworn as his successor " to attend his Majesty 
in hunting." So far as we are aware, James never required 
their services in the hunting field ; but William III. certainly 
did, as we shall have occasion to record presently. 

Colonel James Graham, M.P., thirteenth Master of the 
Household branch of the Royal Buckhounds, temp. James II. — 
from March 25, 1685, to September 29, 1688 — was the second 
son of Sir George Graham, Bart., of Esk (Netherby), county 
Cumberland, and Lady Mary Johnstone, his wife, eldest 



COLONEL JAMES GRAHAM, THIRTEENTH MASTER. 179 

daughter of James, first Earl of Hartfield. Towards the end of 
the reign of Charles II. we find him holding several posts in 
the establishment of the Duke and Duchess of York, by whom 
he was sent to Paris in August 1682, to congratulate 
Louis XIV. on the birth of the young Duke of Burgundy, son 
of the Dauphin. In the month of December he obtained the 
office of ranger and keeper of Bagshot Park, with the house 
and appurtenances thereof, with the fee of 51. 6s. 8d. per 
annum, payable out of the Exchequer during his Majesty's 
pleasure, and of all other fees, profits, and advantages con- 
nected therewith. In February 1683 a warrant was issued 
on the Exchequer to pay him any sum not exceeding 1,200?. 
on account, for repairing his Majesty's house called Bagshot 
Lodge, and impaling the said park, and the contingent charges 
thereof In May 1685 he had a similar warrant for 
2,688/. 9s. ll^d. in consideration of money by him expended 
in those works; and on December 5, 1687, he obtained a 
patent of renewal of that office, " and of the laundry, covey- 
warren, and warren-house therein, with the rangership, etc. 
with the fee of 51. 6s. 8cL by the year, and all other privileges, 
etc., appertaining to the same, to hold for a term of thirty-one 
years, according to his Majesty's pleasure signified by warrant, 
etc." * According to the Establishment Book, he was sworn 
into the office of " Master of the Buckhounds and Harthounds " 
by the Lord Chamberlain on March 31, 1685, and Keeper of 
the Privy Purse on April 4 following (vol. 482)— he having 
held the latter office to the Duke of York from the year 1682 
— and in July a warrant was issued on the Exchequer to pay 
him, or his assignees, any sum or sums of money not exceeding 
20,000/. for the use and service of the Privy Purse. In 
January 1686 he had a similar warrant for 20,000Z. on 
account of that office, t During the brief reign of James II. 
Colonel Graham's hands were kept busy with official work. 

* His accounts for these buildings and palings, which are preserved in the 
Exchequer Lord Treasurer's Eemembrancer (Roll 463), give all the particulars of 
the materials used, and the wages of the workmen engaged thereon. An item 
occurs for repairing the ponds and the taking of deer amounting to 94Z. 7.^. 
t Compare Harl. 5010, fo. 5. 



180 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

After James was deposed, his ex-Master of the Buckhounds 
was actively engaged in the Jacobian cause, as was his elder 
brother, Viscount Preston, and in fact all of the Graham clan. 
In January 1689 Colonel Graham was committed to the Tower. 
In the ensuing month of August he received a conditional pardon, 
was released from prison, and retired to Scotland, where he 
and other Jacobites conspired to overthrow King William and 
his government. In order to execute the plot. Colonel Graham 
came to London, where his presence was soon known to the 
authorities, and in January 1691 "great search was made 
for him," but he evaded pursuit, and " got over into France." 
On February 6 a proclamation was issued for his apprehen- 
sion, and in May the Attorney-General was ordered to 
proceed against him " to the outlawry for high treason." Soon 
after he was formally " proscribed by Act of Parliament." In 
February 1692 he was again pardoned by the King, took up 
his residence in Loudon, and resumed his designs to overthrow 
the Government. This plot was discovered ; in April his 
house in Norfolk Street was surrounded by troops; the in- 
trepid Jacobite escaped, " but left behind several chests of 
money and plate intended to be sent to King James," which 
were seized and forfeited to the Crown. On May 10 another 
proclamation was issued for the apprehension of Colonel 
Graham, and to commit him for high treason.* However, 
on June 1, he and the Earl of Scarsdale surrendered to the 
Secretary of State, and were committed to the custody of a 
messenger pending their recognisance at the King's Bench. It 
seems he remained quiescent for some few years, as we hear 

* These are, &c. Search in the Yorkshire house y'' Signe of the King on 
horseback near Charing Cross, for James Graliame or any other suspected person 
or persons, and him or them having found you are to apprehend and seize for 
Suspition of High Treason and Treasonable practices & to bring them, etc, 
according to Law. And you are likewise to Searcli diligently in the said House 
for Arms, and if you find any such you are to seize and Secure them. In the 
execution hereof, etc., Whitehall 6 May, 1692. 

Nottingham. 

To Ealph Young or any 

other of their Ma^^ 

Messengers in Ordinary. 

Warrant Book, Hoinc Office Records, vol. vi., p. 321. 



COLONEL JAMES GEAHAM, THIRTEENTH MASTEE. 181 

nothing further of him until March 3, 1696, when he, the 
Hon. Bernard Howard, and other Jacobites, were again in 
durance vile. Probably deeming the cause to which he had 
hitherto so steadfastly adhered hopeless, he took the oath of 
allegiance of King William in 1701, and henceforth attached 
himself to Whigs. In December 1702 the Government ob- 
tained a judgment in the Court of Exchequer against Colonel 
Graham for the recovery of 1,250/., which sum, it was alleged, 
he had informally received from the Treasury for providing 
" healing medals " (used in the function of touching for the 
King's Evil) for the late King's Privy Purse. The Sheriff of 
Westmoreland, in due course, was directed to execute this 
judgment, whereupon Colonel Graham petitioned the Lord High 
Treasurer (Sidney Godolphin) to order the Queen's Remem- 
brancer of the Exchequer to stay proceedings until the first 
day of the next term, by which time he hoped to be able to 
make up and pass his accounts. This application was 
apparently granted ; and on April 19, 1703, he further 
petitioned Queen Anne to be discharged from the liability, to 
which Her Majesty graciously acceded, consequently these 
proceedings of the Treasury were quashed {Treasury Papers, 
vol. Ixxiii., fo. 57). The large sums of money which this 
Master of the Royal Buckhounds had to distribute for " heal- 
ing medals " may be inferred from the circumstance that 
James II., during his brief progress in the summer of 1687, 
" touched " no less than five thousand persons, many of whom 
were charged with fraudulently representing themselves 
scrofulous in order to obtain the pecuniary benefit incidental 
to the ceremony. He represented the county Westmoreland in 
the several Parliaments summoned in the years 1701, 1702, 
1705, 1708, 1710, 1718, 1715, and 1722. About the year 1685 
Colonel Graham bought Levins and other lands in the county 
Westmoreland of Allan Bellingham, Esq. — " an ingenious but 
unhappy young man who consumed a vast estate " * — and 
after 1701 he seems to have chiefly resided there during the 

* Evidently a hunting family, as their arms were argent, three hunting horns ; 
crest, a buck's head couped or. 



182 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

remainder of his life. He married Dorothy, eldest daughter 
of the Hon. William Howard, fourth son of Thomas, Earl of 
Berkshire, by whom he had an only child, Catherine, who 
married her cousin-german, Henry Bowes, Eai-1 of Suffolk and 
Berkshire. 

In hunting up the life of this Master of the Buckhounds we 
are losing sight of the Royal pack, the moving incidents of 
the hunt, and the subordinate officers thereof. Unfortunately 
there is very little available information under this head. All 
we know is that Lawrence Babill and Lancelot Carlisle were 
yeomen prickers, in the receipt of 851. each per annum. As 
we have already recorded, the cost of the household part of 
this pack, during Queen Elizabeth's reign, amounted on an 
average to about 140L a year*. In the reign of James I. its 
annual cost came to about 750^., exclusive of extras. Up to 
the time of the " troubles " it cost the exchequer of Charles I. 
about 1,300^. a year. Under Charles II. it involved an annual 
expenditure of about 2,000^. ; but as the officers of the pack 
were so irregularly paid — their salaries, etc., being constantly 
in arrears — it is hard to say precisely what the cost was for 
any clear year during the Merry Monarch's reign. In the 
reign of James 11. the pack was supported at an annual charge 
of 1,341?. 5s. But it must be noted that this King also kept 
up a pack of foxhounds — a royal revival of the Plantagenet 
era — which cost 700?. a year, and a pack of harriers which 
cost 1,000?. per annum, a pack of otter and other hounds, while 
Felton and Chiffinch, "Keepers of the Hawks," received 
1,372?. 10s. per annum, consequently his hunting establishment 
was more expensive than those of his predecessors. 

During the reign of Charles II. his brother, the Duke of 
York, was one of the most enthusiastic sportsmen in the 
Kingdom. In those days he not only hunted on every 
available occasion with the King's hounds, but also main- 
tained four packs of his own. His familiar letters to the 
Prince of Orange* abound in allusions to hunting, racing, and 
field sports. Unfortunately he rarely indicates the particular 
* King William's Sealed Bag, 1674-86, Bundle iii. 



EXPENSES OF THE PACK DURING THE REIGN OF JAMES II. 183 

pack which he was out with in those days, consequently it 
might be misleading to ascribe to the Royal Buckhounds a 
run which may have been given by some other pack. The 
same may be said of his letters to his niece, the Countess of 
Lichfield. When he ascended the throne the political and 
polemical affairs of the Kingdom absorbed his time and 
attention so much as to admit of few opportunities of par- 
ticipating in the pleasures of the chase. Hence we hear very 
little of the Eoyal Buckhounds or of hunting during his short 
and sad reign. He was evidently out with the Buckhounds 
at Windsor on August 11, 19, and 27, 1685, when three 
'' hunting dinners " were provided for him at a cost of 
701. OS. Shd. At any rate, every accessory of the chase at 
the headquarters of the Royal Hunt was maintained in a 
state of efficiency, and there was abundance of deer to show 
sport.* But, the cares of state, disaffection, and the almost 
overt disloyalty which prevailed in England from this time 
(when the little rebellion of Monmouth was suppressed) to 
the time when the great rebellion of 1688 put an end to his 
reign and dynasty, James II. almost abandoned the pre- 
dilection which he formerly manifested for the chase. Indeed, 
the only other instance we have met with was in 1687, 
when it was officially announced in the London Gazette, 
September j-v, that His Majesty had left Bath, en route to 
Winchester, "to take his divertisement of huntinof." This 
royal venatic expedition was soon over, as the King was back 
at Windsor on the evening of September 17. 

* John Branch was appointed Circuiteer and Bailiff of Battles Walk in 
Windsor Forest, with the usual fees and emoluments appertaining to that 
office, and a further annual allowance of 50^. per annum for provision of 
hay for the deer within the same. R. Hannington, Senr., and R. Hannington, 
Junr., and David Tj-ndall, were appointed underkeepers of the three " red 
deer walks " within the Ijailiwick of Finchamsted, within the forest of Windsor, 
at 201. a year salary " to every one of them, payable out of the revenue of our 
honour and Castle of Windsor." 



184 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE HOUSEHOLD BRANCH.— WILLIAM III 

1689—1702. 

James de Gastigny, Fourteenth Master : September 9, 1689 to c. July 1698. — 
Reinhard Vincent, Baron Van Hompesch, Fifteenth Master : July 6, 
1698, to March 8, 1702. — Annual Cost of the Pack. — Hunting in Holland. 
— Hunting in England. — Fatal Accident to the King when hunting with 
the Pack. — Various Accounts of the Spill, and a Poor Record of the Runs 
towards the End of His Reign. 

With the last regnal year of James II. the accounts of the 
Treasurer of the Chamber of the Royal Household were sus- 
pended, consequently we cannot have recourse to the unique 
facts and figures recorded in that series down to the year 1688 
until they were again resumed in 1694. 

The Whigs treated William of Orange very shabbily. They 
brought him over here to champion their cause, placed him on 
the vacant throne, but only allowed him a civil list from year 
to year. At first he had no permanent regal establishment, 
nor any permanent salary or income to sustain his dignity. 
Subsequently the Parliament settled the customs on him for 
four years only, and the hereditary excise for life. Apart from 
the ministerial and political officers of State, William's personal 
attendants were chiefly foreigners, who had no sympathy and 
little intercourse with this kingdom. Hence many of the 
ancient institutions of the Court remained for some years 
inoperative, if not actually in abeyance. For instance, we 
hear very little of the Royal Buckhounds during his reign. In 
the first Establishment Book of Robert, Earl of Sunderland, 



JAMES DE GASTIGNY, FOURTEENTH MASTEE. 185 

Lord High Chamberlain, James de Gastigny, Esq., is given as 
" Master of the Harthounds and Buckhounds " with a salary of 
1,036^. a year. In the margin the date of his appointment is 
entered, " September 9, 1689"; and in a later Establishment 
Book of this Lord Chamberlain the following entry occurs : 
" Richard Vincent, Baron d'Hompeche, Master of y*^ Harthounds 
and Buckhounds upon y*^ surrender of James de Gastigny, 
Esq." This entry is repeated in the Establishment Book of 
the Earl of Jersey, Lord High Chamberlain, circa 1700, with a 
supplementary inscription showing that John Branch was 
re-appointed Sergeant of the Royal Buckhounds on February 
13, 1691-2, with a salary of 200/. a year, "payable out of the 
Treasury Chamber " (vol. 485, fo. 25). We can find no pay- 
ments to the ofiicers of this branch of the pack in the Accounts 
of the Treasurer of the Chamber from the time of their resump- 
tion in 1694 to 1701, except in a special one, which exclusively 
deals with arrears of salaries due on the Establishment from 
1698 to Midsummer 1701, in which the following entry 
occurs : — 

" James de Gastigny * (and Richard Vincent Baron de Hompesch 
succeeding him), in the place of Master of the Buckhounds at 
m'm'cccxlj'^ "^ ann. for themselves and servants and other charges, 
and due for ifoure yeares & a quarter, ended at Midsumer, 1701, 
ix'"Vx',xlix" v^" 

From this it appears that, from the year 1698 to 1701, those 
Masters were entitled to the sum of 2,341/. a year for defraying 
all the cost incident to the pack ; but as to whether they 
received the amount prior to the year 1698, or after the year 
ended at Midsummer 1701, we are unable to say; at any rate, 
there is no entry of such save the one above mentioned. Ap- 
parently, the Lords of the Treasury evinced reluctance to pay 
the cost of the pack in those days, probably because they had 
no money to spare ; perhaps they never saw those Masters, and 

* In John Chamberlain's Anglie Notitia for 1691 we find the following jjara- 
graph : " James de Gastigny, Esq''., Master of the Hart and Buckhounds for 
himself and the Huntsmen is allowed 2,341/. per annum."— Pp. 140, 164. 



186 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

when the King was absent on the war-path the Royal Buck- 
hounds rarely assembled to hunt in England. On July 
^, 1697, Mons. de Blathwait, Secretary of War, in attend- 
ance on the King in Holland, wrote to the Lords of the 
Treasury, stating that his Majesty recommend them to make 
" some speedy provision for the Buckhounds, which is greatly 
wanted " ; and on August 20, 1701, Baron de Hompesch also 
wrote from the Royal Palace at Loo to De Blathwait (who 
was then at Dieren), requesting him to ask the King for the 
salary due to him on account of his office. De Blathwait 
wrote again to the Lords of the Treasury stating that the 
King signified his pleasure that the money should be paid 
forthwith ; but we can find no payment or acquittance to 
that effect, except in the subjoined minute, b}^ which it appears 
the Baron's claims in respect to this ofiice had been satisfied 
down to Christmas, 1701.* 

* Dieren the 26 Ausr. 1701 N.S. 

Having laid before the King the enclosed Paper from the Baron de 
Hompesch, Master of the Buck Hounds, His Majesty has been Pleased to Com- 
mand me to Signify His Pleasure to the Eight Hon^'« the Lords Com" of the 
Treasury, That what is Due to that Office to Midsummer last, be forthwith paid, 
as His Majesty was Pleased to say, He had Directed before his coming from 
England, wherewith you will please to acquaint theii' LoPs. 

I am, Sir, 

Yo'' most humble servant, 

Wm. Blathwayt. 
Me. Lowndes. 

Indorsed. — Fro' Mr. Blathwayt -If Aug., 1701, for paying half a year to y*" 
Buckhounds due at Midsum'' last. 

Inclosing — (copy). 

Monsieur, — 

Sa Maissut m'ayent ordona^r, de vous dire de vouloir ercrire line order 
qii on paye la demice anne ceheuc pour son Equipage du Cerf le 70' de suin, je 
viens prier d'avoir la bontee de vous en soiiveirn poiir la faire expedier : e moi 
croUre. 

Monsieur, 

Votre tres humble et tres obiesans Cerunt, 

{Signed) K. "V. Baeon d'Hompesche. 
Loo le 20 Aiieut, 1701. 

Indorsed. — Pour Jlonsieur de Blatwright, Secretaire de gure de sa Maiesti de 
Bretainge, &c., &c. 



ANNUAL COST OF THE PACK, EEIGN OF WILLIAM III. 187 



Now as to the details of the personnel of the Household 
branch of the Royal Buckhounds in the reign of William III., 
the accounts of the Treasurers of the Chamber for the time 
being are silent upon the subject. But in the Records of the 
Lord Treasurer's Department we find by an interesting retro- 
spective minute, dated March 26, 1706, some useful information, 
and as the particulars are unique for this period, we venture 
to give the document in extenso. 

To the Right Hon''''' Mylord High Treasurer of England. 
May it please Yo*" Lo^. 
These are most humbly to Certify yo^' Lordship. Tliat the respect- 
ive allowances under men'con'd were payable on the Establishment 
of the Treasurer of the Chamber's Office to the Master of his late 
Ma*** Buckhounds for the services therein specified (vizt) — 
To the Master of the said hounds for his wages, 
buying of Horses and maintaining them Ser- 
vants Lodgings and other Extraord''^'*^ whatso- 



To him more for maintaining 100 hounds at 3*^ per 
diem each hound as well for their meat, as 
Couples, Grease, physick, and ,all other small 
things whatsoever for 100 hounds . 

To him for maintaining a waggon w"' 4 Horses 



To the Serjeant of the Buckhounds 

For a Horse Huntsman for his wages 

For the Entertainment of 3 Horses 

For buying one horse every year 

For a Servant .... 

For a brass horn and the repairac'on thereof 



To 4 Horse huntesmen £181 each '^ ann' 
To 5 Foot huntsmen £40 each '^ ann' . 
Besides 2'' '^ diem for heeping young hounds. 



£500 



£456 

£80 

£200 



£1036 



£85 
£54 
£20 
£20 

£2 



£181 



£381 
£724 
£200 



In all £2341 



188 THE HISTOET OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

And that all the said allowances are fnlly satisfy'd to Baron 
Hompesche or his assignes to Christmas 1701. But how long the 
said Baron continued after that time to Execute the office or to 
defray the Charge of the above menconed Establishment for the 
Buckhovmds doth not appear in this office. Nevertheless I am in- 
form'd at the Prince's Treasury where the charge of the Buckhounds 
is now Establish'd that the same com'enced in Her Ma*^^ Reign from 
Midsomer 1702. 

Treasurer of the Chamber's Office, 26th March 1706. 

MOS. GiRAUDEAU. 

Indorsed. — " Trea'r of the Chamber's Certificate concerneing what 
remains due to his late Ma'^ Buckhounds 26 March 1706." 

As to those Masters of the Royal Buckhounds very little can 
be told. Of James de Gastigny, 14th Master of the House- 
hold branch of the Royal Buckhounds, we know nothing, 
except that on February 27, 1688-9, he obtained a patent from 
William III. for " one annuity, pension, or yearly sum of 500L 
of lawful English money from Christmas, 1697, and to continue 
henceforth during the natural term of his life " ; and that he 
was ordered to be sworn into the office of Master of the 
" Harthounds and Buckhounds " on September 9th, 1689, as 
appears by the subjoined royal Warrant issued in that 
behalf : — 

WUliam R. 
Our Will and Pleasure is that you forthwith swear and admitt, or 
cause to be sworn and admitted, Our &c., James de Gatigny, Esq., 
into y® place of Master of Our Harthounds and Buckhounds, To 
have, hold and enjoy y*^ same, together w*^ all ffees, allowances, per- 
quisites, and priviledges belonging to y* place, in as fvill and ample 
manner as John Cary and James Grahme, Esq""^., or any other person 
hath formerly held and enjoyed y'' same. And for so doing, &c. 
Given, &c. Hampton Court, 9th September, 1689. 

By &c., 
Shrem'esbury. 
To Our &c. Councellor Charles Earl 
of Dorsett and Midd'', Our Cham- 
berlain of Our Household.* 

* Home Office Records : Warrant Booh, vol. 22 (R. L., No. 14), p. 4.53. 



BAEON VAN HOMPESCH, FIFTEENTH MASTER. 189 

Reinhart Vincent, Baron Van Hompesch, 15th Master of 
the Household branch of the Royal Buckhounds, was born in 
1660, at Guliksch, near Aix-la-Chapelle. According to the 
subjoined Royal Warrant, the Chambei^lain was ordered to 
swear him into the Office of Master of the " Harthounds and 
Buckhounds " on July 6, 1698, the oath having been admini- 
stered to him on the eleventh of that month : — 

WilHam R. 

Our Will and Pleasure is that you foi'thwith Swear and admit, or 
cause to be sworn and admitted, Our Trusty and Wellbeloved Richard 
Vincent, Baron d'Hompesch into y" place of Master of our Hart- 
hounds and Buckhounds, to have, hold and Enjoy the same, to- 
gether with all fees, allowances, perquisites and privileges belonging 
to y* place, in as full and amjole manner as James de Gastigny, Esq., 
or any other person hath formerly held and enjoyed the same. And 
for doing, &c. Given, &c. Kensington, 6th July, 1698. 

By his JNIa"'^ Command, 

Ja. Vernon. 
To Our B} Trusty and Wellbeloved 

CouncelP' Peregrine Bertie, Esq., 

Our Vice-Chamberlain of Our 

Household.* 

Theses are to Certifie that I have sworn f and admitted Reinhard 
Vincent, Baron d'Hompesch, in the place and Quality of Master of 
his Majesty's Harthounds and Buckhounds, to have, hold and Enjoy 
y** same with all Rights, Profits, Priviledges, and advantages there- 
unto belonging, in as full and ample manner as James Gastigny, 

* Home Office Records : Warrant Booh, vol. i\, p. 213. 

f All the Court officials in the Lord Chamberlain's Department had to take 
the following oath on their appointment to .their several offices : — " You shall 
svirear on the Holy Evangelist, and by the contents of this Book to be a true 
servant to our Sovereign Lord William by the Grace of God King of England, 
Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith. You shall know nothing 
that may be any ways hurtful or prejudicial to the King's Majesty's royal 
person, state, crown, or dignity, but you shall hinder it what in you lies, or else 
reveal the same to his Majesty, or some of the Most Honourable the Privy 
Council. You shall serve the King faithfully in the Place of Master of the 
Buckhounds, &c., you shall be obedient to the Lord Chamberlain in his 
Majesty's Service. So help you God, &c." 



190 THE HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

Esq., or any other person hath formerly held and enjoy'd y" sfiine. 
Given under my hand and seal this eleventh day of July in the 
Tenth Year of his Ma*'*^^ reign. 

Pere Bertie.* 

He held the rank of a Major-General of Horse in the allied 
forces during the campaigns of' William III. and Queen Anne 
against the French incroachments in the Netherlands. He was 
evidently a great favourite with William III. 

The Baron was, invariably, in attendance on the King 
during his frequent sojourns in Holland. Thus we find at 
least one specific instance recorded. It is such a characteristic 
bit of hunting intelligence, we give it here verbatim et litera- 
tim. It would be spoiled in any other way : — 

" Loo, October 28, 1698. On Saturday last Monsieur cV Auverhirk, 
being pretty well again, arrived from Zell, as did hkewise Count 
Aversherg fi'om the Hague. His Majesty, notwithstanding the late 
fatigue, hunted a brace of Stags, the first of which taking into a 
Morass full of bogs, escaped with his life. Baron Hom^yus, Master 
of the King's Buckhounds, following him too far lost his Horse, 
being stilted in one of the said bogs, and was himself in some danger. 
Sunday the Elector of Bavaria's Saddle Horses came hither, being 
24 in number, of which 18 were led for his Highnesses own Biding 
to hunt &c., with his Majesty, and he is daily expected, whose 
com.ing will occasion his Majesty's stay in these parts longer than 
was designed, provision being ordered for 3 weeks, the Baggage 
arrived all from Zell, and the King's Horses will be here from thence 
the latter end of this week. Yesterday the King hunted a Hare, 
went afterwards shooting, and this day hvints a Stag. The Elector 
of Bavaria is to be here to-night, and likewise the Great Pensionary, 
and the Count de Tallard." 

The Elector arrived at the Royal Palace on the 4th of 
November, attended by " his Grand Master of his Stables " 
and the Master of his Hounds. They were received by the 
Earl of Portland and conducted to the King's bed-chamber, 

* Lord Chamberlain's Eecords: Warrants for Sei'vants from 1697 to IJli, 
Yol. 20, K. L. 756, p. 8. 



BARON VAN HOMPESCH, FIFTEENTH MASTER. 191 

where his Majesty welcomed them with all the marks of 
esteem and affectioD. The following day they hunted to- 
gether "and kept the Feast of St. Hubert." The Elector 
was delighted to see the English hounds " run so fine." In 
one run with this pack the King proceeded so far from the 
Palace that he was very late before he reached home. The 
next day the King was to hunt the stag again ; if it ran 
towards Dieren his Majesty was to lye there for a day or two. 
The result of this day's hunting is not recorded ; but it seems 
the stag was a loyal stag and headed in the wished-for line, 
as the King returned from Dieren to Loo on the 15th of 
November, whence he returned to England soon after. 

In the Accounts of Richard, Earl of Ranelagh, Paymaster- 
General of the Forces, for arrears of pay chargeable on the 
Forfeited Estates in Ireland, 1692-99, the Baron de Hompesch, 
" for his pay as Brigadeer General," is credited with the sum 
of 1,987/. 2s. Qd. 

The Baron de Hompesch was also in attendance on the 
King soon after his arrival in Holland in the spring of 1700. 
The Intelligencers of the London newspapers announced that 
" some of his Majesty's horses have arrived at the Hague from 
England, and the Baron de Hompes, his Chief Huntsman, is 
speedily expected from Germany at Loo " {The Flying Post, 
March ^, 1700). " The King of Great Britain's horses, that 
lately arrived here from England, are sent to Loo, whither the 
Baron de Hompes, who arrived here from Germany, will also 
suddenly go." It may be here noted that the Intelligencers 
probably spelt the name of this Master of the Royal Buck- 
hounds as it was by them pronounced. 

On the success of the Allied forces against the French and 
Spaniards in the lines at Vleerbeck, near Louvain, in July 
1705, the Duke of Marlborough sent the Baron de Hompesch 
with despatches to the States General announcing the victory, 
in which the Duke says : " I thought this good news deserves 
to be sent to your High Mightiness by a person of note, and I 
have chosen Lieut.-General Hompesch, who had a great share 
therein." 



192 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

Thereupon the States General presented the Baron " with a 
golden chain and medal " for the welcome news he brought to 
them. The Baron soon after returned to the camp. 

The Baron having got in some disgrace, in October 1706, he 
importuned the Duke of Marlborough's intercession, who at 
once wrote to the Elector Palatine in his friend's behalf, testify- 
ing to his valour and worth, trusting he would be forgiven 
and restored to favour. The most important feature in this 
letter is that the Duke alludes to the Baron as having been 
" Son grand veneur " to Queen Anne.* 

On March 16, 1707-S, pursuant to the subjoined Royal 
Warrant, the Baron was authorised to receive 46SZ. 2s. 6^d. ; 
being the balance of his salary due to him as Master of 
the Buckhounds to the late King, the same to be paid out of 
the issues of North and South Wales ; but it remains an open 
question whether or not gallant little W^ales gallantly paid 
the little bill. 

Anne R. 

-r, VTT 1 rOuR Will and Pleasure is and We doe 

Baron d Hompescn 

tncT -^ ni 7 thereby Authorize and Command that out of 

4:0bL 2s. bid. I *' 

Ithe moneys which You have or Shall receive 

from the Receiver or Rec*^ of Our Land Revenues in North or 

South Wales or any or either of them by Virtue and in pursuance 

of Warr*^ from Our R* Trusty and Right Welbeloved Cousin and 

Counselour Sidney Earl of Godolphin Oiu' High Treasui-er of Great 

Brittain to the said Receivers in that behalfe respectively directed 

(which said Warr'^ whereof one bares date y*^ seventh day of 

January last past and the other bears date the 3d day of March 

instant Wee do hereby according to the Tenors thereof in all 

respects ratifye and Confirme) you pay or cause to be paid unto Our 

Trusty and Welbeloved Reinhard Vuicent Baron d'Hompesch or to 

* The complimentary term applied by the Duke to the Baron, although 
strictly speaking correct, carried little signification, as he can only be con- 
sidered the Queen's " grand huntsman " through having been included among 
all the high officers of state, etc., holding office at the death of William III.. 
who were confirmed in and ordered to exercise their respective functions until 
their successors were appointed, pursuant to the Queen's proclamation of the 
9th of March, 1702. 



BARON VAN HOMPESCH, FIFTEENTH MASTER. 193 

his Assignes the Sume of 468Z. '2s. Q^d. in Lieu and discharge of the 
like Sume which do remaine due to the said Baron d'Hompescli 
upon the Allowances Amounting to 2,34H. '^ anii which were 
payable to him in the Office of the Treasurer of the Chamber of 
Our Late Eoyall Brother King Will'" y" S** of Blessed Memory as 
he was master of the Buckhounds to his said late Ma*^, to wit, from 
Christmas 1701 the time to which he was last paid to y" S'*" day of 
March following being the day of the Demise of the s*^ late King, 
taking care That the said Baron d'Hompesch upon Rec of the s*^ Sum 
do release unto us by writing under his hand & Seale all Claims and 
Demands touching the said Arrear which release is to be Entered 
with the Auditors of Our Imprests, and in the Office of Treasurer of 
Our Chamber to Avoyd double payments, And this together with 
the Accquittance of the s'' Baron d'Hompesche or his Assignes shall 
be as well to you for the payment as to all Others concern'd in 
Allowing thereof upon Your Acco*^ a sufficient Warr Given at 
Our Court at S'. James's the IG*'^ day of March 1707-8 in the 
7*'^ Yeare of Our Reigne. 

By her Ma'^ Coinand 

GODOLPHIN. 

To Our Trusty and Welbeloved Chis*'' 
Tilson, Gent', Ree^ of y'^ Land Revenues 
due at or before Michas 1698 and to 
the Auditor of Our Land Revenues in 
North and South Wales and to the 
Rec' & Rec"^ of the Same Revenues & 
all & every of them now & for y'^ time 
being. 

In May 1708 he formally relinquished his claim against the 
Crown for the arrears due to him in his capacity of Master 
of the Buckhounds from Christmas 1701-2 to March 8 follow- 
ing, amounting to 468Z. 2s. 6^d., as appears by the subjoined 
assignment : — 

-r> XT 1, rTo ALL to whom these presents shall come 

Baron Hompesh s ^ 

Release to the Queen | ^'^'^^.'''^''^ ^^''^^^* ^^™^ d'Hompesche sends 

iGreeting. Whereas there is due and owing 

unto me from his late Ma*'' King William the Third of Glorious 

memory the sum of Four hundi'ed and Sixty Eight pounds two 

13 



194 THE HISTOKY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

Shillings and Six Pence Farthing upon my Allowance of 234P "^ ann. 
payable in the office of Treafer of the Chamber as Master of the 
Buckhounds to his said late Ma*^ (to wit) from X*mas 1701 the time 
to which I was last paid to the 8th of March following, being the 
day of the demise of the said late King. Now Know Yee that I 
the said Reinhard Vincent Baron Hompesch for good and valuable 
causes and consideracons me hereunto moving have Eemised, Re- 
leased, and for ever quitt, claimed and do by these p'sent for me my 
Jieirs Executors Adm''^, and assign es and every of them clearly and 
absolutely Remise, Release, and for ever quit claim unto the queens 
most Excellent Ma*^ that now is her heirs and Successoi's, the said 
sum of 468" 2^ 6^"^. due and owing to me in the said Office of 
Treasurer of the Chamber upon my said allow'^'-' as Master of the 
Buckhounds to His said late Ma*^ as aforesaid. In witness whereof 
I have hereunto set my hand and seal the -^^ day of May in the 7th 
year of the Reign of her Ma*^ Anne, Grace of God Queen of G' 
Britain, France, Ireland, Defend'^ of the Faith, &c., Anno Dom. 
1708. 

R. V. CoMTE d'Hompesch. 
Signed, Sealed, and Delivered, in the presence of 

Fr: Hare. 

A : Oardonnell.* 

The Baron was engaged in the battle of Ramillies and other 
hard fought fields during the Dutch wars, and subsequently 
became Governor of Geertruidenberg in 1731, a post he held 
to his death, which occurred in 1733. 

Now, having said so much of the two Masters of the House- 
hold branch of the Royal Buckhounds in the reign of 
William III., we must not omit to pay our little tribute to 
the memory of this inonarch solely as a sportsman. This is 
a difficult task, because, in the first place, there are so few 
particulars to be found on the subject in the literary remains 
of that era, and secondly, because the historical writers deal 
almost exclusively with the campaigns, military and political, 
which are so prominently associated with the reign of the 
only " glorious, pious, and immortal sovereign who has had- 

* Lord ChamhtrlaiiCs Rtcords, Assigyiments, vol. f f^, pp. 38, 39. 



WILLIAM III. AS A SPOKTSMAN, 195 

the misfortune to reign over the only realm upon which the 
sun never sets and whose subjects never, never will be slaves." 
Notwithstanding these obstacles, we must here briefly state 
that William of Orange was every inch a sportsman. When 
the cares of state and the loud alarms of war permitted, he 
rarely missed an opportunity of participating in rural sports. 
He was a good shot at winged game, preserved pheasants, 
"wild Turkeys " (probably the capercailzie ?) and " such small 
deer " at Hampton Court, Windsor, Richmond, and other 
royal manors; he delighted in a main of cocks; was attached 
to "setting dogs "; went in for coursing ; patronised the Turf; 
bred his own " running horses " and backed them, occasionally, 
to the tune of 2000 guineas a match ; founded the Royal 
Stud at Hampton Court, and instituted royal plates to en- 
courage and improve the breed of horses. But what most 
concerns us here is William III. as a follower of the chase, 
mounted on a fleet horse in pursuit of the quarry. In the 
hunting field he must have had the appearance of a veritable 
masher, as he was supplied with sixteen " hunting cravats " a 
year. These consisted of 40 yards " of ground and looped 
lace," which, at M. 10s. a yard, cost him 180L per annum. 
(L. C. R. Bills, vol. 209, No. 11.) In all the mysteries of 
hunting he was thoroughly proficient ; he took great delight 
in it, both at home and abroad, and — like many a good and 
true man, before and after him — met his death in the 
hunting field when he was following the Royal Buck- 
hounds near Hampton Court on Saturday, February 21, 
1702. Upon this point all contemporary authorities are 
unanimous. Macaulay, however, rejects this evidence, and 
does not attribute the accident which eventuated in the King's 
death to have been in any way connected with the hunting 
field. As it is hardly within our province to discuss this 
point, our object will be best accomplished by simply sub- 
mitting the subjoined versions, from which the reader can 
form his own conclusion : — 

" On the 20th of February William was ambHng on a favourite 
horse, named Sorrel, through the park of Hampton Court. He 



196 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

ui-ged his horse to strike into a gallop just at the spot where a mole 
had been at work. Sorrel stumbled on the mole-hill, and went 
down on his knees. The King fell off, and broke his collar bone. 
The bone was set ; and he returned to Kensington in his coach. 
The jolting of the rough roads of that time made it necessary to 
reduce the fracture again. To a young and vigorous man such an 
accident would have been a trifle. But the frame of William was 
not in a condition to bear even the slightest shock." * — Hist. Eng- 
land, ch. XXV. 

'■ Kensington, Feb. 28. His Majesty had last week an un- 
happy Accident by a Fall from his Horse in Hunting ; but is, 
God be praised, very well again." — London Gazette, Feb. 26 — 
March 2, 1701-2. 

" As the King was taking the Divertisement of Hunting a Deer 
near Hampton Town on Saturday last his Horse slipt, so that His 
Majesty fell, and had the misfortune to hurt his Collar Bone, after 
which he Dined at Hampton Court, and at night came in his Coach to 
Kensington, where he rested well that Night, and did Hkewise on 
Sunday night."— Pos^ Boy, Feb. %\, 1701-2. 

" On Saturday last as the King was hunting near Hampton 
Court, his horse fell with him, by which His Majesty's Collar-bone 
was hvirt, but immediately set right again." — Flying Post, Feb. #j. 

" London, February 25. His Majesty is, God be thanked, very 
well, notwathstanding the fall he got on Saturday a Hunting." — 
The Post Man, February ||. 

" London, March 10. On the 8th Instant, about 8 a Clock in 
the Morning, King William III. of ever blessed Memory, departed 
this Life at his Palace of Kensington, after a Fortnight's Inchspo- 
sition. It was occasioned by his Horse's falling with him as he was 
a Hunting near Hampton-Court on Satiu'day the 21st of February 
last. . . . "—The Flying Post, March y^, 1702. 

" On Saturday last, as his majestie was hunting a stagg near 
Kingston upon Thames, his horse fell with him and broke his coUar 
bone ; which was soon after sett, and is now pretty well again, and 
is expected in few dayes at the house of peers to passe what bills are 
ready." — LuttreWs Diary, Februaiy, 1701-2, vol. v., p. 145. 

" The unhappy Accident that occassion'd his Majesty's Sickness 

* Macaulay does not give any authority for this statement. It would be 
interesting; to know the source from which it was derived. 



WILLIAM in. AS A SPORTSMAN. 197 

was this. On the 21st of February being a Hunting near Hampton 
Court, his Majesty's Horse unfortvmately stumbling, fell down under 
him with great Violence, throwing him on a rising Ground, which 
broke his Collar-bone, and was immediately set again by his chief 
Surgeon. . . ." — The History of the Life and Reign of William III., 
King of Englayul, Prince of Orange and Hereditary Stadtholder of 
the United Provinces ... by John Banks, of the Middle Temple. 
London, 1744, 8'^., page 374. 

"Feb. 21, 1701-2. The King, though ailing, frequently hunted 
in the neighbourhood of Hampton Court Palace, where he was 
then resicUng. After the accident he is reported to have said 
to Dr. Bidloo that ' while I endeavoured to make the horse change 
his walking into a gallop, he fell upon his knees. Upon that I 
meant to rise him with the bridle ; but he fell forward on one side, 
and so I fell with my right shoulder upon the ground.' It is a 
strange thing, for it happened upon smooth level ground." — TindaVs 
History of England, suh dato. 

According to the evidence cited above there seems to be very 
little doubt that William III. met with the mishap in the 
hunting field, from the effects of which he died at Kensington 
Palace, between seven and eight o'clock, on the morning of 
March 8, 1702. At any rate he, like all the monarchs of this 
kingdom who bore the name of William, met his fate in the 
saddle. It is somewhat remarkable to notice that in the reign 
of William III. staghunting and buckhunting were synonymous 
terms.* Nevertheless the former phrase usually applied to the 
latter in its technical sense. Officially, " buckhounds " was 
invariably the term from the ea,rliest times down to the de- 
position of James II. ; and when the Hanoverians came in, the 
correct appellation of this pack had necessarily to be employed 
to distinguish it from the Royal Staghounds north of the 
Trent, and so on until that pack was abolished and suppressed 
by Act of Parliament in 1782. 

* It seems the Royal Harthounds were nominally amalgamated with the 
Royal Buckhounds, in the reign of William III., for the purpose of economy, 
and apparently placed under the latter Master and his staff. Hitherto these 
two packs were totally distinct : the former being partly supported out of 
the issues of Somerset and Dorset. In after times the Harthounds practically 
became a pack of Harriers. 



198 



THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 



Now as to the horses upon which the King, the Master and 
the hunt servants were mounted when following the Royal 
Buckhounds, we find occasional mention of the hunters that 
were bought for this particular purpose in the Accounts of the 
Masters of the Horse from time to time. Still we cannot 
conscientiously make any positive deduction as to the exact 
number of horses employed in this service, or what they cost ; 
for in many cases some of them were bred or otherwise 
acquired by the Royal Stud,* and beyond the expenses in- 
cidental to keeping such therein, nothing further transpires.f 
With such scant materials to deal with, it would be useless to 
enter into speculations on this important and interesting 
adjunct of the Royal Hunt, therefore we must reluctantly pass 
the matter without further comment. Apart from the 
ofiiciating staff, some of the old surviving hunt servants con- 
tinued to enjoy their pensions ; | and upon the whole the 



665 6 



* The King's stables were full of magnificent horses " seized and taken of 
and from " the unfortunate Papists, who were prohibited by the Penal Laws 
to have or possess any horse above the value of 5Z. Indeed, it has been a 
tradition of long standing at the Eoyal Mews that the hunter on which William 
III. came to grief belonged to this category. 

£ s. d. 
t Dec. 25, 1692, to June 24, 1700.— John Rawlins, Esq., H.M. sadler, 
for goods delivered and work done for H. M. hunters and 

padds at Loo and the Hague 

March 22, 1692-3 to March 8, 1701-2.— 4 geldings for the King's 
huntsmen and others, at several rates . 
10 horses for ditto, ditto .... 
15 gelding for ditto, ditto 
27 horses for ditto, ditto .... 
1700 to Aug. 1702. — 2 Huntsmens horses . 
2 bay geldings for the huntsmen 
1 chestnut gelding for a huntsman 
1 brown gelding, ditto .... 
1 horse for a huntsman .... 
1 grey gelding, ditto .... 

The following horses were bought in Holland in the year 1700 
horse 364 guilders 8 stivers, 1 ditto, bought of the.Earl of Romney, 330 guilders, 
1 ditto, 264 guilders, 12 stivers, 1 ditto, 236 guilders 5 stivers. 

J 1689. — The following " Hunting Grooms" to his late Majesty Charles II. 
were allowed and received a pension of £18 a year, each, in the year 1689, the 
same to continue during the King's (William III.) pleasure, in whose service 



101 





227 





337 13 





435 5 


2 


46 





48 





20 





24 10 





20 





21 10 





huntsman's 



WILLIAM III. AS A SPOETSMAN. 199 

Royal Hunting Establisliment was maintained in a thorough 
state of efficiency towards the end of the reign of William III. 
If we may draw any deduction from such an insignificant 
matter as the cover for the Hound-van, we find an order for a 
new one issued almost every year. These covers were made 
of red cloth and embroidered with the King's arms at the four 
corners with silk. In these unsettled times, it is probable the 
Royal Buckhounds only met when opportunity permitted ; 
very little transpires as to the nature of the sport, as may 
be gathered from the subjoined contemporary reports : — 

The King took the Divertisment of Hunting on Friday about 
Hounslow, and returned at Night to Kensington. — April ^^. 

His Majesty went on Tuesday last to Richmond, and by the way 
he took the Divertisment of Hunting, and at night returned to his 
Palace at Kensington. — Oct. t-?. 

The King was at Richmond on Saturday last to take his Diver- 
tisment of shooting. — Nov. ^4, No, 239. 

1697. On Saturday last the King took the Divertisment of 
Hunting about Branstead Downs. — 7/^^. 

o March '2 

Mr. Stepney to Lord Lexington, London, November 21. — "The 
King got cold as he was hunting last Saturday. He had shivers last 
night as if he would have an ague, but to-day he is better." — Lexing- 
ton Papers, p. 15. 

1698. I hear His Majesty designs to go on Saturday to Windsor, 

they were not employed. But in case any of them should be otherwise provided 
for, or in case of their death, their pensions were to cease and determine, viz. : 
Wm. Carpenter, Thos. Calcot, Christ. Sarnpson, Thos. Taylor. Geo. Burden and 
Rob. Franklin.— ^a;-?. 3LS. 5010, fo. 17-36, 

In this series we find the subjoined computation " of the charge and expence 
of the Horse Liveries, according to the following rates," viz. : Hay £4 per load, 
straw 30.S'. per load, oats 24.9. per quarter, beans 6s. per bushel, shoeing and 
medicining 2.<f. per day ; more for each hunting horse 205. per annum. Each 
horse was allowed 1 bottle of hay, I^ peck of oats and ^ peck of beans per day, 
and 8 trusses of straw per month. Four " hunting horses " and 36 " hunters 
coursers and pads " was the established yearly allowance in the royal stables. 
The total cost of keeping each horse is set down at £52 10s. 3f rf, a year. 
Yearly charge for diet, etc, commencing April 1, 1689. Yeomen of the field 
to the King and Queen on hunting days were entitled to receive from the royal 
larder 2 manchets of bread ; 2 bottles of Lambeth ale ; 1 bottle of champagne, 
1 bottle of Rhenish, and 1 bottle of Spanish wines. — Harl. MSS. 5010. 



200 THE HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

to take the Divertisment of Hunting and Shooting, and some thinks 
the Czar will likewise go thither. — Feb. 5. 

On Saturday last His Majesty went from Windsor to Wooborn, 
the seat of the Right Honourable the Lord Wharton, to visit His 
Grace the Duke of Shrewsbury, who continues still very much indis- 
posed. On Monday the King took the Divertisment of Hunting the 
stag. — -March ~. 

The King got a small fall yesterday a hunting, but God be 
thanked, received no hurt. J. Ellis, Whitehall, March ^ to Lord 
Ambassador Williamson, at the Hague. — State Pcqyers Domestic, 
Will III. 1698 March— April. Bundle 13, no. 26. 

On Thursday last the King hunted at Hounslow Heath, where he 
had the misfortune to fall with his horse, but God be thanked re- 
ceived no hurt, though the Count de Nassau, who had the same 
misfortune, was forced to be let blood. — March ^. 

On Tuesday last the King's Hounds, as also those of the Prince of 
Nassau, were sent for New-market, and yesterday a Battallion of the 
Foot Guards marched thither likewise, to attend his Majesty during 
his stay there ; there will be abundance of Persons of Quality &c. 
March ||. 

From the Hunting House at Goor (Holland), Oct. 7. On Friday 
about noon, the King of England arrived here. His Majesty having 
been 4 days on his way hither; he was met by the Diike of Zell,* 
and took yesterday the Divertisment of Hunting a Hart. — Oct. ^. 

Yesterday the King went a Hunting to Richmond, and 'tis said 
his Majesty goes next week for Windsor. — Dec. #|^. 

On Tuesday his Majesty, who is now at Windsor, took the Diver- 
tisment of Hunting about that place, being attended by a great 
concoui'se of the nobility and gentry, who are gone thither to pass 
the Christmas holidays. — Dec. #|-. 

1699. Yesterday His Majesty diverted himself with hunting at 
New Park, and returned to Kensington in the evening. — March ^. 

The King went on Tuesday to Richmond, where he took the 
divertisement of hunting. — April |. 

On Saturday the King took the devertisement of hunting about 
Hounslow, and returned at night to his Royal Palace at Kensington. 

April 29 



May 2 



* " The Duke of Zell presented the King with 300 head of red deer to stock 
his forests in England." — LuttrelVs Diary, August 1697. 



WILLIAM III. AS A SPOKTSMAN. 201 

Loo, Se}:)t. 29. The King was at Diern all last week, and returned 
hither on Saturday with the Duke of Zell, having hunted the Stagg 
by the way. This day a horse-race was run here, betwixt Mr. Lalla 
and Colonel Eank for 100 Pistols, which was won by the former. — 
Sept. f^. 

On Sunday last his Majesty heard sermon at St. James's chapel, 
and yesterday took the Divertisement of hunting about Richmond, 
and returned to Kensington in the evening, and designs in a day or 
two to go to Hampton Court. — Nov. -li. 

Yesterday his Majesty took the divertisement of hunting about 
Windsor. — Nov. ■—-. 

This day his Majesty cUverted himself with hunting about Rich- 
mond, notwithstanding the raii:i. — Dec. ^. 

On Tuesday his Majesty diverted himself with hunting about 
Richmond, notwithstanding the rain. — Dec. ^ |. 

1700. His Majesty heard sermon on Sunday at St. James's and 
took the divertisement yesterday of hunting about Richmond. — 
Jan. if. 

This day His Majesty went to Hampton Court to divert himself 
with hunting. — Jan. #|. 

On Satui'day His Majesty took the divertisement of hunting about 
Richmond. — Feb. if. 

His Majesty took the divertisement of hunting on Fi-iday and 
Saturday about Hampton Court, and returns on Saturday night to 
his royal palace at Kensington. — March y-^. 

On Tuesday His Majesty took the divertisement of hunting &c. 
about Hampton Court. — March if. 

On Thursday His Majesty went in the morning to Hampton Court, 
ill order to take the divertisement of hunting and shooting. — March %'^. 

Hague, May 21. — Some packs of hounds are arrived here from 
England, which will be sent to Loo, and 'tis said the hunting horses 
will follow ill a little time. — May if. 

Several fine horses and a number of hounds are bought up here 
[London] for the Elector of Brandenburgh. — June ii. 

His Majesty took the divertisement of hunting last Saturday 
at Cranbon Chase ; afterwards he dyn'd at Windsor, and returned 
at night to Hampton Court. — June -^. 

Loo, Aug. 3. — The King arrived here from Soes-dyke the 28th 
past [Ultimo] in the evening, and the next day hunted and killed a 



202 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

stag. His Majesty came home afterwards on horseback, and found 
himself very well after the chase. Yesterday his Majesty hunted the 
stag again, and continues in good health. — July #|. 

Loo, Aug. 6. — His Majesty continues in perfect health, and is now 
hunting the stag, and designs to lie this night at Dieren, and continue 
some days there. — Aug. i. 

Loo, Aug. 20. — Yesterday his Majesty hunted the stag and re- 
turned hither this day from Dieren. — Aug. if. 

Loo, Aug. 27. — His Majesty continues in perfect health, and 
intends to-morrow to divert himself with hunting the wild-boar, — 
Aug. ^|. 

Dieren, Sept. 14. — The Electoral Prince was abroad with his 
Majesty yesterday morning at the rousing of the stag. — Sept. f . 

Loo, Sept. 23, IST.S.- — Yesterday His Majesty and the Electoral 
Prince of Brandenburgh were diverted with two horse races, after 
which the Electoral Prince took his leave. — Sept. i|. 

Loo, Oct. 4. — On Friday His Majesty hunted and killed two stags, 
and in the evening returned to Dieren. — Sept. §^. 

Yesterday his Majesty diverted himself with hunting the fox and 
hare. — Nov. f. 

Mr. Cardonnel (Secretary to the Earl of Marlborough) to the 
Privy Council, London. Loo, Oct. -^. — " Tho the weather has been 
but very indifferent to-day yet the King has been abroad from 
morning till night, and had the pleasure of kilHng two staggs." — 
Add. MS. 28,917, ff. 305, 306. 

Yesterday 20 of the King's hunting horses came to town from 
Harwich where they had been debarqued. — Nov. \^. 

(No reference to hunting from Nov. 1700 to June 21, 1701.) 

1701. London, Jmie 24. — The King took the divertisemeut of 
hunting a buck last Saturday about Hampton Court, which he killed, 
and yesterday His Majesty came from thence to Kensington — 
June |~. 

Hague, Oct. 28. — The King of Great Britain diverted himself 
yesterday a hunting beyond the Sorgoilet. — Oct. -If. 

His Majesty took the divertisemeut of hunting last Friday about 
Hampton Court. — Nov. ~. 

1702. London, January 27. — The King took the divertisemeut 
of hunting about Hampton Court, and returned at night to Ken- 
sington. — Jan. f^. 



203 



CHAPTER X. 

THE HEREDITARY BRANCH: CHARLES I.—ANNE. 

Sir Lewis Watson, First Baron Eockingham, Fourteenth Master. — Edward 
Watson, Second Baron Eockingham, Fifteenth Master. — Lewis Watson, 
First Earl of Eockingham, Sixteenth and Last " Hereditary " Master. 

SiE Lewis Watson, Bart., first Baron Rockingham, fourteenth 
Manorial or " Hereditary " Master of the Royal Buckhounds, 
temp. Charles I. (from June G, 1633, to 1652), was the eldest son 
of Sir Edward Watson, Knight, of Rockingham Castle, county 
Northampton, and Anne, daughter of Kenelm Digby, Esq., of 
Stoke, county Rutland. The date of the birth of this Master 
of the Buckhounds is not recorded ; indeed, there is hardly 
any information to be found in print of his life or pursuits; 
we are therefore obliged to plod through a mass of State 
papers, and cognate contemporary documents, to obtain some 
few facts relating to his career. Of his early years very little 
information can be gleaned, but there is little doubt that he 
freely intermixed with the courtiers of the time of James I. 
That sporting monarch, like many of his predecessors, was 
very partial to hunting in Rockingham Forest. When in the 
vicinity James rarely missed paying a venatic visit to those 
happy hunting grounds. Thus, in August 1604, we find the 
King was hunting in this forest " for the space of two days," 
a " dyning-house " having been erected for his accommodation 
by the Court apparellers, at Sir Edward Watson's lodge in 
Rockingham Park, at a cost of 395. ^c/. It is consequently 
safe to assume that Sir Edward's youthful son and heir — who 



204 THE HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

was afterwards destined to become a Master of the Royal 
Buckhounds — was at this early date acquainted, and mayhap 
a little favourite, with the British Solomon. The King was 
Sir Edward Watson's guest at Rockingham Castle "for the 
space of six days " in August 1605, when another " dyning- 
house " was put up for him in Rockingham Forest. Similar 
royal venatic visits to this forest may be passed over, as they 
do not directly relate to the subject of this memoir. However, 
on August 19, 1608, Lewis Watson was knighted by James I. 
at Grafton. Three years afterwards he obtained a licence to 
travel with money, horses, servants, etc., beyond the seas, 
and then did the grand tour characteristic of grand folks in 
England in those and later times. On the death of his father, 
in 1619, Sir Lewis Watson succeeded to the family estates ; 
and during the month of July in this year he had the honour 
of entertaining, at Rockingham Castle, the King, who there 
and then knighted his host's eldest son, Edward, who must 
have been at this time a child of tender years. What a mania 
James I. had for dubbing ! Barbers, innkeepers, and squires 
of the lowest degree were indiscriminately knighted, with the 
best blood in the land, by this prodigal monarch ! But those 
honours were usually accomplished through the back-door 
influence of the King's followers, who put money in their 
pouch by this means. A few years afterwards (June 23, 
1621) Sir Lewis Watson was created a Baronet — a dignity 
which cost him a thousand pounds in " lawful money of 
England." 

For some years after these events we hear little of Sir 
Lewis Watson. He seems to have devoted himself to the 
enjoyments of country life, and to have principally lived at 
home, like many of the old English families, dispensing 
hospitality, improving his estates, and participating in the 
enjoyments of the chase and those rural sports in the 
mysteries of which he was so "well entered." But this 
pleasant mode of life was soon checked. The unconstitu- 
tional actions of Charles I. began to be manifested in various 
ways, that changed " Merry England " into " Melancholy 



SIK LEWIS WATSON, FOURTEENTH MASTER. 205 

England." Thus in following the career of Sir Lewis Watson, 
we find him, in his capacity of Deputy-Lieutenant of the 
county of Northampton, called upon by the Council of State 
in London to make up a return of the money disbursed for 
billeting soldiers in that county in 1629, amounting to 7001. ; 
and by a similar order he was enjoined to prepare a com- 
mission, within his jurisdiction, of martial law. These and 
similar events are antagonistic to our subject ; they must 
have also been repugnant to Sir Lewis. Unfortunately there 
was the other phase of the sentiment yclept •' loyalty " and 
" duty," which, of course, it was impossible to evade. How- 
ever, the die was cast; there was no alternative but to side 
with either the Cavaliers or the Roundheads. Naturally 
Sir Lewis joined the former. What this step cost him we 
shall presently relate. 

In the meantime, Sir Lewis Watson was pricked for, and 
officiated as, sheriff of the county of Northampton in 1633. 
During this year he purchased the Manor of Little Weldon, 
of Thomas Brocas, Esq., and through the possession of this 
holding he acquired the office of Hereditary Master of the 
Royal Buckhounds. Professor Montague Burrows says Sir 
Lewis paid 4,000/. for the property, and that it changed 
owners on June 6, 1633. The deeds being in private hands 
and not available for reference, we must assume the statement 
to be correct ; nevertheless, the only consideration mentioned 
in the fine registered in the Court of Chancery is 240/. That 
document, which is dated July 8, 9 Charles L, sets forth 
that Sir Lewis Watson, knight and baronet, acquired the 
Manor of Little Weldon, alias Hunter's Manor, with the 
appurtenances, 2 messuages, 1 cottage, 3 tofts, 3 gardens, 
3 orchards, 150 acres of land, 10 acres of meadow, 40 acres 
of pasture, 100 acres of wood, 20 acres of firs and heath, 
and common of pasture for all animals in Great and Little 
Weldon, Deene, and Corby ; also the custody of the Bailiwick 
of keeping the King's dogs called Buckhounds, with the 
emoluments thereunto belonging as held by former owners. 
The dimensions and peculiarities of the manor, as set out 



206 THE HISTOKY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

in this deed, do not correspond with those mentioned in the 
settlement effected between Sir John Savage and the Earl 
of Rutland and others in the reign of Elizabeth, which we 
reproduced in Chapter IV. In both of these deeds the term 
" Master " is not used, but there is little doubt it was implied ; 
and it is distinctly employed in the Pipe Rolls in the pay- 
ments made to the holders of this manor in respect to the 
office appertaining to the tenure from the time of Henry IV. 
onward. It should likewise be noted here that the amount 
of the fine above mentioned does not necessarily represent 
the actual purchase money; in many cases the sums inserted 
in those fines were merely a deposit on account to bind the 
deal.* 

Now, as to Sir Lewis Watson, in his capacity as Manorial 
or Hereditary Master of the Buckhounds, we find in the very 
year after he acquired this office, as holder of the manor of 
Little Weldon, he was paid the usual stipend of 501. out of the 
issues of the county of Sussex. At this time (the 8th year 
of the reign of Charles I., 1634) his huntsman was Edward 
Remington, and the other two hunt-servants under him were 
Thomas Chaddock and John Morrall, Thus the Master and 
his men at this time were in receipt of the fees, allowances, 
and liveries as in the palmy days of the feudal ages. These 
payments continued to be derived from the same source in 
the two following years; but we can find no payment to 
Sir Lewis on the Pipe Rolls of the 11th of Charles I. How- 
ever, in the ensuing one (12 Charles I., 1638), the payment 
to him was again resumed, and it continued to be ]iaid 
annually, without deduction, to the 15th year of Charles I. — 
i.e., 1641. Instead of being paid, out of the issues of the 
county of Sussex, as in the preceding instance, the funds 
came out of the issues of the county of Surrey from the year 

* According to an I.P.M. taken at Winchester on January 9, 25 Elizabeth 
(1583), the fourth part of the Manor of Little Weldon was valued at il. 6s. 8d. 
per annum, and the bailiwick of the custody of the " canes venaticos Regis in 
Anglice vocat the King's Buckhounds," with the fee of 501. for the keeping of 
the same payable annually by the hands of the Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex. — 
Harl. MS. 759. 56. 



SIR LEWIS WATSON, FOUETEENTH MASTER. 207 

1638 to 1641. The last-mentioned was the penultimate pay- 
ment made to this Manorial or Hereditary Master of the 
Buckhounds. He received no salary, fees, or allowances for 
himself or his hunt-servants from the 16th to the 19th year 
of the reign of Charles I. The next and final payment 
to him was for the 20th year of the reign of Charles I., 
when he was paid 50Z. by the Sheriff of the county of Surrey. 
However, he did not receive the money until April 9 1648, 
which was the 24th and last regnal year of Charles I.'s 
reign, which terminated on the scaffold at Whitehall, on 
January 30, 1649. 

There are many unaccountable circumstances attending the 
payment of the salaries of the so-called Hereditary Masters 
of the Buckhounds, but that last-mentioned one is the most 
curious on record. At this date the Master was a belted 
baron of three years' standing, rejoicing in the title of Lord 
Rockingham, a knight and a baronet, and lately a Cavalier 
of undoubted fidelity to the King, in whose cause, as we shall 
presently see, he severely suffered. Yet we find him taking 
this paltry salary from the Roundheads at the very moment 
his King was a captive, arraigned before a tribunal where no 
mercy was possible. The most contemptible element in the 
case is the receipt given by the Master for the money to the 
Sheriff of Surrey, in which acquittance he signs himself plain 
Lewis Watson. From this entry we find that in 1644-45 
the huntsman of this branch of the royal pack was Richard 
Kilborne, and that the other two hunt-servants were Robert 
Bowett and Edward Bradshaw, each of whom and the Master 
enjoyed the same fees, liveries, and allowances as accustomed 
heretofore. 

Reverting to other events relating to Sir Lewis Watson, we 
find that he was commissioned on May 6, 1634, to report to 
the Council of State upon the endowments of certain Church 
lands in which he held an interest. On June 29, 1638, he 
obtained from Charles I. a confirmation of tlie lands, tenements, 
meadows, pastures, woods, and hereditaments known by the 
name of Rockingham Park, etc., in the county of Northampton, 



208 THE HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

within the forest there, with licence to make and enclose the 
park and warren thereof. In the autumn of this year we find 
him officiating as one of the verderers of the bailiwicks of 
Rockingham and Brigstock in the forest of Rockingham, rela- 
tive to Hassell's coppice thereon, belonging to Sir Christopher 
Hatton, who had applied to the Earl of Holland, Chief Justice 
in Eyre, of all the forests south of the Trent, for leave to fell 
the covert of the said coppice in the ensuing fall. Thereupon 
the verder was requested to report if Sir Christopher's appli- 
cation could be allowed without destruction to the vert, or 
prejudice to the royal game. The verderer having certified 
that the coppice might be felled for that year only by its 
owner, without prejudice to the King's deer, or destruction 
to the vert, Hatton's application was graciously granted. 
When the Civil War broke out. Sir Lewis Watson, at his own 
cost, garrisoned Rockingham Castle for the King ; but he does 
not appear to have held any military command in the Royal 
service during " these troubles." Whilst actively employed in 
this work, a muster of horses took place in the county of 
Huntingdon, where he held some property. In consequence 
of his other occupation in Northamptonshire he forgot to send 
his " light horses " to the muster in Hunts. Whereupon he 
was returned as a delinquent, and threatened with the Royal 
displeasure, besides dire pains and penalties by the Council 
of State in London. Having, however, soon after conformed 
with the requirements in this respect, by producing before the 
Lord-Lieutenant and the other authorities of Huntingdon the 
number of cavahy mounts proper to his estate in that county, 
he was discharged from the delinquency which he unintention- 
ally incurred. 

Although this Manorial or Hereditary Master of the Buck- 
hounds held no military office under the King, he was other- 
wise active in the Royal cause. The defence of Rockingham 
Castle must have entailed him in considerable expense. 
When it fell into the hands of the Parliamentary forces a 
great quantity of provisions aud munitions of war was cap- 
tured. Apart from this loss, it appears by an inventory 



SIR LEWIS WATSON, FOUETEENTH MASTER. 209 

made by Sir Lewis Watson, in which he set out in detail the 
particulars of his personal property in the castle, which was 
confiscated at the time, that it alone amounted to 3,903/. 10s. 
After the fall of Rockingham Castle Sir Lewis went to Ashby- 
de-la-Zouch and remained there until the Royal garrison sur- 
rendered early in March 1646. Thence he fled to Oxford, 
where he was cordially welcomed by the King and brilliant 
host of Cavaliers assembled in the University city. Sir Lewis 
was still a rich man ; he contributed liberally towards the 
maintenance of the Royal forces in Oxford ; took his seat 
in the Parliament, or Assembly, or Council then held there 
under the auspices of the King ; but whether he sat as a peer 
or a commoner, or as one of the Masters of the Buckhounds, it 
is impossible to tell. He was a peer of the realm about this 
time beyond doubt ; but we can find no patent conferring that 
dignity upon him. However, we read in Dugdale's " Baronium " 
that " Upon the 28th of January an. 20 Car. L [1645], Sir 
Lewis Watson, of Rockingham Castle, in Com. North., knight 
and baronet ; being a person well descended, and of an ample 
fortune : and likewise for many considerable services, especially 
in the times of the late unhappy troubles, much deserving of 
the King and country ; was, in consi deration thereof, advanced 
to the dignity of a baron of this realm, by the title of Lord 
Rockingham, of Rockingham, in Com. North., as by his Letters 
Patents, then bearing date at Oxford, appeareth." The Great 
and Privy Seals were found in Oxford after the surrender of 
the city, when they were sent to the executive government in 
London, and there ordered to be broken in pieces. The Sword 
of State was preserved. Charles was lavish in the dispensa- 
tion of dignities, and while he was immured in the besieged 
city dubbed no less than 104 knights, thus breaking his father's 
splendid record in that line during his sojourns at Newmarket. 
At any rate, Lord Rockingham remained in Oxford until the 
city surrendered to the Parliamentary armj^ on June 24, 1646. 
For some months before the capitulation occurred the Royal 
garrison contained many of the most valiant among the Cava- 
liers. We can picture to ourselves a coterie of men who were 

14 



210 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

wont to witch the world with noble horsemanship, frequently 
assembled on the ramparts of the beleaguered city, recalling 
reminiscences of the happier days passed in the hunting-tield 
or on the racecourse. How many traits of former companion- 
ship must have been remembered in a group comprising Michael 
Hudson — that "' Rev. Father " of the Turf; the dashing Prince 
Rupert ; the two Masters of the Buckhounds, Lewis Watson 
and Robert Tyrwhitt, and jolly Jack Gary, who was destined 
to be hereafter Tyrwhitt's successor as Master of the Household 
branch of the royal pack under the Merry Monarch. Many a 
sad and dreary hour was thus beguiled, as Hudson recalled 
the races won by his famous mare, and his better " nag,"' with 
which he " broke " the ring in Hyde Park at a memorable 
meeting there. How Tyrwhitt could recapitulate his famous 
ride from Dover to Canterbury, or recount some notable incident 
with the Buckhounds, which he was fated never to follow 
again. These reminiscences must have recalled the memory of 
Edward Somerset, fourth Earl of Worcester (whose prowess in 
the saddle has been immortalised by Sir William Dugdale), 
and his valiant son, who was still bravely defending, in the 
Royal cause, Raglan Castle, on which the hopes of the Cavaliers 
were then concentrated. But those hopes were soon shattered. 
Raglan, Pendennis, and Worcester had to succumb to superior 
force, backed by the will of an outraged nation. Oxford sur- 
rendered on June 22, and to the praise of the conquerors it 
must be recorded that they did not stain their laurels with 
blood. General Sir Thomas Fairfax gave the royal garrison 
the most honourable terms. The Governor of Oxtord, Sir 
Thomas Glemham, at the head of the officers and forces of 
the garrison, were allowed to march out with "' their colours 
flying, drums beating and trumpets sounding, bullet in mouth, 
horse and arms," and to proceed fifteen miles before they laid 
down their arms. Each man received a pass similar to that 
already described in Robert Tyrwhitt's case. The distinguished 
prisoners included James, Duke of York ; Prince Rupert, and 
his two brothers Maurice and Charles Lodovic, Lord Rock- 
ingham, Messrs, Tyrwhitt, Cary, etc., etc. 



SIR LEWIS WATSON, FOURTEENTH MASTER. 211 

As to Lord Rockingham's career after these events had taken 
place, little more remains to be told. By virtue of the terms 
of the surrender of Oxford, he had either to leave the country 
within .six months, or compound for his estate. He chose the 
latter; and on August 15, 1046, presented his petition to the 
Committee for Compounding. In this document he returns 
his property in the counties of Northampton, Leicester, Hunt- 
ingdon, and Lincoln as being, " before these troubles, worth 
2,225^. 8s. lOd. per annum ; and that there was owing to him 
1,802^. 4s. 9d." Upon this statement he was amerced in a fine 
of 4,312^., which he paid on November 2, 1G46, "when he was 
restored to his estate." However, the sequestrators were not 
yet done with him. They found out that he undervalued his 
estate ; ordered a survey of it to be made, which was completed 
on November 7, 1650, when it appeared that it was worth more 
by 653/. a year than stated in his former composition, where- 
upon they imposed an additional fine of 1,430/. This amount 
he paid off in three instalments — viz., November 20, 5001. ; 
November 22, 430Z. ; and November 23, 500/. In the course 
of these investigations it transpired, in connection with some 
Church land which he transferred, that he signed the deeds 
" Rockingham," instead of Lewis Watson. This could not " by 
any means be allowed of," consequently he was ordered to 
further sign and seal the said deeds " by the name of Sir 
Lewis Watson, and not by the title of Rockingham." He did 
not long survive this indignity, as he died on January 5, 
1652-3. His lordship married, first, Catherine, daughter 
of Peregrine Bertie, Lord Willoughby of Eresbury, but by 
her had no surviving issue; and, secondly, Eleanor, daughter 
of Sir George Manners, of Haddon, county Derby, and sister 
to John, Earl of Rutland, by whom he had a son, Edward, 
his successor, and three daughters. 

We hear nothing further of the " Hereditary " branch of the 
Royal Buckhounds or of its Masters until the Restoration, 
when the usual payments were resumed to Edward Watson, 
second Lord Rockingham, the fifteenth Master. The first 
payment to this Manorial or Hereditary Master occurs on the 



212 THE HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

Pipe Roll of the county Surrey for the twelfth regnal year of 
Charles II. (1660), in which his Lordship is described as the 
holder of the Manor of Little Weldon, alias Hunter's Manor in 
the county of Northampton, Master of the King's dogs, called 
Buckhounds. His fee of 12r/. per day, 2/. for his livery, \d. 
a day for the food of 30 hounds from Michaelmas to Mid- 
summer, 7|r/. a day for his attendance when at Court, and the 
wages and liveries of his huntsman and two other hunt-servants 
are recited as formerly allowed. Edward Bradshaw was pro- 
moted to the post of Huntsman with the usual wages of 'Zd. 
per day, and Robert Brightmore and Robert Ridall now were 
the two " varlets berners," with a salary of l^r/. a day 
each, in succession to Robert Bowett and Richard Kilbourne, 
who had filled those offices in the reign of the " Martyred 
Monarch." From the 12th to the 25th year of the reign of 
Charles II. Lord Rockingham received his annual stipend of 
•50/. a year in full out of the issues of the county Surrey ; for 
the 26th year he only received 23/. 126-. 9^. on account, but the 
balance was paid, with other sums on account, to him in the 
following year, and in the 28th year all overstanding arrears 
were paid to him in full. In the 29th and .30th years he 
was also paid his stipend in full, but in the 81st year he 
only obtained 37/. 19s. Qd. on account. However, as he 
received 62/. Os. Qd. in the next year, the balance due, with 
the full salary for the current year, was consequently satisfied 
down to date ; and from the 33rd to the 36th years of the 
reign of Charles II. his stipend was paid promptly without 
deduction. As the 87th year of the reign of Charles II. only 
covered a few weeks (the King having died on February 5, 
1685), the Pipe Rolls for that year are included in the 1st 
year of the reign of James II., in which we find that Lord 
Rockingham was paid 50/. out of the issues of the county 
Sussex, by the hands of the Sheriff thereof, as appears by his 
lordship's acquittance, dated June 7, 1687 ; he also received a 
like sum out of the issues of the county Surrey for the 2nd 
year of the reign of James II. (1686-7), but the amount was 
not paid until July 4, 1688. We can find no payments to this 



EDWARD, LORD EOCKINGHAM, FIFTEENTH MASTER. 213 

Manorial or Hereditary Master of the Backhounds on the Pipe 
Rolls of Surrey or Sussex for the 3rd or 4th years of the 
reign of James II. Probably the impending Revolution may 
have had something to do with the nonpayment of this 
Master's stipend in the 3rd and the 4th (and last) year 
of James II.'s reign, which terminated on December 11, 1688- 
And, as Lord Rockingham was a Whig, it is very likely the 
King or his ministers refused to pass the Privy Seal, and 
without the production of that writ the Sheriffs of Surrey 
and Sussex were not warranted to pay the Master or his staif 
the tax imposed upon those counties towards the support of 
this branch of the Royal Buckhounds. Compared with the 
Household portion of the pack, this Hereditaiy Master and his 
hunt-servants were much more fortunate in receiving their 
wages and allowances, which were paid from 1G60 to 1637 
without any arrears having been encountered, save in the few 
temporary instances above mentioned. This Edward Watson, 
second Baron Rockingham, Manorial or Hereditary Master of 
the Buckhounds, temps. Charles II., James II., and William 
and Mary, from 1653 to 1689, married Lady Anne Wentworth, 
daughter of Thomas, first Earl of Strafford, by whom he had 
four sons and four daughters. He died in 1689, and was 
succeeded by his eldest son, Lewis Watson, third Baron and 
first Earl of Rockingham, sixteenth and last jManorial or 
Hereditary blaster of the Royal Buckhounds. He nominally 
officiated in the first year of the reign of William and Mary, 
and was paid oOZ. by the Sheriff" of the county Surrey for that 
year only, as appears by his acquittance, dated July 10, 1691. 
We can find no further payments recorded to him on the 
Pipe Rolls of Surrey or Sussex again until the 2nd, 3rd, 
and 4th years of the reign of Queen Anne, when he received 
three several sums of 50/. out of the issues of the county 
SuiTcy for each of those years, as exhibited by his acquittances 
to the Sheriff's of that county, dated July 25, 1705, May 13, 
1705, and May 13, 1707 ; the last being the final payment made 
to any Hereditary Master of the Royal Buckhounds by right 
of holding the Manor of Little Weldon, county Northampton, 



214 THE HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS. 

and the indispensable Writ of Privy Seal authorising the 
same.* 

It only remains to mention, in connection with this branch of 
the Royal Buckhounds, that Watson Bradshaw was the hunts- 
man, and Robert Brightmore and Robert Ridal the " varlets 

* The following warrant, addressed by the Queen's command to the Lord 
Privy Seal, dated July 16, 1705, directing him to issue a writ under the signet) 
authorising the SherifE of Surrey and Sussex to pay Lord Eockingham the usual 
stipend of his office, is the only original document of the sort we have ever 
met with : — 

Pour les Buckhounds. 

Monseigneur, Vous plaist il faire Ires de Guar and dessous le Seau Prive 
de sa Ma''® directes a le Vice-Comte de Surrey et Sussex, pour faire payment des 
Issues de la Baillage pour les Gages de Veneurs, et pour la Pasture des Chiennes, 
en maniere dessous escript (c'est a seavoir) a Tres-honeureux Seigneur Lovis 
Bare Rockingham Maistre des Buckhounds a Sa Ma"® xij'^ le jour, a Watson 
Bradshaw Veaultier ij'^ le jour, a Robert Brightmore et Robert Ridal, Valets 
Barniers chacun d'eux j^^ ob. le jour, pour leur Gages et pour la pasture de vj 
Leveriers et xxiiij Chiennes Courantes. pour chacun d'eux ob. le jour, com- 
mencantes a la Feste de St. Michael I'Arch-Ange 1703 jusques a xxiiij jour de 
Juin a done prochain ensuivant, I'un et I'autre jour accomptes : Pour proviss la 
Pasture de xxiiij Chiennes courantes, pour chacun d'eux ob. le jour, et les Gages 
pour Valets Barniers pour xl jours en Caresme, quils sont au les costages du diet 
Baro Rockingham par les Statutes de I'Hostel de mesme Nostre Souvereigne. 
Et aussi qu'il fait Payment au diet Lovis Baro Rockingham pour les Gages 
en la Cour vij ob. le jour a pra3dic Watson Bradshaw, Veaultier ij'^ le jour, et au 
diets Robert Brightmore et Robert Ridal pour chacun d'eux ]'^ ob le jour, pour 
leur Gages vj Liveriers et xxiiij chiennes courantes chacun d'eux ob. le jour, de 
vxv™ jom- de Juin devant diet jusques a le xxix™ jour de Septembre a done 
prochain ensuivant, I'an et I'autre jour accomptes. Et plus outre qu'il fait 
payment au diet Lovis Baro Rockingham pour les deux Robes pour le diet 
Ann xP et a les diets Veaultiers et Barniers pour leur Robes, chacun d'eux 
xiij* iiij'^, et pour chances pour chacun d'eux iiij^ viiij'' pour I'ann devant diet. 
Donne a le Chateau de Windsor le xvj™ jour du Mois du Juillet, en le iiij"" Ann 
de la Regne de Sa Ma"® Anne, par la Grace de Dieu, d'Angleterre, Bscosse, 
France et d' Ireland Peine, Defenseur de la Foy &c. 

A Tres-Noble Seigneur W. fforester 

Jehan Due de Newcastle, C. Scarburgh 

Guardian de la Seau Griffith 

Prive de Nostre Sou- C. Godfrey, 

vereigne la Reine. 
Two two shilling and si.c2)enny 
stamps in margin ; and above 
red wax seal of a key trans- 
fixed by a bar on a shield, 
surmounted with letters A.M. 
{Harl. MS. 7345, No. 68.) 



LEWIS, EAEL OF EOCKINGHAM, SIXTEENTH MASTER. 215 

berners," and that they enjoyed the same remuneration as 
heretofore allowed until the Hereditary Mastership of this 
pack ceased to exist in the fourth regnal year of Queen Anne's 
reign, ended on March 7, 1705-6 ; the appointment having been 
held successively by the holders of the Manor of Little Weldon 
for 345 years. This Edward Watson, third Baron and first 
Earl of Rockingham, the last Manorial or Hereditary Master 
of the Royal Buckhounds, died on March 19, 1724. He married, 
in July 1677, Lady Catherine Sondes, daughter and heiress of 
George, Earl of Feversham, by whom he had two sons and 
four dauofhters. 



PART II. 

THE UlflTED PACKS. 



CHAPTER XI. 

ANNE (1702-1714). 

The Hereditary and Household Branches amalgamated. — The United Packs 
placed on the Establishment of the Prince Consort. — Death of H.R.H. — 
The Bucbhounds E,e-established and Ee-organised. — Appertains to the 
Lord Chamberlain's Department. — Annual Expenses of the Pack. — 
The Huntsmen and the Hunt-Servants. — The Hounds. — The Buck-hunting 
Season. — The Sport. — Ladies' Costume in the Hunting Field. — Sir Charles 
Shuckburgh, Thirty-second Master : June 6, 1703, to September 2, 1705. — 
Walter Chetwynd (Lord Rathdown and First Viscount Chetwynd), Thirty- 
third Master: October 4, 1705, to June 7, 1711. — Sir William Wyndham, 
Thirty-fourth Master : June 8, 1711, to June 27, 1712.— George, Third Earl 
of Cardigan, Thirty-fifth Master : June 28, 1712, to June 11, 1715.— Ascot 
Races instituted in connection with the Royal Buckhounds. — Reflections 
on Sport with the Pack during the Reign of Queen Anne. — Deer. — Oflicers 
of Windsor Forest. — Ascot Races. — " Queen Anne is dead." 

After a long and lingering illness the Hereditary Branch 
of the Royal Buckhounds died in desuetude on March 7, 
1706. The two branches of this pack having merged into 
one, and become, what we may term, united, a new era and 
brilliant career soon after ensued. But, from the accession 
of Queen Anne till the death of " Est-il-possible," the pack 
was trammelled with uncongenial surroundings, which deprived 
it of many of its regal attributes. These obstacles were 

217 



218 HISTOEY OF THE ROYAL BXTCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

removed on the death of Prince George, the Queen's Consort, 
in the autumn of 1708, and during the following year 
the reconstructed pack resumed hunting under the most 
favourable auspices. 

The Accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber of the 
Household contain no payments relating to the Royal Buck- 
hounds from the accession of Queen Anne (March 8, 1702) 
until the quarter of the year ended at Michaelmas 1709. 
This lapse was probably caused through the department of 
the Royal Hunt having been transferred to the establishment 
of George, Prince of Denmark, the Queen's husband, in 1702, 
to which establishment it appertained till the death of his 
Royal Highness. Unfortunately we have been unable to 
find the Establishment Books of the Prince of Denmark, 
consequently we are unable to give any official information 
of the Buckhounds, the Masters, the hunt-servant, or the 
cost of the pack during this period. But from other sources 
we learn that in June 1703 Sir Charles Shuckburgh and 
Sir Sewester Peyton were "made Masters of the Stag and 
Buckhounds to the Queen." We presume the two Masters 
above mentioned held the office directly from and under 
Prince George, as Walter Chetwynd, Esq., is the first Master 
of Buckhounds officially recorded in the reign of Queen Anne. 
According to Luttrell, Walter Chetwynd, Esq., M.P. for 
Stafford, was, on about October 4, 1705, " made Master 
of the Buckhounds, in room of Sir Charles Shuckburgh, 
deceased." We can find no official data relating to any of 
these gentlemen as having been appointed to or filling this 
office before June 13, 1709, when Mr. Chetwynd was 
nominated to the office and sworn on to it on the 24th of 
that month by the Lord Chamberlain. His salary was at 
the rate of 1,100/. a year, which he received in full down 
to June 7, 1711, when he resigned. He was succeeded 
by Sir William Wyndham, who was sworn into the post 
on June 8, 1711.* Sir William officiated for little over a 
year, as he was succeeded in the Mastership by the Earl of 

* Lord Chamberlain's Records, Warrants for Sercaiits, p. 269. 



THE BUCKHOUNDS KE-ESTABLISHED AND EE-OEGANISED. 219 

Cardigan on June 28, 1712, and he held the office during the 
remainder of Queen Anne's reign. 

Leaving these Masters for the present, let us briefly glance 
at the expenses of the pack during this portion of Queen 
Anne's reign. As previously stated, the Royal Hunt was 
officially under a cloud during the interval extending from 
the Queen's accession to the year after the death of Prince 
George. But on June 24, 1709, the Royal Buckhounds were 
re-established with all the surroundings incident to this old 
and popular department of the Household. The Lord High 
Treasurer — thorough sportsman though he was — was the 
personification of economy in Governmental affairs. He was 
the terror of the Civil Service. He made the clerks em- 
ployed in that service earn their wages ; they had to attend 
to their respective offices, and personally perform their 
several duties ; they were not allowed to delegate their 
labour to incompetent hacks yclept " writers " ; and, what 
was the most important of his endeavours to reform the 
shameful abuses then rampant, he abolished, with the Queen's 
assent, the pernicious custom — a survival of the obsolete 
patent privileges — by which Governmental officials enjoyed 
the privilege of selling and transferring their situations to 
others who were able and willing to buy them. Actuated 
by this commendable policy of economy, Sidney Godolphin, 
with cliaracteristic impartiality, cut down the established 
cost of the Royal Buckhounds from 2,341/., at which it stood 
in the preceding reign, to 1,100/. a year when the pack was 
reinstated in June 1709, pursuant to the following Royal 
Warrant : — 

Anne R. 

An Establishment of the yearly charge of the Office of 
Master of our Buckhounds, which our pleasure is shall com- 
mence from the 24th day of June 1709 and be paid during 
our pleasure by the hands of the Treasurer of our Chamber 
and be allowed upon his accounts to be made to us and taken 
by our auditors of our imprests (viz). 



220 HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT KACES. 



To the Master of Our Buckhounds for his own 
wages, buying of horses, and maintaining them, 
servants lodgings and all other extraordinaries 
whatsover. Five hunch-ed pounds . , . .. 

And to him more for keeping of hounds, 
wages of huntsmen, and all other charges re- 
lating to the said Office, Six hundred pounds. 

In all eleven hundred pounds 
Entered with both Auditors 17 June 1709. 



Per Annum. 



500'i : 00 : 00 



600 : 00 : 00 



.£1100 : 00 : 00 



By Her Majesty's Command, 

GODOLPHIN.* 

Upon this scale Mr. Chetwynd received the stipend of his 
office of Master of the Eoyal Buckhounds to defray the cost of 
the pack in full from the quarter ended at Michaelmas 1709 
to June 7, 1711, the day on which he resigned. His suc- 
cessor, Sir William Wyndham, was paid at the same rate 
during his brief tenure of office — viz., from June 7, 1711, to 
June 25, 1712, when he resigned. But from this date the 
Master's allowance was raised from 1,100?., at which it stood 
from the year 1709, to the former minimum allowed in the 
preceding reign — viz., 2,341/., pursuant to the subjoined Royal 
Sign Manual : — 

Anne R. 

Earl Cardigan "j Whereas our Right Trusty and Right 

Master of the Buckhounds r Wellbeloved Cousin George Earl of 
2,34H. '^ ann. J Cardigan was sworn and admitted into 

the office of Master of Our Buckhounds 
on the 28th day of June last IT 12 And whereas we are Graciously 
pleased to allow unto him the like yearly sum of Two Thousand 
Three Hundred and fforty-one poimds for Salary and all manner of 
Charges and Expences any ways Incident or relating to the said office 
as was made for the same by Our Late Royall Brother King 
William the Third' Our Will and Pleasure is and we do hereby 

* Zo/yZ Chamherlahi's Records, Sign Mamial Book, Vol. f |^, fo. 57. 



EAEL OF CARDIGAN, THIRTY-FIFTH MASTER. 221 

Direct Authorize and Comand that out of such money as shall be 
from time to time Imprested to j'ou for the service of Your Office 
You pay or cause to be paid to the said George Earl of Cardigan or 
his Assignes the s'^ Yearly sum of Two Thousand Three Hundred 
forty-one pounds by Quarterly paym'^ from the said 28th day of June 

1712 During our pleasure as well for his Own Salary as for all other 
Charges & Expences whatsoever any ways relating to the s'^ office 
of Master of Our Buckhounds And this shall be as well to you for 
Making the said paym*^ as to the Aud""" of Our Imprests for allow- 
ing thereof from time to time Upon yo'' Accounts a Sufficient 
Warrant given at Our Court at St. James's the 13th day of May 

1713 In the Twelfth year of Our Reign. 

By Her Ma""' Comand, 

Oxford. 
To the Treasurer of Our 
Chamber for the time 
being. 

Ent" with both Aud"-^ IGtl^June 1713.* 

The Earl of Cardigan received the remuneration of the office 
on the higher scale during the remainder of Queen Anne's reign, 
and in like proportion down to July 11, 1715, when he resigned 
in the first regnal year of the reign of George I. Some of the 
latter payments were considerably in arrears, as appears by 
the annexed summary of the Accounts of the Treasurer of the 
Chamber of the Household : — 

To the Right Hon""^ S^ William Wyndham Bart, at M'C" ^ ann 
from y** vij*'' June 1711 to y** xxv*'' of June 1712 in pursuance of her 
late Ma*'^ Establishment commencing at Midsu'' 1709— M'Clvij" ix'^ vj'^ 
ob. 

To the Right Hono^'" the Earl of Cardigan succeeding the said 
S^ Wltm Wyndham at M'M'CCCxlj'^ ^ ann. from the xxviij*'^ of 
June 1712 to the xxv*** of December following in pursuance of her 
late Ma*' Warr* dated the xiij*'^ of May 1713— M^Clij" viij^ 

Total M'M'CCCix" xvij' vj'^ ob. 

To the Right Hon. Charles Earl of Cardigan, for his salary and in 
lieu of all other charges whatsoever relating to the said Office at 

* Lord Chamberlain's Records, Sign Manual £ook, vol. f|f , fo. 75, dorso. 



222 HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT KACES 

=£2,341 '^ ann. for one year ended at Chi-istmas 1713, by vertue of 
her late Majesty's Royal Sign Manual dated the 13th of May 1713. 

Ditto — and here allowed from the 1st of August 1714 to Mid- 
summer 1715—^2105 : : 5^. 

1715— 16— ditto at =£2,341 ^ ann. from the 24th of June 1715 to 
the 11th of July following— £108 : 12 : 4|. 

William Lowen Senior for keeping 30 couple of Buckhounds, 
Servants, and Horses at =£600 per ann. from the 11th day of July 1715 
(the time when the Earl of Cardigan resigned the Olfice of Master of 
the Buckhounds) to Lady Day 1716— £424 : 10 : 5. 

More to him for keeping 20 couple of Buckhounds extraordinary 
at 3d. per day each hound fi-om Christmas 1714 to the said time — 
£228 : 2 : 6. In both by a warrant under his Majesty's Royal Sign 
Manual dated the 13th of April 1716— £652 : 12 : 11. 

John Hudson, Robert Armitage, William Lowen senior, and 
W™ Lowen junior, Yeomen Prickers,* at 30^. per annum each, 
from the 9th day of July 1715 to Michealmas 1716— £381 : 3 : 10. 
William Lowen, Huntsman, for keeping 30 couple of Buckhounds 
servants and horses at £600 per annum from Lady Day 1716 to 
Michealmas following — £300. More to him for keeping 20 couple of 
Buckhounds extraordinary at 3d. per day each hound for one quarter 
of a year ended at Midsummer 1716 at which time the said adchtional 
number was reduced — £45 : 10s. Roger Webb, harbourer, at £20 per 
annum from the 6th of July 1715 to Lady Day 1716— £14 : 2 : 8^. 
And to the said Roger Webb and John Webb two harbourers at 
£40 per annum each from Lady Day 1716 to Michealmas following 
— 40^. In all by Warrant signed by His Royal Highness the Prince 
of Wales then Guardian of the Kingdom dated the 1st of October 
1716— £785 : 16 : 6^. 

{Arreas R. 156.) 

William Lowen, senior, Chief Huntsman to Her late Majesty in 
part of the sum of £360 : 16:5 due to him on his salary of £600 

* William Lowen, late of the parish of Putney co. Surrey, Victualler, assigns 
to Charles Sparke of Wandsworth, Brewer and Attorney to ask demand and 
receive of any person appointed Master of the Buckhounds to King George, one 
half part of his salary of £80 a year as Yeoman Pricker until the sum of £80 
be fully paid, and C. Spark shall give receipts for the same. 

Dated Nov. 4, 1715. ^-^ 

(^In margin "paid off.") ' W. L. ( /( ) 



THE HUNTSMEN AND THE HUNT-SERVANTS. 223 

per annum for himself, servants, horses and hounds from Chi-istmas 
1713 to the 1st of August 1714— .^289 : 8 : 10|. John Hudson one 
of the Yeoman Prickers to the said Chief Huntsman in part of the 
sum of £48 : 2 : 2^ due to him on his salary of =£80 per annum for 
the same time — £37 : 7 : 9^. William Lowen, junior, another of 
the said Yeomen Prickers for the like — £37 : 7 : 9|. Ptobert 
Armitage, another of the said Yeoman Prickers, for the like — 
£37 : 7 : 9|. And to William Lowen, junior, an Officer of the Buck- 
hounds in part of the sum of £4 : 15s. due to him for his services 
within the same time — ^£3. In all (the said payments to be esteemed 
and taken no part of the debt owing to the Right Hon. the Earl of 
Cardigan on the sum of £2,341 per annum his established allowance 
as Master of her late Majesty's Buckhounds) by virtue of the 
warrant dated the 4th of July 1721— £404: 12: 2. The Bight 
Hon. George Earl of Cardigan in part of the sum of £1,001 : 17 : 4| 
due in arrear on the allowance of £2,341 per annum, as Master of 
the Buckhounds to her late Majesty, by warrant dated the 26th of 
April 1723— £500: 18: 8|. 

Turning from the financial details of this Royal pack, as we 
find them on the establishment of the Household above cited, 
to the actual chronicle of the sport it yielded to its followers in 
those days, there are hardly any circumstantial records thereof 
to chronicle. So far as can be gathered from the facts above 
related, the officials of this pack — from the time when it was 
reorganised in 1709 to the end of Queen Anne's reign in 1714 
— consisted of the Master, the chief huntsman, five yeomen 
prickers, and two harbourers. Doubtless there were some other 
hunt-servants, such as grooms and helpers, not included in the 
above, who rendered casual assistance as part of their general 
duties at the Royal Mews and Kennels. The ordinary number 
of hounds in the pack was thirty couples, which were supple- 
mented by twenty additional couples of " extraordinary " 
hounds, which we now hear of for the first time. The latter 
were, we presume, derived from the defunct Hereditary branch 
of the pack, and (under correction) we venture to submit that 
the amalgamation justifies us in now applying the term " United 
Pack " to the Royal Hunt at this period. At any rate, there 
was ample material to show good sport, so far as relates to the 



224 HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

staff, the hounds, and the horses. The equine element is the 
most difficult one to tackle in dealing with this subject. Accord- 
ing to the establishment of June 24, 1709, the Master had 
to find the horses for himself, the huntsman, and the yeomen 
prickers, and, in fact, to defray all the ordinary expenses in- 
cidental to the pack out of the annual allowance granted for 
the support of his office. The same arrangement prevailed 
under the increased scale granted to the Earl of Cardigan. 
But there were likewise occasional supplementaiy payments 
under this head, as we learn from the accounts of the Masters 
of the Horse.* 

According to the ancient laws of venery the Buck-hunting 
season (proper) commenced on Holyrood Day and ended on 
Michaelmas Day. But there is incidental evidence frequently 
to be met with in the annals of the chase, proving the legiti- 
mate " season " was not rigorously adhered to, as " the hunting 
of the buck " was pursued, indirectly and at intervals, from 
Midsummer to Easter. For instance, Roger Palmer, in a familiar 
letter to Ralph Verney, dated April 6, 1706, says: "When 

* 1711.— Samuel Masham for a grey gelding bought for the Master of the 
Harthounds, bought the 17th of September 1711— 26Z. 17s. 6(7. 

William Lowen, for a chestnut horse and a bay gelding for the Master of the 
Harthounds the 26th of the same month— 11/. 

Kowland Bright for a bay gelding for the use of the said Master bought the 
same day — 251. 

Henry Pigot for a black gelding bought the 27th of the same month 28?. ; 
more for a bay gelding for one of the huntsmen bought the 28th of the same 
month 26Z. ; more for a black gelding for her Majesty's chase bought the same 
time 251. ; more for a bay stone horse for the Master of the Staghounds bought 
the same day 32Z. os. In all 11 IZ. 5^. 

1712-15. — To the Right Hon. the Earl of Cardigan, for three horses for the 
huntsmen of the Buckhounds, 7ol. Cristopher Seymour for the hunting horses, 
1277. 10.s\ 6d. ; Eobert Blount for a horse for the hunting stable, -137. ; Thomas 
Thompson for a bay horse for the hunting stable, -437. 

•' Lately come to Town, a strong well-bred Mare, 7 Years old this Grass, 
about 14 Hands 3 Inches high, fit for either Hunting or the Course, to be seen 
at the Black-Horse at Hyde-Park Corner. Note, She has two Years keeping and 
is in good Order for Buck-hunting, or any present Business."— Daili/ Courant, 
Monday, June 30, 1712. 

" At the sign of the 3 Cups in High Holborn, There is to be sold a very hand- 
some strong Gelding, fed to Hunting, and fit to carry any Gentleman of 18 stone 
weight." — Ihid., Monday, November 30, 1713. 



THE BUCK-HUNTING SEASON — SPORT. 225 

yours came yesterday, I was a-hunting buck on Putney Heath 
with the Queen's buck hounds, there was a great appearance 
of gentlemen, tho' a bad day, they did not thin out before 
1 o'clock, so we had fair riding and good, tho' short sport." 
Still, the legitimate season with the Royal Buckhounds, at and 
for many years after the period now under notice, began in 
July and continued until the end of September. When the 
cares of state permitted, Queen Anne and the high officers of 
the Court usually repaired to Windsor in July for the avowed 
purpose of buck-hunting. The Royal Diana Venatrix was 
early and " well entred " to the chase under the personal 
supervision of her Royal father, who (before he wore the weary 
crown) was the most ardent huntsman of his day. Imbued 
with such venatic associations, Anne became a mighty hun- 
tress. She continued to follow hounds on horseback until the 
gout precluded the continuance of that exhilarating exercise. 
Nevertheless her ardour for the chase remained undiminished ; 
when she could not use the saddle she hunted on wheels. 
Her Majesty's hunting calash was a light two-wheeled carriage, 
containing a single seat, on which the Royal " whip " sate 
gracefully poised, skilfully " tooling " the splendid black roadster 
in the shafts.* In this vehicle she was enabled to follow a run 
with the Buckhounds through the forest glades t of Merry 
Windsor, sometimes covering forty miles in a single day. Her 
personal expenses, for hunting hospitality, during the buck- 
hunting season at Windsor — " from the first of July to the last 
of September " — ^^usually came to about 550^., while the extra- 

* The Dnchess of Somerset, in a familiar letter to the Duchess of Devonshire, 
dated Windsor, September 29, 1707, mentions that when out with the Buck- 
hounds on the preceding day, she was thrown from her calash ; adding that 
" everybody thought I had broken my bones, but, thank God, I had as little 
hurt as was possible." 

f To William Lowen for making 8 ridings 40 foot broad for the Queen's hunt- 
ing at 20Z. each, putting up posts and painting them, trenching Whitmore bog 
to lay it dry, brick arching, trenching and leveling Condit and South hill 
warrens, sowing them with fir-seed and broom-seed to make covers for the game, 
destroying the coneys, and other works vsdthin Windsor Forest, by command of 
H.R.H. Prince George of Denmark — 300^. — Treasury Papers, vol. xcv., 122 
(p. 415). 

15 



226 msTOEY OF the eoyal buckhounds and ascot eaces. 

ordinary cost of the "Queen's stable for divers services and 
provisions for divers horses within the same time " amounted 
to about 105^. per annum. It is therefore evident that the 
usual followers of the Royal Buckhounds enjoyed good runs 
during the reign of Queen Anne : and although the Uterary 
remains of those times contain no details of the sport — the 
newspapers were muzzled on this and other current topics — 
a great contemporary poet tells us in " undying verse " that 
the fields were large and the pace a cracker : — 

" Now Cancer glows with Phoebus' fiery car : 
The youth rush eager to the sylvan war, 
Swarm o'er the lawns, the forest walks surround, 
Rouse the fleet hart, and cheer the opening hound. 
Th' impatient courser pants in ev'ry vein. 
And pawing, seems to beat the distant plain. 
Hills, vales, and floods appear already crossed, 
And ere he starts, a thousand steps are lost. 
See the bold youth strain up the threat'ning steep, 
Rush through the thickets, down the valleys sweep, 
Hang o'er their coursers' heads with eager speed, 
And earth rolls back beneath the flying steed. 
Let old Arcadia boast her ample plain, 
Th' immortal huntress, and her virgin-train ; 
Nor envy, Windsor ! since thy shades have seen 
As bright a goddess, and as chaste a queen ; 
Whose care, like hers, protects the sylvan reign. 
The earth's fair light, and empress of the main." 

Windsor Forest. 

Hunting predominated in every part of the kingdom. The 
example set by the Royal pack found emulation in all quarters ; 
hounds were ridden to by all classes, from lords and ladies of 
high degree to the sturdy yeoman farmer. 

The celebrated Lady Mary Wortley Montague refers to the 
people with whom she came in contact in Wiltshire as being 
" insensible to other pleasures than hunting and drinking," 
adding that their mornings were spent among hounds and 
their nights '^ with what liquor they can get in this country, 
which is not very famous for good drink." Her ladyship did 
not follow hounds at the time, although she became very 
partial to the chase in the ensuing reign. In another of her 



ladies' costume in the hunting field. 227 

letters she incidentally bears witness to the popularity of 
hunting in Notts ; and mentions how a bishop married a fair 
Diana (a daughter of Lord Lexington) " whom he fell in love 
with for falling backward from her horse leaping a ditch, where 
she displayed all her charms, which he found irritible."* 

Now as to the four Masters of the Royal Buckhounds of 
Queen Anne's reign, it is difficult to define the status of the 
first two, as they were not offi^cially recognised as such, although 
they de facto filled the office, and probably performed their 
duties with zeal and ability for the time being. The interreg- 
num (if we may use the term) from March 8, 1702, to June 
13, 1709, during which the Royal Hunt was directly connected 
with the establishment of Prince George of Denmark, the 
Queen's Consort, it received no official cognisance in connection 
with the Royal Household Departments. Hence we do not 
find the slightest reference to the Royal Buckhounds or their 
masters or the servants of the pack within that period. But 
from informal sources we are told that on or about June 8, 
1703, "Sir Charles Shuckburgh and Sir G wester Peyton are 
made Masters of the Stag and Buckhounds to the Queen." f 

Sir Charles Shuckburgh, Bart., only son and heir of 
John Shuckburgh, Esq., of Shuckburgh, county Warwick (who 
was created a Baronet by Charles II. on June 26, 1660 1), and 

* John Hughes, in the Spectator of June 29, 1711, describes "the Amozonian 
hunting habits " worn by ladies on horseback at this time as consisting of a 
coat and waistcoat of blue camlet trimmed and embroidered with silver, with 
a " petticoat " of the same materials. ' The hair was curled and powdered, 
hanging to a considerable length on the shoulders and " wantonly tied " with a 
scarlet riband. A little beaver hat edged with silver, made sprightly by a 
feather, was worn on the head " in a small cock." 

f Luttrell's Diary, sul? dato. 

% About the time Sir Charles Shuckbm-gh came of age it was found that 
there was a claim of 1,095?. on his estates, alleged to be due to the Crown since 
the occasion of his father's creation to the dignity of a Baronet in 1660. Sir 
Charles, in a petition to the King, pointed out that the fees incidental to that 
creation had been remitted by Royal grace and favour, whereupon the King 
gave orders, on November 29, 1679, to the Lords of the Treasiu-y not to press 
the claim, notwithstanding a recent order to enforce the collection of 20,000?., 
which was due and payable for the use of the Great Wardrobe by the creation 
of Baronets, 



228 HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

Catherina, daughter of Sir Hatton Freeman, Knight, was born 
in 1659. He became the tirst Master of the Household and 
Hereditary packs of the Royal Buckhounds, which were united 
during his tenure of office under one Master and staff; hence 
we place him here as the thirty-second Master, in succession of 
the two branches, from the time of Sir Bernard Brocas. Sir 
Charles was High Sheriff for Warwickshire in 1687, and elected 
M.P. for that county in the Parliaments of 1698-1700, 1701, 
1701-2, 1702 to April 1705, and from May 16, 1705, to the day 
of his death, September 2nd in this year. He married, first, 
Catherine, daughter of Sir Hugh Stukeley, Bart., of Hinton, by 
whom he had issue, John his successor, and two daughters ; and 
secondly, Diana, daughter of Richard, third Lord Willoughby 
de Broke, by whom he had three sons and five daughters. 
Under the circumstances already related we are unable to give 
any reliable information concerning his administration as 
Master of the Buckhounds, an appointment he seems to have 
held from June 6, 1703,* to September 2, 1705, However, 
we may venture to say he did full justice to the ofiice ; and 
judging from the following incident it would appear he was in 
constant attendance on the Court during the hunting season. 
On the morning of August 28, 1705, the Queen, accompanied 
by the Prince Consort and the royal entourage, set out from 
Windsor to pay her first regnal visit to the ancient city of 
Winchester. Her suite comprised many of the high officers of 
State, including the Master of the Buckhounds. On the borders 
of the county the Royal party were met by the High Sheriff 
of Hampshire with ninety javelin men in armour, and others 
of his retinue in liveries, by whom the royal visitors were 
conducted to the Downs, where the Duke of Bolton, Lord- 

* " Windsor, Juue 6, 8ir Charles Shuckburgh and Sir S. Payton kis'd the 
Queen's Hand, being made Masters of the Stag and Buck Hounds." ^The Post 
Man, London, Jime |, 1703. As will be here seen, the chronicler is rather 
obscure. There is no doubt, however, that Sir Charles was the Master of the 
Buckhounds and Sir Swester Peyton the Master of the Staghounds. The latter 
died in 1717. Luttrell says : " Sir Charles Shuckburgh, M.P. for Warwickshire, 
and Master of the Bnclthnind.^ to the Queen, is dead of an apoplexy at Win- 
chester " (Diary c Sept. 4, 1705). 



SIK CHAELES SHUCKBUEGH, THIETY-SECOND MASTER. 229 

Lieutenant of the County, with the Deputy-Lieutenants, Jus- 
tices of the Peace, and a numerous company of the local 
nobility and gentry fell into the procession, which arrived at 
the east gate of the city at 6 p.m. Here the Mayor, Recorder, 
Aldermen, and the rest of the Corporation received them " in 
their formalities." The Duke of Somerset presented to Her 
Majesty the Duke of Bolton (as Lord High Steward of the 
city), who then presented the Corporate dignitaries. The 
Mayor presented the kej^s, maces, and other symbols of his 
trust, which the Queen received and returned to him. Next 
the Recorder made a speech, expressing their thanks for the 
honour she did them, and their duty, loyalty, and affection to 
Her Majesty and Government. The Mayor afterwards, in the 
name of the Corporation, presented the Queen with a hundred 
guineas in a rich purse, as a mark of their true loyalty, and in 
recompense he had the honour of kissing her hand, as had also 
the Recorder, Aldermen, and several others, whom the Queen 
received very graciously. The cavalcade re-started and passed 
through the streets, which were lined with the City Trained 
Bands, under the command of Lord William Powlet ; all the 
people expressing " louder acclamations and greater joy on this 
occasion than ever before known on any other occasion in this 
city." At the close the Dean (in the absence of the Bishop, 
who was ill and unable to attend) presented a loyal address, 
which Her Majesty received very kindly. The following day 
the Mayor and Commonalty waited on Prince George, on whom 
they conferred the freedom of the city. After this function 
was done and performed the Royal visitors mounted their 
horses and went out with the local harriers,* the whole of the 
arrangement having been conducted under the supervision of 
the Master of the Buckhounds. No record of what sport ensued 
has transpired, nevertheless it probably proved enjoyable, as 



* Mr. Bridges's, Mr. St. John's and Capt. Cornwall's huntsmen when Her 
Majesty was at Winchester, 6Z, 9s. ; the harefinders there by Her Majesty's 
command, 71, lOs. 6d. John Hudson, Huntsman to Her Majesty's Small 
Beagles, with servants and horses at 200Z. per annum, from the 30th of July, 
1713, to the 30th of July, 1714, 2001— Accounts M. H. (R. 27). 



230 HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

Her Majesty's largess to the local huntsmen would seem to 
indicate. Unfortunately a gloom was cast over the proceed- 
ings. Sir Charles Shuckburgh was prostrated by an attack of 
apoplexy, from the effects of which he succumbed in the course 
of the day. This unexpected fatality dimmed the enjoyment 
of the Royal visit. The races on the Downs the two following 
days were not graced with the presence of the Queen * to the 
great disappointment of those who had made great prepara- 
tions to give the Royal Patroness of the turf a cordial welcome. 
Still it was a grateful tribute to the memory of the late Master 
of the Buckhounds. Having conferred the honour of knight- 
hood on the Lieutenant-Governor and the Commissioner of the 
Navy of Portsmouth, the Queen's visit came to a somewhat 
abrupt termination, as Her Majesty took leave of the ancient 
city and the hunting fields of the vicinity — with which she 
was so familiar in her father and mother's time — and returned 
to Windsor on September 8. 

According to an entry in Luttrell's Diary, under date 
October 4, 1705, " Walter Chetwind, Esq., M.P. for Stafford," 
was "Made Master of the Queen's Buckhounds, in room of Sir 
Charles Shuckburgh, deceased." This was probably the fact ; 
still, like his predecessor in office, he had no official status at 
this time, nor indeed until June 13, 1709, when he was first 
recognised in his capacity of Master of the Buckhounds. 
Nevertheless we may take it that Mr. Walter Chetwynd 
became the thirty-third Master of the Royal Buckhounds at 
the time mentioned by Luttrell ; that he performed the duties 
of the office while it appertained to the establishment of 
Prince George, but under what circumstance we are unable 
to say ; and so on until the Royal pack was officially re- 
organised according to the Sign Manual, above given, which 
was to commence on June 24, 1709. 

On June 13, 1709, in pursuance of the subjoined Ro5'-al 
Warrant, addressed to the Lord Chamberlain, Mr. Walter 

* The programme consisted of two plates : one of 201. for horses under seven 
years old, 12 stone, Gentlemen to ride ; and one of 101., 10 stone, the winner 
to be sold for lOl. 



WALTER CHETWYND, THIRTY-THIRD MASTER. 231 

Chetwynd was ordered to be sworn into the office of Master 
of the Buckhounds and Harthounds to the Queen : — 

Anne R. 

Our Will and Pleasure is, that you forthwith Swear and Admit, 
or Cause to be Sworn and Admitted, Our Trusty and Wellbeloved 
Walter Chetwynd, Esq''., into the Place of Master of Our Hart- 
hounds, and Buckhounds : To have hold and Enjoy the same, 
together with such Salary or Allowances as are or shall be Settled 
by Us, and all such other Fees, Perquisites, and Privileges as belong 
to the Place, in as full and ample manner as John Cary, James 
Grahme, James de Gatigny, Esq''*., Reinhard Vincent Baron 
d'Hompesch, or any other Person hath formerly held and enjoyed 
the same. And for so domg this shalbe your Warrant. 

Given at our Court at St. James's, the Thii-teenth day of June, 
1709, m the Eight year of Our Reign. 

By Her Ma"'=* Command, 

H. Boyle. 

To Our Right Trusty and Entu-ely 
beloved Cousin and Councellor 
Our Chamberlain of Our House- 
hold.* 

Thus we find Mr. Chetwynd's immediate predecessor is 
officially given as Baron de Hompesch. Sir Charles Shuck- 
burgh and Mr. Chetwynd, up to date, are ignored as having 
held this office, save in the allusion to " any other person," 
which is only a matter of form. 

Now, turning to the accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber 
for the year 1708-9 (Roll 145), the first payment in Queen 
Anne's reign relating to the Royal Hunt is as follows : " To 
Walter Chetwind Esq., Master of Her Ma*-* Buckhounds, at 
M' C^' ^ ann. at the established allowance, and here allowed 
him for one quarter of a year ended at Michaelmas 1709, 
CClxxv"." Mr. Chetwynd's salary, at the rate of 1,100/. 
a year, was paid annually in full down to June 7, 1711, 

* Home Office Records., Warrant Booh, vol. xi., p. 47. 



232 HISTOEY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

when he was succeeded by the Right Hon. Sir William 
Wyndham.* 

Mr. Chetwynd was returned M.P. for the borough of Staf- 
ford on May 9, 1705, and at the General Election in May 1708. 
He was re-elected on November 25, 1709, '"' after his appoint- 
ment as Master of the Hounds," He was returned by the 
same constituency in January 1712, " vice Thomas Foley Esq., 
called to the Upper House " ; again returned on August 28, 
1713. On November 19, 1724, " Walter Lord Viscount Chetwynd 
in the Kingdom of Ireland, vice John Dolphin Esq. deceased,'' 
was returned for that borough ; and again on August 18, 1727. 
These details are important, as they establish the fact that 
when he was appointed Master of the Buckhounds in October 
1705 he had not to vacate his seat in Parliament ; therefore 
we may conclude that at the time his office was not one of 
profit under the Crown; and that it was held under the 
Prince Consort, by whom the emoluments of the office were 
defrayed out of the grant accorded to him for the support 
of his establishment. He was appointed chief ranger and 
keeper of St. James' Park on January 19, 1715, and am- 
bassador at the Court of Turin for some time after he resigned 
the Mastership of the Buckhounds, and on June 29, 1717, was 
elevated to the peerage of Ireland as Baron Rathdown, county 

* On April 20, 1711, Mr. Chetwynd received an order on the Treasury for 
5001., but for what purpose is not stated. 

Anne R. 
M' Chetwynd'v OuE Will and Pleasure is, That out of any Our Money 
Ma"' of the I or Treasure that is or shall be Impresed to You at the Rec* of 
Buckhounds f Our Excheq'' You pay, or cause to be paid, unto Our Trusty an 
5001. Jwelbeloved Walter Chetwynd Esq'' Master of Our Buck- 

hounds or to his Assignes any Sum or Sums of money not exceeding in the 
whole the sum of 5001. without Ace' in such proportions as the Comm" of 
Our Treary or liigh Trear for the time being shall direct in that behalfe. The 
same being to be applyed to such Uses as We have directed. And this together 
with the Acquittance or Acquittances of the said Walter Chetwynd shall be as 
well to you for paym* as to the Auditor for allowing thereof upon your Accot 
a Sufficient Warr'. Given at our Court at St. Jams's, the 20*'' Aprill 1711. In 
the tenth year of Our Reigne. 

By her Ma^^ Command, 

P: H. P. T. M. 



SIR WILLIAM WYNDHAM, THIRTY-FOURTH MASTER. 233 

Dublin, and Viscount Chetwynd of Berehaven, county Cork. 
In 1720 Lord Chetwynd and Lord Londonderry* obtained 
from George I. a grant of the island of Providence, in America, 
on condition of fortifying and planting it with English subjects. 
On July 2, 1722, Lord Chetwynd sold his house " adjoining to 
St. James's Palace " to the King. On the accession of George IL 
Lord Chetwynd was very harshly deprived of his Eangership 
and office of " Keeper of the Mall " ; probably the " sale " of 
his residence in St. James's was only a courtesy term for 
" eviction." He was not a favourite with the Court or the 
Ministers ; and from this time his name is rarely mentioned 
in connection with political and social transactions, beyond the 
circumstance that he and his family were notable members of 
the Charlton Club, and consequently mighty fox-hunters. His 
lordship died, without heirs, on February 21, 1735, when his 
estates and dignities went to a collateral branch of the family. 
Sir William Wyndham, thirty-fourth Master of the Royal 
Buckhounds, was appointed to the office on June 8, 171 l,t and 
sworn in by the Lord Chamberlain the same day.| The warrant 
of his appointment is word for word similar to the document 
above cited in the case of his predecessor, except, of course, in 
the names and dates. His allowance was on the reduced scale 
of 1,100Z. per annum, out of which he had to defray the ordinary 
expenses of the pack as then established. As he only held this 
appointment for little more than a year very few incidents of 
his Mastership have transpired. However, he had to continue 
the superintendence, which appears to have been carried on 
from the Queen's accession, of making the forest rides, and 
improving the going on those rustic roads for the Royal hunt- 
ing calash. Thus, on June 29, 1711, the Lord Treasurer 
informed Mr. Chetwynd that it was Her Majesty's pleasure 
that " he was to pay over to Sir William Wyndham, Master 

* His eldest son, and successor, Thomas, second Earl of Londonderry, broke 
his neck \Yhilst hunting with the Royal Buckhounds near Richmond, on Satur- 
day, August 24, 1734. 

t Hnme Office Records, Warrant Booh, vol. xi., pp. 244-5. 

X Lord Chamherlain's Records, Warrants for Servants, p. 267. 



234 HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

of Her Majesty's Buckhounds, the money which remains in 
his hands out of the 500/. which he had lately had from Mr. 
Compton, to defray the charge of repairing the bridges over 
the bogs, and cutting ridings through the Heath in Windsor 
Forest for the conveniency and care of Her Majesty's hunting- 
there." * This part of his duty likely extended to supervision 
attending the formation of the racecourse at Ascot at the 
first race meetings ever held there, in the months of August 
and September 1711, where some of his horses ran ; and, what 
is perhaps the most novel circumstance in the case, is the 
probability that he was the first Master of the Buckhounds 
who officiated in the ceremony, which is now familiar to all 
attending those Royal reunions on the famous Berkshire heath. 
Sir William Wyndham, Bart., only son of Sir Edward Wynd- 
ham, Bart., and Catherine, daughter of Sir William Levison 
Gower, Bart., and sister to John, Lord Gower, was born about 
the year 1687. He was educated at Eton, and afterwards at 
Christ Church, Oxford, where he took high honours. After he 
left college he travelled abroad, going frequently out of the 
beaten track usually followed in the "grand tour." About 
this time we find the young traveller at the battle of Ramillies, 
where, as he afterwards related, he heard a trooper utter the 
briefest prayer on record : " If I forget Thee, O Lord, in the 
hour of battle, do not forget me." Soon after his return to 
England he was elected M.P. for the county of Somerset on 
April 26, 1710, a constituency which he represented during 
the remainder of his parliamentary career. These elections 
call for no comment at our hands save on the occasion of his 
return on July 4, 1711, consequent on his recent appointment 
of Master of the Buckhounds, which was "an office of profit 
under the Crown." In the senate he soon became a prominent 
statesman. On June 30, 1712, he was appointed Secretary of 
War, and on August 21, 1713, Chancellor of the Exchequer. 
He was sworn a Privy Councillor on November 1, and on the 
9th of that month took his seat at that Board, then assembled 
in Windsor Castle. Upon the breach between Harley, Earl of 

* Trcastiry Papers. Letter Bool-, vol. xiii., p. 383. 



SIE WILLIAM WYNDHAM, THIRTY-FOURTH BIASTER. 235 

Oxford, Lord High Treasurer, and St. John, Lord Bolingbroke, 
in July 1714, Sir William adhered to the latter. Upon the 
death of Queen Anne, on August 1, 1714, he signed with others 
the Proclamation of George I. ; nevertheless his Jacobian sym- 
pathies were viewed with distrust by the Hanoverian party, 
and in October following he was removed from his post of 
Chancellor of the Exchequer. In the next Parliament, which 
met on March 17, 1715, he appeared very vigorous in oppo- 
sition to the measures of the Administration, and was, in 
consequence, reprimanded by the Speaker. On the outbreak 
of the rebellion in Scotland under the Earl of Mar, in August 
1715, Sir William fell under suspicion, was impeached for 
alleged complicity in that rising, and, upon an alleged charge 
of escaping from custody, he was proclaimed a traitor, and 
1,000/. offered for his arrest. Having soon after surrendered, 
he was examined by the Privy Council, and committed to the 
Tower, but was never brought to trial. In this respect he 
seems to have passed through much the same ordeal as Colonel 
Graham, the whilom eleventh Master of the Household branch 
of the Royal Buckhounds. After he had regained his liberty 
he continued his opposition to the several administrations 
under which he lived, though he is believed to have altered 
his opinion with regard to the Government itself, from the 
Jacobite notions which he might formerly have espoused, to 
a more large and popular system ; and that upon this ground 
he afterwards formed his whole political conduct. It was 
universally allowed that he possessed all the qualifications 
requisite to form an able senator, — sagacity, to discern the 
strength or weakness of every question, and eloquence, to 
enforce the one and expose the other; skill and address, to 
seize every advantage in the course of a debate, without 
affording any; and a proper degree of warmth and vivacity 
in speaking, necessary to secure the attention of an audience, 
without such an excess as might embarrass himself and expose 
him to the cooler observation of his antagonists. Apart from 
his political career, this famous statesman was socially the 
best of company, equally distinguished by an unaffected 



236 HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

civility and politeness and conversational ability, enhanced 
by an easy flow of wit, and supported by a various and 
extended scope of useful knowledge. Sir William Wyndham 
was a good all-round sportsman ; a bold, straight rider to 
hounds, and thereby incurring many a spill in the hunting 
field. He was a great favourite with Queen Anne, by whom 
he was allotted a splendid suite of apartments in Windsor 
Castle, as well as the stately mansion belonging to the Crown, 
"near St. James's, wherein the Duchess of Mazarine formerly 
lived," from which he was evicted soon after the accession of 
George I., when it was sumptuously furnished " on the occa- 
sion of the coronation for the use of the Court." * He was 
one of the most popular politicians of the old school, of which 
Godolphin was the head ; and, had he chosen to stoop to the 
court corruption of the Hanoverian regime, might have at- 
tained the highest ministerial honours. But, as Pope very 
truly states, he preferred to remain 

"... just to freedom and the throne, 
The Master of our passions and his own." 

Sir William died, greatly lamented, at Wells in Somerset, 
after an illness of a few days, on June 17, 1740. 

George, Third Earl of Cardigan, thirty-fifth Master of 
the Royal Buckhounds, was appointed to the office soon after 
the resignation of Sir William Wyndham, on June 28, 1712, 
in pursuance of the annexed Royal Warrant : — 

Anne R. 

Our Will and Pleasure is, that you forthwith Swear and admitt 
or cause to be Sworne and admitted Our Right Trusty and R' Wei. 
beloved Cousin George Earl of Cardigan into the Office and Place of 
Master of our Buckhounds, to have hold and enjoy the same during 
Our Pleasure, with all rights, ffes, Salarys, Profits, Priviledges and 
Advantages thereunto belonging m as full and ample manner to all 
Intents and purposes as Our Trusty and Welbeloved S"" William 
Wyndham B' or any other person heretofore hath held and enjoyed, 
or of right ought to have held and enjoyed y® same. And for so 
* Lord Chamhcrlain's Records, Warrants for Servants, vol. xxiii. 



EAEL OF CAKDIGAN, THIRTY-FIFTH MASTER. 237 

doing this shall be your Warrant. Given at Our Court at Kensing- 
ton the Eight and Twentieth day of June 1712, in the Eleventh Year 
of Our Reigue. 

By Her Ma'^^ Command, 

Darthmouth. 
To Our Eight Trusty and Right 
entirely beloved Cousin and 
Councellor Charles Duke of 
Shrewsbury Our Chamberlain of 
Our Household.* 

As set forth in the Sign ^lanual above cited his allowance 
as Master of the Buckhounds was increased from the sum 
of 1,100/. a year to 2,341/. per annum; and he received this 
remuneration in full until he resigned office, soon after the 
accession of George I. 

The Earl of Cardigan seems to have been as great a favourite 
with Queen Anne as the Earl of Leicester was with Queen 
Elizabeth. In another respect there was a similarity between 
these two Masters of the Buckhounds — viz., that of being the 
youngest amongst those who filled the office. Lord Cardigan 
was only in his twenty-fifth year when the official insignia of 
the Royal pack was confided to his charge. During the two 
years he officiated under Queen Anne everything was couleur 
de rose ; but in his third and last year of office, under 
George I., he encountered so many checks that they drove 
him to resign. 

George, third Earl of Cardigan, eldest son of Lord Francis 
Brudenell and Frances, daughter of James Saville (last). Earl of 
Sussex, was born in the year 1687. His father pre-deceased 
him during his minority. His father, and his uncle also, were 
most improvident, and through their dissipation almost im- 
poverished the second Earl, of whom the following curious story, 
which is characteristic of the times, is told. During the 
dreadful hurricane of February 7, 1G99, while Robert, second 
Earl of Cardigan, was at prayers in his chamber in Cardigan 
House, Portugal Row, Lincoln's Inn Fields, a large stack of 
* Home Office Records, Warrant Book, No. 12, p. 223, 



238 HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

chimneys was blown down, and crushing right through the 
centre of the mansion levelled all before it, but his lordship 
providentially escaped uninjured. " This wonderful and almost 
miraculous deliverance did doubtless happen to him for his 
great piety, and unconstrained generosity, in paying, as fast as 
he could, his son's debts, which came to 30,000/. or 40,000/,, 
the most of which, had he died, being left as yet unpaid, would 
have been the undoing of multitudes. A noble and Christian 
example for other great men to imitate ! " 

On the death of his grandfather, " aged about a hundred," 
on July 16, 1703, George, third Earl of Cardigan, succeeded 
to the family honours and estates. He married Lady Elizabeth 
Bruce, eldest daughter of Thomas, second Earl of Ailesbury, 
by whom he had four sons and two daughters. He was 
brought up in the Roman Catholic faith, which he abjured 
when he came of age on January 11, 1708, "and received 
the Sacrament in St. James's Church ; and on the following 
day took his seat in the House of Peers, introduced by 
the Lord Chancellor." About this time he and his wife 
appeared to have hankered after the then new and novel sport 
of fox-hunting in Oxfordshire. Adle, Countess of Shrewsbury, 
writing from Heythorp, November 8, 1707, to the Viscountess 
Longueville, Easton, Northamptonshire, says : "... My 
Lord and Lady Cardigan are at present here, and we dis- 
course of nothing but fox-hunting, but," — on her own part the 
Countess modestly adds, — " I have not yet arrived to the 
perfection of fox-hunting." In the meantime Lord Cardigan 
became a great favourite with Queen Anne, by whom he was 
appointed Custos Rotulorum of the county Northampton, on 
A])ril 11, 1711. His appointment to the Mastership of the 
Buckhounds followed on June 28, 1712, as above shown, when 
he at once entered upon the duties of his office. In con- 
nection with this post everything seems to have been in a 
thoroughly efficient state, except an occasional hitch, now 
and then, with regard to the quarry. It is evident that the 
ancient predilection of making free with the Royal deer, 
which were deemed the lawful spoil of the predecessors and 



THE QUAREY. 239 

the successors of Robin Hood and his merry men, continued in 
those days as in the days of yore, as poaching was rampant 
in the vicinity of Windsor Forest. Great exertions were now 
made to suppress this abuse, and poachers retaliated by 
putting dogs into the pen containing the bucks intended for 
uncarting at the opening meetings of the Royal pack in 1712, 
when Lord Cardigan first assumed the official insignia 
of the hunt.* It would further appear that the herds of 
the an tiered lords of the forest were increased during this year, 
by importation, as in May, William Lowen, the chief hunts- 
man, received 166^. 10s. for taking one hundred red deer at 
Houghton Park, and conveying forty of them to Windsor Forest. 
Another important draft was obtained under the following 
curious circumstances : Squire Legh, of Lyme, having offered 
to make a heavy wager that his huntsman could drive a 
herd of his deer to any part of England. The bet being 
snapped up as a good thing, orders were issued to the 
foresters and huntsmen at Lyme Park to undertake what 
appeared to be a hopeless task. Nevertheless a herd was 
soon drafted from the stock at Lyme, and thence conducted, 
without loss or damage, over highways and byways, until 
they eventually reached Windsor, with the greatest ease and 
safety. Thus, this remarkable wager was won. The means 
employed must have been superhuman, or connected with 
subtle art of venery and woodcraft now unknown; for it's 



* " Kensington, July 2, 1712.— Whereas on Tuesday the 17th of June last, 
some Dogs were put into the Pen at Swinly Eails in Windsor Forest, and killed 
six Deer ; Her Majesty, for the better Discovery of those who are guilty of this 
Presumption, hath been pleased to direct. That any Person or Persons who 
shall at any time within one Month, to be accounted from this Day, discover 
the OfEendors or any of them, so as they or any of them may be convicted of 
the said Crime, shall over and above the Reward allowed by the Statute, 
receive a further Reward of Fifty Pounds, to be paid by the most Honourable 
the Lord High Treasurer of Great Britain. And in case any Person or Persons 
concerned in the said OfEence, shall discover any of his or their Accomplices 
therein, so as to be Convicted thereof, Her Majesty is pleased to promise Her 
Gracious Pardon to such Person or Persons making such Discovery. 

" H. St. John. 
''London Gazette, July 1/3, 1712." 



240 HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

a million to one that it would now be impossible to drive 
a herd of timid deer from Cheshire to Windsor without 
losing every head before a quarter of the journey was accom- 
plished. The Royal Forest having been " well replenished " 
by these drafts there was no lack of game to give sport. 
Large fields and brilliant runs appear to have ensued, but 
unfortunately no details of the sport have been preserved. 
However, we incidentally hear that on the conclusion of the 
run, on August 1, 1712, the noble Master received the 
joyful intelligence that his Countess had just presented 
him with a son and heir, whereupon he was heartily con- 
gratulated, and the Queen herself promised to become god- 
mother to the welcome little stranger. This promise was 
fulfilled on the ensuing August 26, when Her Majesty 
presented her Master of the Buckhounds with a warrant 
on the Royal Jewel Ofiice to obtain 130 ounces of plate 
as her gift at the christening of his child, the plate to be 
made into such vessels and after such fashion as his Lordship 
should direct. The order was executed at the Jewel Office 
on April 28, 1713, when his Lordship received " one large 
gilt cup, cover and salver," weighing 132 ounces 11 dwts., 
for which the Treasury was charged 761. 9s. There is every 
reason to assume that the followers of the Royal Hunt con- 
tinued to enjoy the pleasures of the chase, and that the 
Forest and its vicinity resounded with the merry music of 
hound and horn during the remainder of Lord Cardigan's 
somewhat brief term of office. But, by the Queen's death 
on August 1, 1714, hunting was stopped ; nor was it again 
resumed for some time. George I. re-appointed the Earl of 
Cardigan to the Mastership on November 6, 1714, " to hold 
the office in as full and ample manner as he, the said Earl 
of Cardigan or any other person, hath held and enjoyed 
the same."* He was sworn into the office by the Lord 
Chamberlain on the same day, as appears by the subjoined 
certificate in that behalf:— 

* Ilomc Office Records, Warrant Book, vol. xiii., p. 163. 



EAEL OF CARDIGAN, THIRTY-FIFTH MASTER. 241 

The Earl of Cardigan Sworn'j These are to certify that I have 
Master of His Majesty's Buck- 1 Sworn and Admitted the Right 
hounds in Ordinary. I Hon''''^ the Earl of Cardigan into the 

J Place and Quality of Master of his 
Majestys Buckhounds in Ord"^ To have hold Exercise and Enjoy 
the said place together with all the Rights Profits Privileges and 
Advantages thereunto belonging ; in as full and Ample manner as 
any person that formerly held, or of Right ought to have held and 
Enjoyed the same. Given under my hand and seal this 6th day of 
November 1714, in the first year of His Majesty's Reign. 

Shrewsbury.* 

In the troubles that ensued, Lord Cardigan, like most of his 
old and honourable friends, fell under suspicion of favouring 
the Jacobian cause. These political and partizan proceedings 
we need not discuss, as they should not intrude in the hunting 
field, where they are not wanted, as they are antagonistic to 
our theme. Nevertheless, this baneful element deprived the 
Koyal Hunt of Lord Cardigan's services, and was the indirect 
cause of the pack being " all masterless " for twelve years. No 
specific reason can be assigned for Lord Cardigan's "resig- 
nation," " removal," or " dismissal " from office. At any rate, his 
official connection with the Royal Buckhounds terminated on 
July 11, 1715. Beyond a casual allusion to the circumstance 
nothing further transpired in the current news of the day. 
The public press was scrupulously reticent on passing events 
of this class, and as his Lordship was not directly impeached 
on any charge of disloyalty to the new dynasty no reason was 
vouchsafed as to why or wherefore he relinquished office. 
Nevertheless, it must have occasioned much gossip, as His 
Excellency Giacomo Querini, the Venetian Ambassador at the 
Court of St. James', in a despatch to the Inquisitors of State, 
dated London, July 17, 1715, considered it of sufficient import- 
ance to announce that Lord Cardigan had " resigned into the 
King's hands the post of Master of the Buckhounds, a very 
profitable charge, and one which he obtained as a very great 
favour at the commencement of the reign." He retired soon 
* Lo7rl Chamberlain's Records, vol. yf^, p. 30. 

16 



242 HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RAGES. 

after into the enjoyments of private life, and we hear nothing 
of him during the remainder of the reign of George I. Shortly 
after the accession of George II. he was created LL.D. of Cam- 
bridge on April 25, 1728. He died on July 5, 1732, after his 
return from Bath, at Lord Bruce 's seat in Tottenham Forest, 
Wiltshire, and was interred at Dean, Northamptonshire.* 



£ 


s. 


d. 


20 








10 








25 








30 








5 


6 


H 


50 








20 









The following is a " List of Officers and Under Keepers of Windsor 
-Forest," in 1704 :— 

Salaries ^ annum. 

The Duke of Northumberland, Lord Warden 

Rich** Nevill, Esq"" , Lieu* of the Forest 

Fra Negus, Woodward of the Forest .... 

Maj"^ Negus, Bayliffe of Finchamstead Bailywick, 

Rainger of Bigsliot Railes & Sandhurst, Allowance 

for Hay for the Deer of those two Walks 
Charles Mildmay, Riding Forester .... 

Ditto, Keeper of Swinley Railes, and Bayliffe of Battles 

Bayliwick, Allowance for Hay .... 
Rob* Hanington, Under Keeper of Bigshot Railes 
Augustine Hanington, Sen"^ , Under Keeper of Sandhurst 

Walk 20 

Augustine Hanington, Jun'', Under Keeper of East- 

hamstead Walk 20 

Ditto as Vermin Killer 9 2 6 

* It would appear by the Accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber that a 
quarter's salary remained unpaid to Lord Cardigan. Whether this had ever 
been paid to his assignee or no we are unable to say. 

These are to desire you to pay to Mr. Eobert Webber all such sum and sums 
of money as shall from time to time become due and payable unto me as 
Master of Her Majesty's Buckhounds and his receipt shall be your discharge till 
further order. Witness my hand and seal this 21st day of November 1713. 

Cardigan. 

To John Holbech Esq. and the 
Eight Hon. Lord Delawarr, Trea- 
surer of Her Majesty's Chamber. 

Witness— Charles Kirkham. 
F. Hacket. 

*^* Similar power of attorney from Sir William Wyndham to Christopher 
Desbrow, of St. James's, Westminster. 

Lo)-d Chamierlairi's Recordx, Assignment Book, vol. (E.L.) cscvi., p. 104. 



£ 


s. 


d. 


. 20 








, 6 


1 





. 20 








. 20 








. 20 








. 20 








. 20 








. 60 








. 20 








. 40 








. 30 








. 40 








. 12 








£537 


9 


111 



OFFICEES OF WINDSOR FOREST — ASCOT RACES. 243 

Salaries V annum. 



W™ Lowen, Under Keeper of New Lodge Walk . 
Ditto as House Keeper there .... 
John Barnes, Under Keeper of Sunninghill Walk 
Rich'' Lovegrove, Under Keeper of Billing Bear . 
W^ Miles, Under Keeper of Old Windsor . 
John Thorn, Under Keeper of Bear Wood . 
Geo : Holder, Under Keeper of Linchford 
Benj" Irmnonger, John Sawyer, Sen'', John Sawyer, 
Jun"", Under Keepers in Cranborn, each 20^. "^ ann. 
Andrew Streek, Under Keeper at Swinley . 
William Beaumont, Game Keeper of New Windsor 
Francis Bancroft, ditto, of Old Windsor 
Geo : Prudham, chtto, of Bagshott 
W" Carter, ditto, of Shrubs Hill .... 



George Churchill, Esq., Deputy Banger, was allowed 100^. a year 
for hay for the deer in the Home Park, Windsor. 

It seems the original intention was to have two horse-races 
at Ascot in the month of August 1711. The first was for a 
Plate of 50 guineas, to be run for on Monday, the 6th, by any 
horse, mare, or gelding, that had never won the value of 40/. 
in money or plate ; each animal to carry 12 stone, in three 
heats. They were to be entered on the preceding Wednesday 
at the Town Hall, New Windsor, " or with the Town Clerk 
or his Deputy, paying 2 guineas, or at the time of starting 
paying 6 guineas to the said Clerk or Deputy." The entrance 
money was to go to the horse running second in this race. On 
Tuesday, the 7th, " Her Majesty's Plate of 100 guineas" was 
to be run for " round the new Heat on Ascott Common, near 
Windsor," by any horse, mare, or gelding, " being no more 
than six years old the grass before, as must be certified under 
the hand of the breeder, carrying 12 stone, 3 heats ; to be 
entered the last day of July at Mr. Handcock's, at Fern-Hill, 
near the starting-post." 

For some reason or other these races were postponed from 



244 HISTOKT OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES, 

the 6th and 7th to the 11th and 12th of August. The number 
of horses which started and the winners have not been pre- 
served, so far as we can ascertain. All we know is that for 
the Queen's Plate of 100 guineas ( = 107/. lO.s.) four horses 
were entered — viz., Lord Raylton's brown bay ; Lord Craven's 
grey horse ; Sir William Goring's brown bay ; and Mrs. Orme's 
bay horse. The 50 Guinea Plate obtained a better entry — 
viz., the Duke of St. Albans' chestnut horse, Doctor ; Mr. 
Elwell's grey horse, Have-at-All ; Mr. Smith's grey gelding, 
Teauge ; Mr. William Hall's bay-stone horse, Dimple ; Mr. 
John Biddolph's brown bay horse, Flint; Mr. Charles May's 
grey gelding, Grey Jack ; and Mr. Merrit's iron-grey stone 
liorse, Grim. As an accessory to the races there was to be 
" back-sword playing for pieces of plate " — this entertainment 
to begin "at eight o'clock in the morning." 

There is very little doubt that this was the first race-meeting 
ever held at Ascot ; for we learn from the Declared Accounts 
of Charles, Duke of Somerset, Master of the Horse, that the 
sum of 558/. 19^. 6d. had been paid "to sundry workmen 
employed in making and perfecting the round Heat on Ascot 
Common in the months of July and August 1711"; that a 
carpenter received 15/. 2s. 8f/. " for setting up posts and other 
carpenter's work on the said common in the month of Sep- 
tember .1711 " ; and that 1/. Is. 6d. was paid to Mr. John 
Grape "for engrossing the Articles for Her Majesty's Plate, 
run for at Ascot Common." 

A second race-meeting was held at Ascot in the ensuing 
month. On Monday, September 17, a Plate of 30 guineas 
was run for by any horse, mare, or gelding, carrying 10 stone, 
that never won in money or plate the value of 20/. On 
Tuesday, the 18th, a Plate of 20/. was run for by any horse, 
etc., that never won 20/. For the 30/. Plate the following 
were entered : The Duke of Somerset's grey horse. Crofts ; 
Mr. Barber's chestnut gelding, Speedy Cut ; and Mr. Edmund's 
dark-brown gelding, Hoboy. The 20/. Plate, run for on the 
following day, secured a like support — viz.. Sir William 
Wyndham's grey gelding, Cricket; Lord Lifford's nutmeg 



ASCOT RACES. 245 

gelding, Sharpes ; Sir Thomas Palmer's bay gelding, Lumber ; 
and Mr. Newman's grey gelding, Have-a-Care. Like the pre- 
ceding meeting, no records of the runners or winners of these 
races have been preserved. 

These inaugural race-meetings at Ascot were honoured with 
the presence of the Queen and all the Court Officials, including 
the reigning beauty, Miss Forester, one of the Maids of Honour, 
mounted on her " palfrey," and " dressed like a man " — that is, 
in the equestrienne attire of the period — viz., a long white 
riding-coat, a full-flapped waistcoat, and a small cocked hat, 
three-cornered, bound with broad gold lace, the point placed 
full in front, over a white-powdered, long flowing periwig. 
This beautiful and accomplished young lady met her fate at 
these races, and was soon after married, when the Queen pre- 
sented her with a marriage portion of 3,000/. — the " dot " 
always given by Her Majesty to her Maids of Honour on their 
wedding-day. 

1712. — In the last week of July 1712 it was formally 
announced " that Her Majesty's Plate of 100 Guineas " was 
to be run for on Ascot Common, near Windsor, on Friday, 
August 25, by any horse, mare, or gelding, being no more 
than six years old the grass before, " as must be certified 
under the hand of the breeder." The horses were to carry 
12 stone each, in three heats, and had to be entered on the 
Friday before the race day, between the hours of ten and two, 
at Mr. Hancock's, on Fern Hill, near the starting-post. By 
a further semi-official notification a Plate of 50 guineas, " by 
subscription," was to be run for on that course on Monday, 
September 1, by any horse, mare, or gelding, that never won 
40/. in plate or money. The horses were to carry 12 stone 
each in three heats, and to be entered at the Town Hall, with 
the Town Clerk of New Windsor, on Friday, August 29. 
Two guineas entrance had to be paid by the owners of intend- 
ing competitors, or 6 guineas if entered at the starting-post on 
the day of the race. The articles " to be as usual," and the 
second horse to receive the entrance money. The Queen's 
Plate was won by " Robert Fagg, Esq., son of Sir Robert Fagg, 



246 HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT KACES. 

Baronet, of Sussex." Six horses started, four of them having 
been distanced in the first heat. The result of the 50 Guinea 
Plate, competed for by the followers of the Royal Buckhounds, 
has not transpired ; at any rate, we can find no further notice 
of it. The Queen, accompanied by all the Court Officials, 
attended this meeting, as also several of the nobility and 
gentry who were sojourning at Windsor for the purpose of 
presenting Her Majesty with the inevitable " Loyal Address " 
on the occasion of the Peace with France and Spain ; amongst 
whom were the Duke of Beaufort, Duke of Hamilton, Lord 
Chancellor Harcourt, Sir Simon Stuart, and numerous M.P.'s, 
besides a regular invasion of High-Sheriffs, Grand Jurors, 
J.P.'s, " and other gentlemen and freeholders " from every part 
of the kingdom. 

1713. — In the ensuing year the Queen's Plate of 100 
guineas was similarly announced to be run for "on Ascott 
Common, near Windsor," on Wednesday, August 12; the 
conditions as to age, weight, distance, etc., being the same as 
in the preceding j'ear. But should any difference arise it 
was to be determined by " the Hon. Coyners Darcey, Esq., 
and the Hon. Col. George Feilding, Esq., Commissioners to 
execute the Office of Master of the Horse, or in their absence 
by Richard Marshall, Esq., Master of Her Majesty's Studd." 
The 50 Guinea Plate was to be run for on Thursday, August 13, 
by any horse, mare, or gelding that never won 1001. in plate 
or money " since they were six years old " ; the best of three 
heats, carrying 10 stone each. They had to be shown and 
entered at Windsor by the Town Clerk on Monday, August 10, 
otherwise they were disqualified to run for this plate. Early 
in this month Windsor was en fete, in consequence of the 
installation of six new Knights of the Garter — viz., Henry, 
Duke of Beaufort ; Henry, Duke of Kent ; John, Earl Poulett ; 
Robert, Earl of Oxford; Thomas, Earl of Straff"ord ; and 
Charles, Earl of Peterborough. On the 5th the Queen arrived 
from Kensington at Hampton Court, where she remained until 
the 10th. On the following day Her Majesty and the Court 
were at Windsor Castle, and proceeded thence, on the 12th, 



KEFLECTIONS ON SPORT WITH THE PACK. 247 

to see the last Royal Plate run for at Ascot during her reign. 
We are unable to give the faintest description of this meeting, 
nevertheless we may be sure it proved a merry reunion to 
those who were so fortunate to participate in the sport. An 
autumn meeting was announced to take place at Ascot on 
October 20, when the Windsor Town Plate of 20 guineas, 
open to any horse, mare, or gelding, carrying 10 stone, that 
never won 30^. in plate or money. The result of this race 
has not been recorded in the annals of the turf. The Queen 
and Court were at Windsor Castle at this time, but we have 
no information whether or not the event in question had been 
honoured by the presence of royalty. 

1714. — The last Queen's Plate of 100 guineas given by 
Queen Anne to be run for at Ascot was announced to take 
place on Friday, August 13, 1714, under the same articles 
as obtained there during the three preceding years. The 50 
Guinea Plate was to be run for on Monday, the 16th. But 
good Queen Anne died on August 1, 1714, consequently these 
proposed races at Ascot were postponed. The meeting was 
eventually abandoned, and we hear nothing further of " Royal 
Ascot " for some years to come. 

It has been truly said that Queen Anne " was every inch 
a sportsman." During her youth, and in those happy days 
when the Duke of York, her father, allocated his spare time 
to the pleasures of the chase, both she and her elder sister 
became proficient riders to hounds on the spacious downs and 
in the sylvan groves which extended from historic Winton tc 
the New Forest. In those happy hunting fields, and subse- 
quently at Windsor and Richmond, the two young princesses 
were " well entered " in all the arts and mysteries of the chase, 
under the supervision of their Royal father, than whom a 
more competent mentor could not be found for that particular 
purpose. During the time when the hunting establishment 
of Charles II. was under a cloud (through financial and other 
circumstances), that of the Duke of York was in the most 
flourishing condition. Indeed, if one could get at the records 



248 HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

of the Establishment of H.R.H. at the time in question, it would 
probably transpire that his buck, stag, hare, fox, and other packs 
exceeded the King's ; and from a comparative point of view 
the former undoubtedly yielded superior sport. Unlike the 
King, the Duke was in receipt of a large permanent income, 
free and unencumbered, and untrammelled by the peculiar 
devouring demands which soon exhausted the resources of 
the Royal Exchequer. Notwithstanding all his faults, James 
invariably paid twenty shillings in the pound. Thus the 
" sinews " of sport were strong and healthy within the verge 
of the Prince's Court, and under the watchful care of Colonel 
Graham every department of this establishment was — to use 
the nautical expression of the Duke — " in ship shape." Con- 
sequently no reasonable expense was grudged in efficiently 
sustaining this hunting establishment, in which H.R.H. evinced 
the utmost solicitude during this interval of rural enjoyment, 
down to the time of his eldest daughter's marriage with the 
Prince of Orange. Then came a check. That spoil sport — 
political and polemical agitation — had to run its course. 
When the political and sectarian fanatics regained their senses, 
the Duke of York again re-entered on the even tenor of his 
way, and, accompanied by the Princess Anne, resumed hunting 
with his hounds. His letters to the Prince of Orange, and to 
his familiar friends likewise, testify to the pleasure and relaxa- 
tion they derived from those rural sports. But the demon of 
discord again came upon the scene. The father and daughtei- 
were separated for a time. Then to the former came "the 
weary crown," and the cares of state ; no time for hunting for 
him, and very little for his favourite child. 

It is not necessary here to again refer to the career of the 
Royal Buckhounds during the troubled reign of James 11. 
When William and Mary jointly occupied the throne the latter 
was jealous of her sister's personal popularity, and of the love 
and devotion she inspired in all with whom she came in 
contact. Mary was envious of Anne's prowess in the saddle, 
and even endeavoured to prevent her following the Royal 
Buckhounds in the hunting field. Fortunately, however, she 



QUEEN ANNE IN THE HUNTING FIELD. 249 

failed to accomplish this vindictive intention ; but by her 
enmity the Princess was excluded from all approach to 
Windsor Castle and Park. Beyond the confines of Windsor 
Park the Royal Hunt was free to all who desired to join in 
with the hounds, a boon which even the " Knights of the 
Road " appreciated. In this juncture Anne cleared the obstacles 
placed in their path without turning a hair. Hunt she would, 
and hunt she did. She purchased a cottage near the Castle, 
and from this humble villa venatica joined in with the Royal 
Hunt every summer, from 1689 to 1694, in which latter year, 
by the death of Queen Mary, the unnatural severit}' to which 
she had been subjected by her sister was removed. As heir- 
apparent to the Crown, she was from this time onward treated 
with all respect and deference at the Court of William III. 
During those seven years we may depend she missed few 
opportunities of hunting with the Royal Buckhounds. Un- 
fortunately the chroniclers and Court gossips of the day rarely 
condescended to notice passing events of that description; 
indeed, the only specific instance we have met with being 
recorded in September 1700, on which occasion, the heat 
being excessive, the Princess was suddenly taken so ill that 
Dr. Hanns was summoned from London to attend her. But 
before the Court physician arrived, " an apothecary at Windsor, 
by letting blood and other applications," quite restored her; 
and what appeared to be of equal importance, the Court 
physician " mightily approved of what the apothecary had 
done"; consequently, as those doctors did not differ, H.R.H. 
was able to resume hunting on the following Monday. 

When she ascended the throne in the spring of 1702, Queen 
Anne, or her Ministers, committed an unintentional mistake in 
placing the Royal Buckhounds on the Establishment of her 
consort, the Prince of Denmark. As above explained, the 
adoption of that course tended to diminish the dignity and 
impair the efiiciency of the Royal Hunt from the Spring of 
1702 to the Midsummer of 1709. During those seven years, 
it appears to have been customary with Queen Anne to 
drive in her calash from Windsor Castle, Hampton Court, or 



250 HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

Richmond Park, as the case may be, to the rendezvous where 
the Royal Buckhounds assembled for the chase, which was 
usually in Windsor Forest. That procedure invariably pre- 
vailed during the life of the Prince Consort. " There is a 
noble oak," writes Miss Strickland, " among the glades of 
Windsor Forest which used to have a brass plate affixed to it, 
intimating that it was called ' Queen Anne's Oak ' ; for beneath 
its branches she was accustomed to mount her horse for the 
chase, and view her officials and dogs assembled for the hunt." 
Towards the end of her reign the gout and other complaints, 
which she had held at bay by frugal fare and active exercise, 
gradually made undeniable assaults on her usually robust con- 
stitution, and with the greatest reluctance she was eventually 
compelled to give up riding to her hounds. Nevertheless she 
continued to follow them up to the last in her hunting calash. 
There is a tradition to the effect that, in anticipation of her 
favourite Buckhounds falling into disrepute on the score of the 
expenses incidental to the pack, she set aside a fund, sufficient 
for their future maintenance, independent of any grant from 
the Civil List or demand on the Royal Exchequer. To what 
extent the validity of that fund proceeded it is now apparently 
impossible to ascertain. A version once obtained currency 
that this huntinsr endowment should have been reserved out 
of the money she allocated to the Established Church, known 
as " Queen Anne's Bounty." At any rate, it was worked out 
on the simile of robbing Peter to pay Paul, or, to be precise, 
of mulcting that patient beast of burden, the British tax- 
payer, for the benefit of " the scantily endowed clergy of the 
Established Church " — this " bounty " money having been 
allocated towards the expenses of the Royal Household from 
the time of the " Reformation " down to the year 1703, and 
from thence onward to our own times the taxpayers have 
been obliged to make the deficiency good. 

Like Elizabeth, Anne lived in the hearts of her subjects. 
Apart from her individual predilection for the chase, she seems 
to have acted on the principle recorded by the old chronicler, 
that among " common people " (that is, the citizens and gentry 



" QUEEN ANNE IS DEAD." 251 

living in and about London, such as, for instance, the ancestors 
of the Duke of Leeds and numerous noble lords*) hunting 
with the Royal Buckhounds was esteemed as a greater kind- 
ness than a greater benefit would have been. Like many 
of her predecessors, Queen Anne delighted to see these " com- 
mon people " " hunt and be merry " when riding to her hounds 
in the vicinity of Windsor and Epping Forests. Miss Strickland 
says that prior to the Union with Scotland, she was depicted 
on the Great Seal, mounted on a fleet hunter at the head of 
the Royal Buckhounds. Dean Swift records that, in August 
1711, he had seen Queen Anne hunting near Windsor in her 
calash, which she drove " furiously like Jehu, and is a mighty 
hunter like Nimrod " ; adding that on that occasion Her Majesty 
followed the chase until four o'clock in the afternoon, during 
which she drove not less than forty miles. On the whole her 
reign was glorious in militar}^ triumphs ; conspicuous in the 
eloquence and patriotism of her ministers ; notable in the de- 
velopment of literature, science, and art ; commerce flourished ; 
while hunting and rural sports expanded to and were enjoyed 
by all classes. Thus in a blaze of glory set the sun of the last 
Stuart sovereign, amid the lamentation of her subjects, in that 
terse and enduring epitaph : '' Queen Anne is dead ! " 

* See Orridge's Citizens 0/ London, 



252 HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 



CHAPTER XII. 
GEORGE I. (1714—1727). 

The Earl of Cardigan re-appointed Master of the Royal Buckhounds, November 
n, 1714. — Resigns Office July 11, 1715. — No Official Master onward during 
the Reign of George I. — Mr. William Lowen, Senior, appointed Huntsman 
to the Pack. — The Hounds. — The Hunt- Servants. — The Pack re-organised. 
— Annual Expenses of the Establishment during the Reign of George I. — ■ 
Some Records of the Runs, — Popularity of the Hunt. — Is in great Favour 
vs'ith the Fair Sex. — Dearth of Hunting Intelligence during the Reign of 
George I. — Alderman Humphrey Parsons. — Ascot Races. 

The cireumstances attending the reappointment of the Earl 
of Cardigan to the office of Master of the Buckhounds by 
George I. on November 6, 1714, and his resignation thereof on 
July 11, 1715, having been circumstantially recorded in the 
last chapter, it will be sufficient here to mention that the 247 
days in which he officiated in the capacity of thirty-fourth 
Master of the Royal Buckhounds, under the first Hanoverian 
Sovereign, passed away without leaving the slightest indica- 
tion of the proceedings of the Royal pack in the hunting field 
during the time mentioned. The probability is that, owing 
to the political complications, he never officiated or took any 
practical part in the administration of the office under the new 
regime. After his resignation or removal had been accom- 
plished, no one was appointed to fill the vacancy ; consequently 
we hear of no official Master for the remainder of the reign 
of George I. 

After the death of the Duke of Somerset, no Master of 
the Horse was appointed for several years, the profits of that 
office being paid to the king's head mistress, Herrengard 



ME. WILLIAM LOWEN APPOINTED HUNTSMAN. 253 

Melesina von Schulenburg, who was created Duchess of 
Munster in the Peerage of Ireland, and afterwards Duchess 
of Kendal in the English. Her rapacity was very great and 
very successful ; and there is no doubt that her secret emolu- 
ments for patronage and recommendations far surpassed any 
outward account of her receipts. Sir Robert Walpole more 
than once declared to her (but this was after the death of 
George I.) that she would have sold the king's honour for a 
shilling advance to the best bidder. Still, with the accounts 
of the Treasurer of the Chamber open before us, we are bound 
to exonerate the rapacious duchess of having any finger in the 
sparse expenses allocated to the support of the Royal Buck- 
hounds ; although it was surmised she was the means of 
keeping open the Mastership of that pack until a favourable 
opportunity presented for its disposal to the highest bidder. 
At any rate, no recognised or official Master to the Royal 
Buckhounds was appointed until the accession of George II., 
when Colonel Negus — who had been commissioner for execut- 
ing the office of Master of the Horse throughout the reign of 
George I. — was promoted to the post. 

In the meantime the Royal Buckhounds were not idle. In 
the year 1716 the pack consisted of 50 couples of hounds. This 
number was soon after reduced to 30 couples, when the annual 
cost of the pack was lOOOZ. per annum. Out of this yearly 
allowance the huntsman had to defray all the incidental 
expenses, as set forth in the subjoined summaries of the 
accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber of the Household, 
and cognate records for the time being : — 

George R. 
Kings Warr*. > Our Will and Pleasure is And We 

Mr. Lowen for Keeping / do hereby Direct Authorise and 

the Buckhounds £652 : 12 : 11 fComand that Out of Such our Trea- 

jsure as is or Shall be Imprested to 
You at the Rec*. of Our Excheq as Trearer of Our Chamber and 
for the Use & Serv*^^. of that Office You pay or cause to be paid 
unto Will™. Lowen Sen"", or to his Assignes the Sufhe of Six 
hundred fifty two Pou^nds Twelve Shillings & Eleven Pence in 



254 HISTOKY OF THE BOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT BACES. 

Satisfaction of his Service care pains & Expences in looking after, 

keeping and maintaining Our Buckliounds free of all further Charge 

to us ; either for S'vants, horses or otherwise howsoever with in and 

for the Severall Periods of Time, hereunder menconed That is to say 

For keeping 30 Couple of Buckhounds, Servants and horses, 

from the 11th July 1715 the day on w'^'^ the Earl of Cardigan 

resigned his Office of Master of Our Buckhounds to X'mas 

ffollowing, the same being computed after the rate of 600^'' 

^ ann., ^274 : 10 : 5. 

For keeping the like number of hounds, servants, hoi-ses, for 
one quarter from X'mas 1715 to Lady Day 1716 at the rate of 
6001'' 1?' ann., £150. 

For keeping 20 Couple of Buckhounds Extroord''-^ to make up 
50 Couple in all from X'mas 1714 to Lady Day 1716 being one 
year & a quar' at y'' rate of iij pence a day each hound for all 
Expences whoever, £228 : 2 : 6. Total £652 : 12 : 11. 

And for so doing this together with the Acquittance of the 
said William Lowen or his Assignes shall be as well to you for 
making the said payment as to the Auditor of Our Imprests 
and all Concern'd in passing and allowing thereof upon Your 
Account a Sufficient Warrant. 

Given at Our Court at S'. James's this 13th day of Aprill 
1716 in the Second Year of Our Eeigne 

By His Ma*^. Command 
To Our Eight Trusty^ Will: S*. Quintin 

& Right Welbeloved P: Methuen 

Cousin Bodville Earl - T: Newport 

of Radnor Tre^er of 
Our Chamber 

— Lord Ghainherlain's Records, S.M.B., vol. ff^, fo. 107 

Arrears due to the huntsman to Lady Day, 1716 : — 

William Lowen, the huntsman, for himself, servants, horses, and 
hounds, was paid by the Lord Cardigan to July 10, 1715. 
By the Treasury to Lady Day last : — 

The Yeomen Prickers and Harbourer was paid by the Loid Cardigan 
to July 10, 1715, at 80^. each Yeoman Pricker per annum, and 
20?. to the Harbourer ; but then he found the Harbourer a 
horse. 



ANNUAL EXPENSES DURING THE EEIGN OF GEORGE I. 255 

Due to John Hudson, from July 11, 1715, to Lady Day following, 

being 258 days at 801. per ann., 56/. 10s. 
To Robert Armitage, William Lowen, brother to the Huntsman, 

William Lowen, son to the Huntsman, at 66/. 10s. each ; and 

to Roger Webb, Harbourer, at 20/. per annum, 14/. 2s. Qd. — 

240/. 2s. 6d. 
From Lady Day to Midsummer last : — 
To William Lowen, the Huntsman, 1 quarter, for himself, 6 servants, 

9 horses, and 30 couple of Hounds, at 600/. per annum, 150/. 

For 40 additional Hounds, at 3d. per day each, 45/. 10s. (but 

these are to be reduced from this time) — 195/. 10s. 
Four Yeomen Prickers, at 20/. each, 80/. ; two Harbourers at 10/. 

each, .£20 (and they find their own horses) — 295/. 10s. 
One quarter to Michaelmas, 1716 : — 
To William Lowen, the Huntsman, 150/.; four Yeomen Prickers, 80/.; 

and two Harbourers, 20/.— 250/.— T. P., vol. 205, no. 38. 

According to another account the hunt servants were paid in full 

down to Michaelmas, 1716, 785/. 16s. 6ic/.— L. C. R. ; Sutl. B., 

vol. ff§, fo. 13 If/. 
1717 
William Lowen, huntsman, for himself, six servants, nine horses, 

and thirty couple of Buckhounds, at 600/. per ann., for one 

yeai', ending at Christmas, 1717 — 600/. 
John Hudson and three other yeomen Prickers at 80/. per ann. each 

for the same time — 320/. 
Roger Webb and John Webb, two Harbourers, they finding and 

keeping theii* own horses, at 40/. per ann. each for the same 

time— 80/. 

1718 ditto, total, 1000/. 

1719 ditto „ 1000/. 

1721 do. for 1| years, ended at Christmas, 1721, 1050/. 
4 yeomen prickers, do., 560/. 

2 harbingers, do., 140/. 

1722 do. for | of a year, ending at Mich. 1722 — 

do. 4 yeomen Prickers, at 80/. per ann. ; do. 2 harbingers — total 
for I year, 750/. 

1723 ditto for a year ended Michaelmas 1723— total, 1000/. 

1724 ditto for a year and ^ ending at Christmas 1724 — total, 1250/. 

1725 do. i year to March, 500/. 



256 HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

1726 do. for 1^ year, from Midsummer 1725 to Christmas 1726, 

900^. 
4 Yeomen Prickers for same time, ,£480. 
2 Harbourers, Wm. Ives and Robt. Shorter, for same time, 

120/.— total, 1500?. 

As may be gathered from the preceding summaries of these 
accounts the chief huntsman out of the annual allowance of 
lOOOL a year defrayed the whole cost of the pack as we find 
it on the establishment of George I. This sum covered the 
cost of keeping thirty couples of hounds, the wages of the hunts- 
man, six servants, nine horses, four yeomen prickers, and two 
harbourers. There were, however, contingent expenses, not 
included in the above calculations, such as pensions, fees to 
the keepers of Windsor and Epping Forests, cost of carting 
deer, extra horses, saddles, food for deer in Windsor, etc., etc., 
as indicated in the following extracts from the Accounts of 
the Commissioner of the Master of the Horse : — 

1715-1717. A hunting mare and a pad 22/. Os. 9d. each, 1 hunting 

mare 27/. 8s. 3d, one ditto 16/. 14s. 9d., 1 ditto 13/. 3s. 
1717-1719. WiUiam Lowen, sen., for 2 hunting horses, 25 Aug., 

1717_64/. 10s. 
[Several saddle horses bought, but for what object not mentioned, in 

most cases.] 
A mare and 2 geldings for the chief hvmtsmen 67/. 16s., and 2 

geldings 37/. 10s. 6d. 
New saddles, bridles, and other furniture for the accustomary new 

sets of sadlers' wares allowed yearly by way of livery to the 

huntsmen and other attendants upon his Majesty, etc. (various 

miscellaneous sums). 
10 couples of Buckhounds 52/. 10s. For freight and other charges 

in sending to Hanover 5 horses, 10 couples of Buckhounds, and 

a Spanish pointing spaniel, 100/. 7s. 
Cost of 10 couples of Buckhounds 42/. 10s. (E. 33.) 
To the widdow and children of Wm. Lowen, late chief huntsman, 

100/. ; of Edward Ives, late yeoman pricker, 40/. ; and of 

Robert Webb, harbinger, 20/. ; being hLs Majesty's allowance 

in lieu of all other pretensions whatsoever, by warrant dated 

the 31st of May, 1725-160/. 



ABSENCE OP HUNTING INTELLIGENCE. 257 

To the several keepers of Windsor and Epping Forests for their fees 
for deer killed by his Majesty's hounds between the 10th of 
February, 1721-2, and the 25th of December, 1725, viz., 105 
stags at 40s. each, 19 hinds at 20s. each, and 23 bucks and 2 
does at 10s. each, by virtue of a warrant under the royal sign 
manual dated the 25th of October, 1721— 24H. 10s. 

To Charles Howard for the hire of teams of horses and men, and 
other expenses in removing stags and hinds from the paddock 
at Kensington to Swinley-rail walk in Windsor Forest in the 
year 1725— 57^. (R 33.) 

To Mr. Wm. Lowen for hay for the deer at New Lodge, Windsor 
Forest, from Midsummer 1713 to Midsummer 1717—219/. 16s. 
{Treasury Papers Letter Book, vol. xvi., p. 321.) 

Now, as to the sporting element. There are very few 
allusions to the proceedings of the Royal Buckhounds in the 
hunting fields to be found in the literary chronicles of those 
times. As in the past, political troubles militated, indeed we 
may say " crowded out," intelligence of passing events bearing 
upon our subject. Hence for the first two seasons following 
after the accession of George I. hardly a single word transpires 
upon the hunting of this pack. If the King ever went out with 
the Buckhounds the circumstance would probably be mentioned 
in the newspapers at the time, but they are absolutely mute 
on any such subject. Nevertheless George I. was a fairly 
good rider to hounds ; but, as we sliall subsequently have 
occasion to record, he showed a marked predilection for the 
chase in his native country in preference to that of his new 
kingdom. During the time that the ministers were carrying 
their measures in Parliament they had to struggle with the 
King's impatience to revisit his German dominions. It was 
in vain that his confidential advisers pointed out to him the 
unpopularity that must attend, and the dangers that might 
follow, his departure at such a crisis : their resistance only 
chafed instead of curbing his Majesty, and at length the 
ministers let go the bridle. In his absence the Prince of Wales 
was appointed Guardian of the Realm instead of Regent, an 
oflSce unknown in England since the days of the Black Prince. 

17 



258 HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

At this time the Prince of Wales occupied Hampton Court 
Palace, where he principally held his court during his father's 
absence in the autumn of the year 1716. Although the season 
for buck hunting opened on Midsummer Day, the first inkling 
of it did not appear until the 21st of August, when it was 
announced that his Royal Highness and several of the nobility 
and gentry were then enjoying the chase in the vicinity of 
Windsor Forest. The following week the meets were held in 
Richmond Park, and in the ensuing one the Prince was hard 
again hunting at Windsor, where " a great concourse of nobility 
attend him." About the same time the King was reported to 
be hunting at Gohrde, Hanover. 

During the buck hunting season of 1717 the King was in 
England. On July 9 it was publicly announced that " Richard 
Barker, Esq., was made Master of his Majesty's Buckhounds," * 
but, if true, it was not ratified nor ever ofiicially confirmed. 
On the 19th the King went to Hampton Court, where he 
continued on and off the premises till towards the middle of 
September. While the court remained there a post went twice 
a day from London. Open house was kept for those who had 
business to transact, and something akin to regal state un- 
expectedly broke out. It is not our province to pursue the 
diurnal of this royal visit, except on occasions when it was 
associated with hunting. Unfortunately no news of the chase 
occurs until September 9, when the King " hunted in Windsor 
Forest and killed a brace of bucks, and afterwards dined at 
Cranborn Lodge, belonging to the late Earl of Ranelagh." At 
the end of the month the King and Court " departed hence " 
for Newmarket. 

Turning from the King's Court to its rival held by the Prince 
of Wales, it is somewhat satisfactory to notice that, although the 
King and the Prince were at daggers drawn on political issues, 
they were on good terms in the hunting field. Alexander Pope, 
in a letter to Miss Martha Blount, dated September 13, 1717, 
tells his fair correspondent that he had recently encountered 
at Hampton Court the Prince with all the maids of honour on 
* " The Historical Register," vol. ii. [iv.],- Chrou. Table, p. 30. 



IN FAVOUR WITH THE FAIR SEX. 259 

horseback coming from hunting. He adds, " to eat Westphalia 
ham in a mornincj, ride over hedo^es and ditches on borrowed 
hacks, come home in the heat of the day with a fever, and 
(what is worse a hundred times) with a red mark in the fore- 
head from an uneasy hat ! all this may qualify them to make 
excellent wives for foxhunters and bear abundance of ruddy- 
complexioned children." Thus we learn that the fair sex con- 
tinued to follow the royal hounds as they were wont in past 
and future times.* 

1718. — August 28. The King went from Hampton Court to 
Windsor to hunt. October 3 : " Stormy weather prevents the 
King hunting and shooting as he frequently do's at other times." 
In September the Prince of Wales and his children were at 
Richmond. On bad terms with his father. Rival courts very 
factious. Servants of the Prince's children not allowed to 
wear scarlet liveries ; only yellow ones permitted, " according to 
precedent." — 1719. The King absent in Hanover during the 
buckhunting season. Prince of Wales and family at Rich- 
mond. Not a word about hunting.— 1720. The King absent 
in Hanover. July : the Pi'ince at Richmond. His court, 
attended by great numbers of the nobility and gentry, " which 
brings prodigious profit to the country people thereabouts." 
No hunting intelligence, nor, for that matter, of anything 
except the South Sea Bubble, which was now in full cry. 
Every one gambled in this specious swindle. Folks begged, 
borrowed and stole to dabble in the myth. Everything upon 
which the wind could be raised was pawned to invest in the 

* " Yesterday-Night, the Prince diverted himself with Hunting about 
Hampton Court, where he kill'd a Buck. He was accompanied by several 
Ladies on Horseback, who took part in the Diversion." — The Weekly Journal 
or Uritish Gazetteer, Saturday, August 31, 1717. 

"On Monday the King diverted himself with Hunting in Bushy Park near 
Hampton- Court, after which His Majesty, alighting from his Horse, walked 
above three Miles, with a Fowling- Piece in his Hand, and kill'd several Braces 
of Partridges flying." — Ibid., September 14. 

" On Saturday the Prince hunted a Buck in Windsor Forest. The Buck run 
as far as Staines, where he was killed. On Sunday the Earl of Roseberry 
carried the Sword of State before his Majesty to the Chapel Royal at Hampton 
Court, where Dr. Holland preached." — Ibid., September 14. 



260 HISTOEY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

stock— hounds and horses included.* The Jews made their 
first appearance on the turf, and came through the ordeal 
with credit, Baron Schwartz and Mr. Gomes Arras having 
carried off the principal honours at Epsom. — 1721. The King 
at Hampton Court for the summer season ; the Prince at Rich- 
mond. No hunting news. — 1722. In September George I. 
paid his first formal visit to Windsor Castle. No reference 
to hunting. — 1723. The King reported to be hunting in 
Hanover. The Prince held his court at Richmond during the 
buck-hunting season, but no details of the sport transpire. 
It seems, however, that the Royal Buckhounds pretty 
frequently hunted in the vicinity of Windsor and Epping 
Forests. 

In July 1724 it was publicly announced that several fine 
hunting horses were bought for his Majesty, who intended 
going to Windsor to reside there for some time, " to take the 
diversion of stag-hunting." This state visit was postponed 
until the 14th of the ensuing month, when his Majesty, 
accompanied by " the young princesses," arrived at the Castle. 
In the meantime an installation of the Garter was held there, 
the first of this reign, which was largely attended. " Never 
was such a scene of roguery carried on in so short a space, 
and with such wonderful dexterity ; for, in short, allmost 
everybody was robbed, and yet nobody in particular seen or 
suspected of doing it." On the first Sunday after his arrival 
at the Castle the King dined there in public, " when a great 
number of the country people came thither, and were admitted 
to see his Majesty at dinner." During this royal sojourn the 
King, " attended with divers of the nobillity and other persons," 
frequently went shooting and coursing in the Great Park and 
Forest. On August 27 his Majesty was reported to be " shoot- 
ing from 8 in the morning till almost 5 in the afternoon" 
— the royal bag comprising the sum total of 2^ brace of 
pheasants and 1^ brace of partridges. On September 5, 

* " They write from Newmarket that several of the fine Race Horses have 
been converted into Notes and Specie for their more convenient Running in 
Change-Alley." — The Weekly Journal, July 2, 1720. 



DEAETH OF HUNTING INTELLIGENCE, KEIGN OF GEOKGE I. 261 

the King, accompanied by the "young princesses," and all the 
Court officials, paid a visit to, and dined with, the Earl of 
Orkney at Cliefden. On his return, all the villages through 
which the Iloyal cortege passed were illuminated ; and, on 
entering the Home Park, it was met there by the inhabitants 
of the Royal Borough, who turned out en masse, and thence 
His Majesty, T.R.H., and suite, were conducted to the Castle 
surrounded by a torch-light procession, which is described to 
have produced a novel and picturesque effect. We cannot find 
the slightest allusion to hunting, from his arrival at Windsor 
till his departure for Kensington on October 1, "in perfect 
health." 

In 1725 the Ministry submitted a royal message to Parlia- 
ment, requiring 508,367/. 19s. 4(i., to discharge the debts of 
the Civil List. This enormous arrear had been incurred in 
the short space of three years, because, as the message stated, 
his Majesty had found it impossible to make any considerable 
retrenchments. The nation was amazed at this demand, but, 
notwithstanding Pulteney's plucky protest, the grant was 
passed by 239 votes against 119. Probably not one farthing 
of this sum went into the King's pocket; most of it was 
gobbled up by the corrupt administrators of the state and 
their hungry hangers-on. At any rate, the only arrears out- 
standing on account of the Royal Buckhounds were for one 
year and a quarter, amounting to 1250/. Consequently this 
department of the Civil List was free from extravagance and 
innocent of peculation. Disgusted with the management of 
state affairs in his new dominions, which he could not under- 
stand, George L left England for Hanover in August. He 
spent most of the ensuing month hunting at Gohrde, in the 
company of Prince Friedrich and some of the English nobility 
of his suite. There the chase usually commenced at 7 a.m. 
and continued till 5 p.m. 

In the meantime the Prince of Wales had proceeded to 
Richmond, where he held his court amid the most enjoyable 
surroundings. As usual, hardly an item of hunting intelli- 
gence was mentioned in the chronicles of the time; nevertheless 



262 HISTOKY OF THE KOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

there is ample reason to believe that the Royal Buckhounds 
were showing good sport. 

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, in a letter to the Countess 
of Mar, tells her that at this time she rode a good deal, and 
had " got a horse superior to any two-legged animal, he being 
without a fault." In another epistle to the Countess she says : 
" I think this is the first time in my life that a letter of yours 
has lain by me two posts unanswered. You'll wonder to hear 
that short silence is occasioned by not having a moment un- 
employed at Twickenham ; but I pass many hours on horse- 
back, and I'll assure you, ride stag-hunting, which I know 
you'll stare to hear of. I have arrived to vast courage and 
skill that way, and I am as well pleased with it as with the 
acquisition of a new sence : his Royal Highness hunts in 
Richmond Park, and I make one of the heau ononde in his 
train. I desire you after this account," she humorously 
adds, " not to name the word old woman to me any more : I 
approach to fifteen nearer than I did ten years ago, and am in 
hopes to improve every year in health and vivacity." Thus, 
in the sixty-fourth year of her age this accomplished lady first 
took to ride to hounds ; with what result the modesty of her 
letter is commendably silent. 

On July 30, 1726, it was announced that Colonel Negus 
had sent several sets of horses to Windsor, and that other 
preparations were making for his Majesty's going thither in 
a little time. However, the projected royal sojourn at the 
Castle was eventually abandoned. The King went to Hampton 
Court instead ; and thence, during a short visit, made shooting 
excursions to Bushey and Richmond Parks. The Prince held 
his court at Richmond, which was probably still associated 
with the Royal Buckhounds during his sojourn there in the 
hunting season. Although no records of the sport leak out, 
there is nevertheless one circumstance mentioned which 
establishes the fact that the pack must have been in a 
working way — viz., the races at Ascot by horses " that stag- 
hunted with the King's hounds." And, during the last four 
seasons, 147 sjbags and hinds had been hunted with the pack. 



GEOKGE I. AS A SPORTSMAN. 263 

On June 3, 1727, the King set out for Hanover, ac- 
companied by the Duchess of Kendal, Lord Townshend, and 
suite. On the 9th the royal travellers arrived at Delden, the 
King apparently being in perfect health, as he resumed his 
journey at 4 a.m. next morning. But as he was travelling 
that forenoon he was seized with an apoplectic fit in his coach, 
and was dead in a few hours afterwards. Thus suddenly 
closed his chequered and eventful, but, on the whole, pros- 
perous and indulgent reign. Like William of Orange, George 
the First was brought hither to fill the English throne by a 
political faction mainly for their own purposes. He had no 
sympathy with the inhabitants of these islands, whose manners 
and customs he could not understand and whose language he 
could not speak. He was to all practical intents and purposes 
a mere puppet in the hands of his unprincipled ministers. 
Many hard things have been said of George I., a few of which 
may be true. Most of them are foul calumny. It is absurd 
for us to accuse him of callousness or indifference in connection 
with the exalted station we compelled him, much against his 
inclination, to fulfil. We were alone to blame in the matter ; 
if things did not turn out to our liking, why, serve us right. 
Without his crown and sceptre George I. was not a bad fellow. 
He was a good sportsman, though his conception of sport was 
not our sport. Evidently he intended to participate in the 
pleasures of the chase at the time when he built the New or 
Stone Lodge in Richmond Park, from a design by the Earl 
of Pembroke, with the intention to use it as a villa venatica, 
"after the fatigues of the chase." He was a good judge of 
a horse ; liked racing, but disliked the surrounding of our 
racecourses. He won the first race in which any of his 
horses ran — i.e., in the Plate of 50^. at Guildford, on Tuesday, 
June 5, 1715, for which six horses competed ; and he named 
the winner before the start. He never saw this horse before, 
did not know to whom it belonged, and picked it out as the 
best of the lot solely from knowledge of horseflesh. True, he 
discontinued the gold cups which were given to be run for 
in Queen Anne's reign ; but in lieu of them he gave several 



264 HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

sums of 100 guineas annually, to be run for on different 
courses throughout the Three Kingdoms. It is bootless to 
inquire why he did not fill up the office of Master of the 
Buckhounds ; perhaps he did not understand what it meant. 
His belief was that as every general should lead his own forces 
to battle, so also every sportsman should be his own huntsman ; 
and if we cannot gainsay it, wherefore complain ? 

Turning from the royal and noble celebrities associated with 
the Buckhounds in those days, we must pay a brief tribute 
to " the common people," who, according to the old chronicler, 
were steadfast followers of the pack almost from time imme- 
morial. During the reigns of George I. and George II. these 
" common people " — the merchant princes of the city, the 
lawyers, the doctors, the clergy, and the rich though humble 
bagman, mounted on the now obsolete "nag," on which he 
travelled, on business thoughts intent, throughout the land- 
rarely missed a favourable opportunity of hunting with the 
Royal Buckhounds. Among, and at the head of, the metro- 
politan patrons of the Hunt was Humphrey Parsons, twice 
Lord Mayor of London. His prowess in the saddle, and his 
ability in the hunting-field, was not only notorious among 
the followers of the pack ; it was recognised on the Continent, 
and, in fact, his reputation as an intrepid rider extended to 
every part of Europe wherever hunting men might chance 
to congregate. Towards the end of the reign of George I. 
Humphrey Parsons became very conspicuous through an 
incident which took place when he was hunting with the 
staghounds of Louis XV. in the forest of Fontainebleau, in 
the month of September 1725. On this occasion we are told 
that Alderman Parsons, " being mounted on a spirited English 
horse, contrary to the etiquette of the French Court, out- 
stripped the rest of the field, and was first in at the death. 
The King inquiring who the gentleman was, one of his adula- 
tory attendants indignantly answered that he was Un Ghevalier 
de Malte. The King, however, entering into conversation 
with Alderman Parsons, asked the price of his horse, which 
the Ghevalier, with true politeness, answered that it was 



ALDEEMAN HUMPHEEY PARSONS. 265 

beyond any price otherwise than His Majesty's acceptance. 
The King could not resist the acquisition of so perfect a 
hunter, even upon such terms ; consequently, it was duly 
delivered at the Royal Stables. As a quid ])ro quo, Louis XV. 
gave Alderman Parsons — who was a famous brewer — an ex- 
clusive monopoly "of serving the French nation with his 
Extract of Matte" yclept in the vernacular " London Stout." 
It further transpired that in the course of this novel audience 
in the forest of Fontainebleau, that His Most Christian 
Majesty asked Alderman Parsons if all the Aldermen of 
London were as good sportsmen. We have not heard what 
the answer was, but we can vouch that at least the then 
Alderman of the Ward of Farringdon Without, Sir Francis 
Child, was a thorough sportsman, and fairly rivalled Alderman 
Parsons in the hunting-field. The former, however, prin- 
cipally patronised the Cit}^ Hunt, which gave grand sport 
at this time (and, in fact, during the whole period it was led 
by Mr. Cuttenden, the " Common Hunt," from the time of his 
appointment to that office in September 1723 onward), and 
was rarely out with the Royal Buckhounds except when the 
latter pack hunted in Epping Forest. On those occasions, at 
Sir Francis Child's house at Brentwood, there usually assem- 
bled a large number of hunting men who {'inore civitatus) 
were regaled with a sumptuous banquet — the menu, the side 
dishes and the wines being circumstantially described by the 
intelligencers of the period ; but, sad to say, never a word 
transpires relating to the runs. Although Alderman Parsons 
was a " common person " according to the supercilious ethics 
of " great " folks and centurions of those and later times, he 
could, nevertheless, boast of a pedigree dating from the Anglo- 
Saxon era. He was a good linguist, and could adapt himself 
to any society at home or abroad. He was a fine type of the 
metropolitan followers of the Royal Buckhounds of his day. 
His portrait, in hunting attire, is a rare and interesting sou- 
venir of the chase of the early Georgian era. He was M.P. for 
London ; served as Sheriff with Sir Francis Child in 1722 ; 
was Lord Mayor of London in 1730 (Sir Richard Brocas 



26(5 HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

having preceded, and Sir Francis Child succeeding, him in 
the civic chair) ; and was again Lord Mayor of London in 
174L He died on March 21 in that year, lamented by all who 
had the pleasure of his acquaintance. 

As to Ascot Races — which were first instituted in connection 
with the Royal Buckhounds in the reign of Queen Anne — 
there is very little doubt attending the assumption that those 
meetings had taken place annually during the reign of 




Alderman Parsons in Hunting Attire. 



George I. Unfortunately we are unable to follow the annals 
of those races succinctly year by year. Nevertheless, some 
news of them was occasionally recorded by the chroniclers 
of those days. Thus we ascertain that on August 15 and 16, 
1720, two Plates of 30 guineas were announced to be run 
for " on Ascott-Heath, in AVindsor Forest," by hunters " used 
in hunting 12 months last past," which had never run for 
money or plate. The horses were to carry 11 stone on the 



ASCOT EACES. 267 

first day, and 12 stone on the second day. They were to be 
entered " with Barlow, in Hatchet Lane," prior to August 8. 
The entrance fee was 2 guineas, or 4 guineas if entered at 
the starting post; but a "contributor" (to previous races of 
this sort ?) had only to pay 1 guinea, " the entrance money 
to go to the second winning horse," The result of these two 
races has not transpired. 

Early in August 1722 it was announced that " Forty 
Guineas " were " to be run for on Askott Heath, the 18th 
Instant, by Horses that have Stag-hunted in Epping or 
Windsor Forest with the King's hounds before the 2nd 
Instant, and have never won Five Pounds, to carry 11 Stone, 
three times round the four Miles Course at one Heat ; to be 
entered at John Tempiro's at Sunning-Hill Wells, on Friday 
the 17th Instant; the Subscribers to pay one Guinea Entrance, 
no Subscriber two, or four at the Post ; the Stakes to go to 
the second Horse." The result of this race has not been pre- 
served, at least so far as our researches can penetrate the 
obscurity by which it is environed. 

Fortunately, in 1724 and 1726, although we miss the " card," 
we find the winners. On Mondaj^ July 11, 1724, the first 
Stag-Hunters' Plate of 30 guineas was won by Mr. Darby's 
Clubfoot; "next day the Lord Harry Beauclair's Puppet won 
the second of 20/." On Monday, August 8, 1726, the " stag- 
hunters' plate of forty guineas was run for on Ascot Heath, and 
won by Mr. Meggott's chestnut mare, carrying twelve stone " ; 
and on the following day a Plate of 30 guineas was run for 
and won by Sir Thomas Reynolds' chestnut horse, carrying 
10 stone. 



268 HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 



CHAPTER XIII. 
GEORGE 11. (1727—1732). 

Colonel Francis Negus, Thirty-sixth Master: June 11, 1727, to September 9, 
1732. — Annual Cost of the Pack. — Records of the Runs from 1728 to 1732. 
— Ascot Races. 

The circumstances attending the accession of George II. are 
more or less detailed in all the standard works published on 
the history of England, which see. With the political sur- 
roundings recorded therein we have very little concern, 
consequently we shall confine ourselves to the reconstruction 
of the Royal Household so far as it bears upon our subject. 
One of the first appointments made by George II. was that of 
the Earl of Scarborough to fill the long-vacant office of Master 
of the Horse, which was received with acclaim. The intelli- 
gence produced exuberant delight at the Royal Mews, where 
the effigy of the Duchess of Kendal was burnt amid great 
rejoicings. The Earl was very popular with every one who 
had the pleasure of his acquaintance. He was a great favourite 
with the new King, by whom he was presented with a 
warrant on the Jewel Ofiice to receive, by virtue of his ofiice, 
1,000 ounces of silver plate, " the same to be made into such 
articles and after such fashion as his Lordship shall direct." 
The next important office in the Household, which was prac- 
tically vacant during the whole of the preceding reign, was 
the Mastership of the Buckhounds. To fill this post Colonel 
Francis Negus was apparently promoted on the very day of 
the King's accession. Although we have not been able to 
find the warrant of his appointment to the office of Master 
of the Buckhounds, we know beyond doubt he received the 



ANNUAL COST OF THE PACK — ASCOT RACES. 269 

stipend of that post from June 11, 1727, "by virtue of an 
Establishment under His Majesty's sign manual dated Decem- 
ber 20, 1727." The established allowance of this office was 
now fixed at 2,341^. per annum, out of which the Master had 
to defray all the ordinary charges of the pack from year to 
year. Some other incidents relating to his appointment are 
mentioned in our brief memoir of this Master, consequently 
we may leave him here for the present to follow his doings at 
the head of the Royal Buckhounds. 

Partly owing to the Court being in mourning, political 
affairs, and the domestic arrangements of the Royal Family, 
no formal meetings of the Royal Buckhounds appear to have 
taken place in the season of 1727. Nevertheless we have 
official authority showing that at least 18 stags, 8 hinds, and 
4 bucks had been hunted by the pack. Assuming each of 
those deer gave more than one run the sport must have been 
fairly good. Another proof of the popularity of the hunt, even 
in the unavoidable absence of royalty, is derived by the 
circumstance that on July 81 a plate of forty guineas was run 
for at Ascot, by such horses as had, during the season, carried 
their owners to the death of a leash of stags in Windsor 
Forest, twelve stone each ; which race was won by Mr. 
Walter's grey horse Hobler, beating four others. For some 
reason or other the King evinced reluctance to inhabit Windsor 
Castle, and in the hunting seasons usually occupied, when he 
was in England, Hampton Court Palace and Richmond Lodge. 
As we have already seen, the latter was his local habitation 
and his home in summer, during his father's reign. In those 
days Richmond Lodge was quite unworthy to be occupied by 
any member of the Royal Family of the greatest nation in the 
world. The situation was good, the park charming, the house 
a wretched place swarming with vermin.* It went from bad 

* " Kichmond House having been very much pestered with vermin, one John 
Humphries, a famous Eat Physician, was sent for Dorsetshire by the Princess, 
through the Recommendation of the Marchioness of Hertford, who collected 
together above five hundred rats in His Royal Highnesses' Palace, which he 
brought alive to Leicester House, as a proof of his art in that waj."—Brice's 
Weekly Journal, No. 29. 



270 HISTORY OF THE EGYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

to worse, and was only tolerated now pending the projected 
improvements and enlargements designed to be carried out 
thereon. 

In June 1728 the King paid intermittent visits to Richmond, 
and on the 8th of that month it was publicly announced 
" that His Majesty designs to take the diversion of Hunting 
in Windsor Forest in the month of August." The Prince of 
Wales- — who subsequently became a staunch follower of the 
Royal pack^ — was languishing in a sort of political exile in 
Hanover. His Royal Highness was now expected " home." 
There was much ado, and little done, about arranoino^ his 
establishment ; and beyond the appointment of twenty-two 
livery servants belonging to the late King's stables, who had 
been discharged upon the setting up of the Household, were 
now taken into the service of His Royal Highness, no further 
steps were taken in that direction. On July 4 the King and 
most of the Ro3'al Family arrived at Hampton Court, and on 
the 14th they dined in public for the first time. All comers 
were admitted into the banqueting room. The pressure of 
the public caused the rail surrounding the table to break, 
whereby many persons fell in upon the Royal Family, when 
the scramble for hats and wigs caused much diversion, " at 
which their Majesties laughed heartily." This incident shows, 
and subsequent ones prove, that the Royal Family were very 
affable, and did not disdain to mingle with the masses durinij 
the hunting seasons with the Royal Buckhounds. 

Great preparations were being made, in the meantime, at 
Windsor against the opening day, which was fixed for June 27, 
at Hounslow Heath. The rendezvous was attended by the 
King and the Royal Family. His Majesty and the elder 
princesses were on horseback, the Queen in a calash and 
single horse, " in the same manner as Queen Anne used to 
hunt in Windsor Forest." There was a large attendance at 
the meet ; unfortunately no news of the run transpired. 

Hounslow, August 1, was the next fixture at which the 
King was present. 

August 3, Richmond Park. — Their Majesties, Duke of 



EECOKDS OF THE EUNS. 271 

Cumberland, and the Princesses, attended by a great con- 
course of the nobility and gentry, hunted a stag, which was 
killed " after four hours' sport." The Royal party were very 
affable with the country people, " by conversing with them and 
ordering them money." The highwaymen were very atten- 
tive, some of the fraternity hunting belated hunting men 
even within the sacred precincts of Windsor Park ! Owing to 
the death of Prince Ernest Augustus of Brunswick, the King's 
uncle, the Court went into mourning, and no hunting took 
place until Saturday, August 17, which was a red-letter day 
in the annals of the Royal pack. Between 10 and 11 o'clock 
'Hheir Majesties, together with His Royal Highness the Duke, 
and their Royal Highnesses the Princesses, came to the new 
park by Richmond from Hampton Court, and diverted them- 
selves with hunting a stag, which ran from 11 to 1, when he 
took the Great Pond, and defended liimself for about half an 
hour, when, being killed and brought out by the help of a 
boat, the huntsman sounded the French horns. The skin was 
taken off, and the carcase given to the dogs. His Majesty, 
the Duke, and the Princesses Royal hunted on horseback; 
Her Majesty and the Princess Amelia hunted in a four-wheel 
chaise, and the Princess Carolina in a two-wheel chaise, and 
the Princesses Mary and Louisa were in a coach. Several 
of the nobility attended, and among them Sir Robert Walpole, 
clothed in green as Ranger. When the diversion was over, 
their Majesties, the Duke, and the Princesses refreshed them- 
selves on the spot with a cold collation (as did the nobility at 
some distance of time after), and soon after two in the after- 
noon returned for Hampton Court.'" 

Saturday, August 31, Sunbury Common. — Their Majesties 
and the rest of the Royal Family present. The stag took 
them across the Thames, and was killed in the Eail of Lincoln's 
park, after a chase of several hours. The Princess Royal 
came to grief, " but received no hurt." 

Saturday, September 7. — Sir Robert Walpole and several 
noblemen " diverted Count Kinski,* the Imperial Ambassador, 

* Count Philip de Kinski was at this time the Austrian Ambassador to our Court. 



272 HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCK HOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

with Hunting in Richmond Park. The King's Buckhounds, 
being out of order they made use of Lord Viscount Palmer- 
ston's [harriers], and between 9 and 12 o'clock they Kill'd 
2 brace of Hares." On this day the King, Queen, and Royal 
family paid their first State visit to Windsor Castle. " They 
went in the Park Way to the great Disappointment of the 
Mayor, Aldermen and Burgesses, &c., who were ready to receive 
them in their Formalities " at the State entrance. The next 
day their Majesties " dined in Publick as they will continue to 
do during their stay." The Castle was refurnished for this 
royal sojourn ; among other necessaries one hundred new beds 
were put up for the servants. 

Saturday, September 14, The Little Park. — The King, 
Queen, and all the Royal Family, attended by an immense 
concourse of nobility and gentry, roused a stag, which was 
killed about nine miles from Windsor. In honour of the 
occasion — it was Holy Rood Day — an elk was uncarted, and 
gave a brilliant run, which was worthy of the festival. " The 
sport was not over till 8 in the Evening when their Majesties 
returned to the Castle." The Royal Family were said to be 
well pleased with Windsor. " The Right Hon. Sir Robert 
Walpole is sending over to His Royal Highness Prince 
Fredrick a Hunting Suit made after the English manner"; 
and the Lord Chief Justice in Eyre presented Prince William 
with " a fine hunting horse." 

On Saturday, September 21 and 28, their Majesties and all 
the Royal Family at Windsor followed the Buckhounds, and 
" were exceedingly diverted with that exercise." 

Saturday, October 5. — Through some mistake their 
Majesties lost sight of the stag for three hours, and only 
cut in at the death. 

Wednesday, October 9. — Their Majesties, accompanied by the 
Duke of Grafton, Sir Robert Walpole, " and many others of 
the Nobility and Quality hunted about Windsor Forest for 
several Hours, till the rain coming on, when their Majesties 
returned to the Castle to Dinner without having killed the 
stag." At this banquet the 2^iece de resistance consisted of 



EECOKDS OF THE EUNS ASCOT EACES. 273 

three herring-pies, which were presented, according to the 
ancient custom, by the Mayor, Aldermen, and Capital Bur- 
gesses of the town of Great Yarmouth, according to the 
charter of that corporation. 

Saturday, October 12, was the last meet of the season at 
which the Royal Family assisted. 

According to the official certificate 31 stags were provided 
to give sport with the pack during the season. 

On Monday, October 14, the Staghunters' Plate was run for 
at Ascot. It was won by Colonel Negus' Grey Turk, beating 
Brigadier Honeywood's Marks Hall, Mr. Hankey's Foxhunter, 
and Mr. Yark's Hopeless. None of the Royal Family were 
present, they having arrived at St. James' for the winter 
season on the day in question. 

1729. — At the opening of the hunting season of 1729 the King 
was absent in Hanover. The Queen was somewhat indisposed. 
The Prince of Wales had recently returned, after a long exile 
in Hanover, to assume his proper position in England, in which 
he acquitted himself as well as could have been expected. 

When Frederick Prince of Wales arrived " home " from 
Hanover there were many expressions of public joy and local 
congratulations upon this untoward event. For some reason 
not very clear, but probably to gratify the Hanoverian party, 
the young Prince had never been allowed to visit England in 
the lifetime of George I. He now came over at the age of 
twenty-one, a pledge of the Protestant succession, and not 
without qualities to captivate the multitude, who were prone 
to love an heir-apparent better than a King. Unfortunately 
this fair prospect was clouded and darkened by faction. A 
corrupt clique of Jacks-in-office soon induced Fred to follow 
his father's example in caballing against his sire, and thus 
embittered what would have otherwise proved many pleasant 
days with the Royal Buckhounds. The Civil List was now 
in arrears, alleged to amount to 115,000^.; and although it was 
afterwards proved there was no such deficiency, yet the 
Government of the day persevered, and carried the bogus vote 
by a large majority. 

18 



274 HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

Early in the month of August the Prince of Wales and the 
Princesses arrived at Richmond. The King was in Hanover. 
The first meet of the Royal Buckhounds, in this brief season, 
took place in Richmond New Park on Saturdaj^ August 11, 
which was attended by Her Majesty, the Prince of Wales, the 
Duke of Cumberland, the Princess Royal, and the Princesses 
Amelia and Caroline, and a large field of all sorts and conditions 
of brave men and fair women. Notwithstanding the rain the 
run proved enjoyable ; Her Majesty, attended by the Duchess 
of Hamilton, being in at the death of the stag, and then they 
returned to Kensington to dinner. 

Thursday, August 14, Windsor Forest. — Present all the 
Royal Family (bar the Sovereign) and a large field. Short 
but fast run, and at finish all those who were up " were enter- 
tained with a magnificent dinner and a fine desert at the Lord 
Malpas's seat at Windsor." (His Lordship was Master of the 
Horse to the Prince of Wales.) The following day the King 
arrived in England ; and on Wednesday, October 2, " their 
Majesties hunted in Richmond Park " for (so far as we can 
ascertain) the last time this season. 

As appears, by the ofiicial certificate of the Master, 35 stags 
and 14 hinds were hunted by the pack in the vicinity of 
Windsor and Epping Forests during this season. 

1730. — In the month of July we find the Court at Windsor 
Castle, and the highwaymen reaping a golden harvest from 
those whom pleasure or business obliged to journey thither 
from town. Detachments of cavalry were ordered to patrol 
the road from Hyde Park Corner to Windsor in order to pro- 
tect the public. In the Forest a large body of military was 
encamped ; to each of the officers' mess the King presented a 
fat buck. The troops had very little to do beyond levelling 
the Forest and making roads in the vicinity. Those military 
roads were admirably constructed ; indeed, they soon became 
famous throughout the Three Kingdoms, and (especially in 
Ireland) still retain their reputation. Among the Royal guests 
at this time were two Indian chiefs. Their portraits were 
painted by order of the King, and at their departure he pre- 



1730 : RECOEUS OF THE EUNS. 275 

sented each of them with 100 guineas. The first mention of 
hunting was on August 1, when the Duke of Cumberland 
hunted the ram (according to ancient but brutal custom) with 
the Eton boys ; a great concourse of fathers and mothers and 
sisters and brothers being present to see the fun, which was 
very cruel " sport." It had, however, one redeeming feature. 
The cap was sent round, as usual, and a considerable sum 
collected for the College Library.* 

So far as we can ascertain, it appears that all the meets 
of the E.oyal Buckhounds which have been reported in this 
hunting season were held in the vicinity of Windsor Forest. 
The first took place on 

Saturday, August 8, at which their Majesties and the rest of 
the Royal Family were present. A stag was roused near Colonel 
Crosby's house. A good run ensued. The Koyal Family are 
said to have been in at the death, after a chase of about two 
hours. 

Saturday, August 15. — All the Royal Family present; no 
details of this run. The Prince of Wales took a liking to 
Mr. Fleetwood's " very fine hunter, which he bought for 100 
guineas," 

Saturday, August 29. — ^The King and most of the Royal 
Family hunted a stag, when " an extraordinary accident hap- 
pened. Two stags breaking herd together ran so for several 
miles, till at last the foremost (provok'd at the other's following 
him) turn'd at him, and with his brow antlers gor'd him in the 
side with such a great force, that he kill'd him on the spot. 
The other they hunted down, but carried him in a Cart to 
Sunning- hill, in order to save his life for another time, he being 
a very fine one." 

Saturday, September 5. — ^Their Majesties, the Prince of 

Wales, and the rest of the Royal Family at the meet. A stag 

was roused near the Bear and Bell ; ran to Bagshot, thence 

* No offence meant. Eton is such a swell school now that this begging 
business in her antecedents may appear to be infra dig. Kut the fact is {teste 
Charles Kingsley) all our colleges were once charity schools endowed for the 
masses, but subsequently (and in these cases, at any rate) most appropriately 
appropriated by the " classes." 



276 HISTOET OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

back to Swinley Pond, and got upon the island. The hounds 
brought him to bay there ; but he defended himself so well 
that the King spared his life. 

Wednesday, September 16. — " The Queen having some 
Eeturns of the Gout upon her, their Majesties did not hunt 
last Wednesday as usual. But the Prince of Whales put up a 
Stag at Low-Pond in the Great Park, which ran several Hours, 
and having given great satisfaction, his Royal Highness order 'd 
his Life to be spared. On Monday Sir Robert Walpole bought 
a fine Pad, and made a Present of it to the Princess Amelia." 

Saturday, September 19. — Their Majesties and "all the rest 
of the Royal Family " roused a stag at Caesar's Camp ; run 
three hours ; all in at the death. 

Early in October the Royal Family left Windsor for Rich- 
mond, and soon after returned to Kensington for the winter 
season. In the meantime some other circumstances occurred 
to which we must briefly allude. On August 30 the Earl of 
Carlisle was appointed Master of the Harriers and Foxhounds. 
This Royal pack had not been on the establishment of the 
Royal Household since the reign of James IL The revival was 
well received, as foxhunting was now becoming very popular. 
And we get the following particulars of Ascot races in connec- 
tion with the Royal Hunt : — 

To be run for by Hunters on Ascot Common, in "Windsor Forest, 
on Monday, the 31st of August, 1730, Fifty Guineas ; and on Tuesday, 
the 1st of September, Forty Guineas,by any Horses, Mares, or Geldings 
which have been or shall be at the Death of three Staggs hunted by his 
Majesty's Hounds in the Forest of Windsor, between the 1st of March 
last and the day of Running, carrying 12 Stone for the 60 Guineas, 
and 10 Stone for the 40 Guineas, the best of three Heats, each Heat 
being once round the Four Mile Course. No Horse, Mare, or 
Gelding which has won the Value of Fifty Pounds at any one Time 
in Plate or Money shall be entitled to either of the Prizes above- 
mentioned. No Horse, Mare, or Gelding now kept in training or 
feeding for running for Plates or Matches shall be entitled to run 
for either of the aforesaid Prizes, notwithstanding they may be used 
or rode as Hunters at the Death of three Stags after this Advertise- 



ASCOT EACES. 2 i I 

ment. The manner and Rules for running to be according to the 
Kules used in running for the King's Plate at New-market ; and if 
any Dispute or Difference about entring or running arise, the same 
shall be determined by the Judges of the Course, who shall be ap- 
pointed Judges by the Duke of St. Albans. The Horses, Mares, 
and Geldings designed to run must be shewn and enter'd before the 
Judges at John Tempra's, at Sunning-hill Wells, the 28th of August, 
between the Hours of Ten in the Morning and Four in the Afternoon. 
If any Subscriber enters a Horse, Mare, or Gelding he shall not pay 
any Entrance Money ; but any Person who has not shall pay two 
Guineas Entrance for the Fifty Guineas, and one Guinea for the 
Forty Guineas. 

These races were afterwards postponed to September 7 
and 8, when they took place with the following results : For 
the 50 Guinea Plate 9 horses started ; it was won bj a horse 
owned by the Duke of Newcastle, who gave his groom the 
stakes for his care and diligence, "and the Prince of Wales 
gave him 30 truineas more." The 40 Guinea Plate was won 
by Major Honeywood's mare. 

According to the certificate of the Master of the Buck- 
hounds, 48 stags were provided to give sport with the 
pack during this season, pursuant to the subjoined Royal 
Warrant : — 



Underkeep''^ of his 

Ma'' Forests for 



& Bucks w"^ his 
Ma*' Hounds 



GEORGE R. 

'Whereas we are well Informed that Our 
Roy' predecessors thought fit to allow unto 
J ^^^ Under Keep" w'^^in their Forests a Fee of 
KilF Staggs, Hmds ^q,„ ^^^ ^^^^ Stagg— 20''^ for each Hind— and 
10''^ for each Buck killed by their Stagg- 
^hounds, and that, by means thereof the said 
Under Keepers were Encouraged to be diligent in their Oftices, and 
to Harbour and preserve those Beasts of the Forest w^'in their 
respective Walks, for the Royal Sport and Diversion; Now We 
being minded to Revive the said Fees, which have been discontinued 
to be paid to the said Under Keep''^ ever since our Accession to the 
Throne, have had an account laid before Us of all the Staggs, Hinds, 
and Bucks, killed by Our Stagg- hounds between the 11th day of 



278 HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

June 1727 and the 14th day of October now last past 1730, which 
Acco* is hereupon Indorsed ; And there by it appears that there is 
due and payable unto the said Under Keep''^ whose names are speci- 
fied in the said Acco* the Sum of 286", as followeth : — For 131 
Staggs at 40^ each, 262^. ; 22 Hinds at 20^ each, 22Z. ; and 4 Bucks 
at 10^ each, %. Total, 286^. 

Our W[ill] & Pt[easure] is and We do hereby Authorize Direct 
and Requii-e you, out of any Monies coming to your hands for the 
Extra'^y Expense of Our Stables, to pay, unto the s'' Under Keep"" 
the said Sum of 286?. in full of the s** Fees, and of all Claims and 
Demands what so ever on Account thereof, from Our Accession to 
the Throne to the s*^ 14th day of Octob"" last past. And Our further 
WUl and Pleasure is that, out of the like Mo[neys] from time to 
time being and remaining in your hands; you pay unto the Under 
Keep''^ of the Walks within Our Forests yearly and every year, or 
at the end of every hunting Season in each year, so much as the 
same Fees of 40'*'' for each Stagg — 20**^ for each Hind — and 10^'' for 
each Buck shall amount unto for each Species happening to be Killed 
by our Stagg-Hounds m every such year or Hunting Season upon 
Certificates of the Numbers Killed, and the Names of the Under 
Keep''^, with their Walks, to whom the same are or shall become 
payable, to be Signed from time to time by the Ma'' of Our Buck 
Hounds for the time being or otherwise attested to your Satisfaction. 
And for so doing this with proper Acquittances for the Sums which 
shall now and from time to time be paid, pursuant to Our pleasure 
afore declared, shall be as well to you for paym' as to Ovir Aud"^** for 
Allow^ thereof from time to time upon your Acco*^, a sufficient 
Warr*. Given at Our Court at St, James's this 14th day of March 
1730 [-31] in the 4th year of Our Reign. 

By his Majesty's Command 

B. Walpole. 

G. DODINGTON. 
G. OXENDEN. 

[Lords Commissioners of the Treasury^ 

To the Earl of Scarborough, 
Ma'' of the Horse. 

Appending : — " An Account of the Staggs, Hinds, and Bucks 



THE QUARRY — LADIES IN THE FIELD. 



279 



Hunted and Killed by his Ma'^ Hounds since his Ma**' Accession to 
the 13th day of Octob'" 1730, viz., 





1727 




1728 


1729 


17.30 




S. H. 


B. 


S. H. B. 


S. H. B. 


S. H. B. 


In Windsor Great Park 






3 




3 


„ Cranborn Walks .... 




3 


1 


1 




,, Swinley Walk .... 

,, East Hampstead Walk . 

„ Bagshot Rails & Sandhurst Walks 


1 1 

2 2 

1 




1 

5 


5 .5 
1 
3 


10 
4 
6 


,, Billingbear Walk .... 


1 






1 1 


5 


„ Newlodge Walk .... 


o 2 


1 


12 


4 


8 


„ Old Windsor Walk 


2 




4 


4 


2 


„ Fan Grove Walk ... 


1 




1 


3 


3 


„ Twelve Oaks' Walk 








1 


1 


,, Eichmond Park .... 


6 2 




4 


5 2 




,, Epping Forest, viz. : — 

Epping Walk .... 
Waltham Stow Walk 








3 


4 
3 


Park Hall Portico . 








2 


2 


Hannault Walk .... 








2 


2 


Lowton Walk .... 








4 




Ongar Portico .... 








1 




Cbinkford Walk 








1 






18 8 


4 


31 


35 14 


48 



Staggs, 131 at 40^ each, 262Z. 
Hinds, 22 „ 20« „ 22^. 
Bucks, 4 „ 10^ „ 11. 

Total, 286/." 
— Treasury Records. K.W.B., vol. xxx., pp. 154-5. 

Ladies continued to indulge immoderately in the pleasures 
of the chase, and the long, fast, and furious runs with the 
Royal Buckhounds occasionally superinduced more or less 
ill effects. Thus, in August 1729, we find Lady Hervey 
writing to Mrs. Howard (soon afterwards Lady Suffolk) : " As 
your physician, I warn you against such violent exercise as 
you tell me you take. All extremes are, I believe, equally 
detrimental to the health of the human body, and especially 
to yours, whose strength, like Sampson's, lies chiefly in your 
head. If you continue your immoderate hunting, depend 
upon it, it will prove prejudicial to your constitution, as I 
find it does to my entertainment, and will in time rob you 
of as much satisfaction as it has already deprived me of." 



280 HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

Lady Sutfolk, in a familiar letter to Mr. Gay (the poet) 
dated Jul}^ .31, 1730, tells him that the ladies of the Court 
" hunt with great noise and violence, and have every day a 
very tolerable chance to have a neck brok." Lord Chester- 
field, writing to her Ladyship, August 17, 1733, pays an 
unintentional compliment to the popularity of the hunt, which 
the pompous cynic says, " give the lie to those who complain 
of the uncertainty and instability of courts, since the same 
joyous recreations have, for these sixteen revolving years, been 
steadily pursued without interruption." 

173L — About the middle of July the King and the Royal 
Family arrived at Hampton Court Palace, where great pre- 
parations were being made for the projected Royal progress 
to York. This journey was soon after abandoned, to the great 
disappointment of the good folks in those parts, who had made 
elaborate preparations to give the Royal Family a welcome 
worthy of the occasion. The first meet of the Royal Buck- 
hounds was announced to take place on July 28 in Windsor 
Forest, " weather permitting "•; and on August 4 and 7 Bushy 
Park was the fixture. Beyond these bare announcements no- 
thing further transpires. In the meantime, the hunting horses, 
used by the Royal Family in the chase, were being exercised 
and got into proper fettle ; * the deer well looked after, and 
poachers, when taken, were punished with extreme severity.f 

* " Last Thursday (July 29) one James Varo, a helper to his Majesty's grooms, 
was riding a grey horse, called Walker, in Bushy-park, which his Majesty 
generally used to ride a hunting : the horse started, and ran full speed against 
the pallisades before the Lord Hallifax's house, with such force, that he dash'd 
his brains out, and died immediately, and threw the rider on the spikes, where 
he hung a considerable time, but received little damage. A swan in the 
L. Hallifax's canal flew out of the water at the horse, who thereupon took 
flight. The same swan some time before flew at his Royal Highness, but did 
his Eoyal Highness no hurt." 

•(■ " On Sunday last John Nun and Baptist Nun, his brother, keepers of 
Windsor great and little parks, went with a complaint to Hampton Court, 
viz., That the two men condemned at the late Assizes for the county of Berks, 
for Deer stealing, had threaten'd their lives in case they should obtain a pardon, 
which they were in hopes of procuring, through the intercession of a Nobleman. 
The said Malafactors have since been ordered for Execution.'' — Grvh-street 
Journal, August 19. 1731. [They were executed at Reading on the evening 
of Friday, October 7, following.] 



1731 : EECOEDS OF THE KUNS. 281 

Saturday August 14, Richmond Park. — The King, Queen, 
Prince of Wales, Duke of Cumberland, the Princesses Amelia 
and Caroline, accompanied by several lords and ladies, " took 
the Divershon of Hunting for the first time this Season." A 
stag was roused in Fan Grove. "In the midst of the sport, 
Sir Robert Walpole's fell just before the Queen's chaise and 
threw him in the dust, but he was soon remounted, and Her 
Majesty ordered him to bleed, by way of precaution. When 
the staof was run down, the King commanded the hounds to 
be call'd off." 

Saturday, August 21, Richmond. — Their Majesties and the 
Royal Family, attended by the Earls of Scarborough and 
Grantham, Lord Malpas, and several other persons of dis- 
tinction, roused a stag at Fan Grove ; and after a chase of 
about three hours returned to Hampton Court. On the 
following Tuesday night " some rogues got into Richmond 
New Park where their Majesties hunt, and breaking one of 
the Sluices belonging to the Pond, let all the water out, to 
the great inconvenience of the deer." 

Wednesday, August 25, Richmond.- -The King, Queen, 
Duke of Cumberland, Princesses Amelia and Mary, and a 
large field arrived at the meet in the New Park. The 
Princess Amelia was thrown from her horse, but she received 
no hurt. Hon. Mr. Fitz- William, Page of Honour to His 
Majesty, also came to grief. Her Majesty and the Princess 
Mary on wheels were in at the death of the stag, after a good 
run of two hours. The Princess Royal was absent nursing 
the Prince of Wales, who was ill. 

Saturday, August 28, Richmond. " On Saturday morning 
last the King, Queen, the Duke, and the Princesses, together 
with divers of the Nobility and Quality went again a stag- 
hunting in the New Park near Richmond. The Lord Dela- 
ware's Lady and the Lady Harriot d'Auverquerque, Daughter 
to the Earl of Grantham, had the misfortune to be overturned 
in a Chaise, which fell with such violence, that the shafts 
were broken, and the Chaise went over the Ladies ; but 
providentually they escaped any visible Hurt. Mr. Shorter, 



282 HISTOEY OF THE KOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

one of the King's Huntsmen, had a Fall from his Horse, and 
received a slight Contusion on his head. The Stag was lost 
five Several Times : Their Majesties, together in a Chaise, and 
the Duke on Horseback, having hunted between three and 
four hours left the Field at One o'Clock ; but the Princesses 
and Col. Negus continued the Chase for an Hour longer, and 
killed the Stag." 

Saturday, September 11, Richmond. — All the Royal Family, 
except the Princesses Mary and Louisa, accompanied by several 
persons of distinction and a large field, hunted a stag from the 
New Park. The run warmed up with a kill about two o'clock, 
when the Royal Family returned to Hampton Court to dinner. 

Wednesday, September 15, Richmond. — The Duke of 
Cumberland, the Princess Royal, and the Princess Amelia, 
with several persons of quality and distinction, roused a stag 
in the New Park. During the run the stag charged, gored, 
and threw Equerry Coulthorpe Clayton's horse, Mr. Thomas 
Walker, one of the Commissioners of Customs, was thrown 
from his horse, but not much hurt. Lady Susan Hamilton, 
Lady of the Bedchamber to the three eldest Princesses, was 
also unhorsed, " and immediately let blood by a surgeon in the 
field." " The stag having run a delightful chase for nearly two 
hours, was kill'd about 10 o'Clock, when their Highnesses 
returned to Court." 

Wednesday, September 29, Windsor Forest. — " On Wednes- 
day the Royal Hunters did not return from Windsor Forest to 
Hampton Court till 6 in the Evening. Coulthorpe Clayton, 
Esq., had the misfortune to put one of his shoulders out by a 
fall from his horse in the Chase." No further news of this run, 
which was apparently a good one. Mr. Clayton was not able 
to hunt atjain during: this season. At this date he was a 
cornet in the Horse Guards Blue and one of the King's equerries, 
and soon afterwards was appointed Avenor and Clerk Marshal 
in succession to Colonel Negus. 

Wednesday, October G, Windsor. — No information. The 
Prince of Wales was to have joined in the hunt, "but being 
taken ill the preceeding night, the Guards were countermanded 



1731 : EECOEDS OF THE EUNS. 283 

early in the morning." The neighbourhood was so infested 
with highwaymen that the Royal Family could not safely 
go from Hampton Court to Windsor without a strong cavalry 
escort. 

Saturday, October 9, Windsor. — About 8 o'clock A.M. the 
King, Queen, Prince of Wales, and the three eldest Princesses 
set out from Hampton Court Palace to Old Windsor, where a 
stag was uncarted, " and ran but a short chase in the Great 
Park before it was kili'd." Major Selwyn, Equerry to Her 
Majesty, and Mr. Acourt, Page of Honour to Her Majesty, and 
" many others " of lesser note, came to grief without much 
hurt ; but a youth, son of one of the hunt-servants, broke his 
neck, and died on the spot. The Royal Family returned between 
twelve and one o'clock to Hampton Court. 

Saturday, October 16, Windsor. — This was a grand day. 
All the Royal Family were present, attended by the lords and 
ladies of the Court, and several of the nobility and gentry. 
H.S.H. the Duke of Lorraine, " who goes by the name of Count 
Blamont," was also present, accompanied by H.E. Count Kinsky 
and a distinguished suite, all well mounted, and eager for the 
chase. H.S.H. having a reputation of " a brisk sportsman, the 
hounds were order'd to run at full head ; they roused a stag 
at Swinley, and kili'd at Blacknall ; the chase lasted two hours, 
very hot." During the run James Lidderdale, M.D., physician 
to Lord Harrington, Master of the State Lotteries, was thrown, 
broke several of his ribs, " and beat one of his eyes almost out." 

Mr. Delafaye, writing to the Earl of Waldegrave, then 
Ambassador at the court of Versailles, from Hampton Court 
Palace, October 15, 1731, gives the following particulars of the 
Duke of Lorraine's venatic visit, and the ulterior proceedings 
thereof : — 

" The Duke of Lorrain is come at last, under the travelling name 
of Count Blamont. Count Kinsky brought him hither. They came 
to court in chairs (having alighted at Baron HartofTs lodgings upon 
the Gi-een) : the guards took no notice of them, I mean by way of 
being drawn up or saluting. They alighted at the first gate and 
walked through the court, up stairs, through the grand chamber 



284 HISTOKY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

and the next room, into the cartoon gallery, at the door of which 
the housekeeper was placed to keep everybody else from going in. 
My Lord Hervey (vice-chamberlain to the King) waited in the 
cartoon gallery, and carri'd him that way into His Majesty's private 
apartment. Then I saw my lord chamberlain conducting his high- 
ness through the admiral gallery to the queen's apartment, where 
he saw (in private) her majesty and the royal family, except the 
prince of Wales, to whom he afterwards paid a visit, being carry'd 
also the private way. I imagined count Blamont would from thence 
have slunk away, but he was more gallant ; went to the queen's 
circle, and saw the dining in publick, standing behind their majesties, 
or rather in some measure between their chairs. About a quarter 
of an hour's stay there, he went and dined at count Kinsky's at 
Isleworth, and so back to London to count Kinsky's house there, 
whither all the ministers went early this morning to pay their 
court to his highness, before they came to the King's levy here. 
The duke of Lorrain was not here this day ; but to-moi-row he is to 
meet their majesties and the royal family at the hunting in Windsor 
forrest, and they dine together, as I hear, at Cranborn lodge. The 
Duke of Newcastle will give his highness a great entertainment 
next week at Claremont. They talk of count Blamont's going to 
Newmarket at the end of next week, and that we shall then remove 
to town ; but that is not certain." 

In a postscript the intelligencer informs Lord Waldegrave 
that : — 

" The hunting was last Saturday, as I wi'ote to yovu- excellency 
was intended, but the dinner was here. There sate at the table 
the King, the prince of Wales on his majesty's right hand, and 
count Blamont on his left, and the ministers and great officers, and 
such others as his majesty was pleased to appoint, who sate pele mele 
without any distinction. They were about fourteen in all. It was 
in the beauty room next the privy garden. A play is now acting 
here, to which count Blamont is come from count Kinsky's. To- 
morrow the Duke of Devonshire entertains his highness at supper 
in town. Wednesday is to be another hunting, and another dinner 
here. Thursday count Blamont goes to see a ship launched, and 
will be entertained by the admiralty. Friday he dines with my 
Lord duke of Newcastle at Claremont, and is to be at a ball here 



RECORDS OF THE RUNS. 285 

at court. Saturday another hunting. This day sen'night his high- 
ness goes to Newmarket, and comes back to town for the birthday ; 
aftei- which the duke of Grafton will entertain him, as is said, for 
some days at Euston, and sir Robert Walpole at Houghton." 

It seems that the hunters used by the Duke of Lorraine were 
provided by the Master of the Horse at the King's expense.* 

According to the official certificate of Colonel Negus 57 stags, 
20 hinds, and 7 bucks, were provided to give sport with the 
pack, between October 14 and November 5, 1731, for which 
the several underkeepers received the usual fees, amounting 
to 138^. 10s. 

During this year George 11. completed the purchase, and 
thereby acquired, by payment of 2,688^. 16s., to the trustees 
of the late Richard Earl of Ranelagh, Cranborne Lodge in 
Windsor Forest, " together with all fees and profits thereunto 
belonging, and the pictures, furniture, and household stuff in 
the said Lodge or in any outhouses or offices belonging thereto." 
His Majesty, about the same time, also bought for 3,161^. 18s. 6d., 
forty-five acres of woodland adjoining Richmond Park, from 
the executors of Nathaniel Halhed, deceased. Both of these 
places were associated before, at, and in after times with the 
Royal Hunt. 

1732. — For some time prior to the beginning of the Buck- 
hunting season the King was away in Hanover, and on 
July 10 it was publicly announced that the Queen Regent 
and the Royal Family designed to hunt twice a week during 
the ensuing season. On July 20 several of the Royal grooms 
arrived at the New Park, Richmond, with the hunters, etc. ; 
and on the following day Colonel Negus arrived there from 

* Jasper Smith stud-groom, for his own and several other grooms, horse-hire 
and travelling charges in attending upon the Duke of Lorraine on hmiting into 
Norfolk, and in fetching up from Falmouth to Hampton Court two Barbary 
horses which came from Tripoli, 511. 12s. . . . Richard Powell for travelling 
charges and expenses of himself, two grooms and two helpers in conducting 
seven horses of the Duke of Lorraine to Calais, and for their expenses back 
5il. lis. 6d.— Vide Accounts of Eichard Earl of Scarborough, Master of the 
Horse, July 1731 to June 30, 1732 (Roll 39). For 4 saddle horses bought 
in the year 1731, for a present to the Duke of Lorraine, 181 Z. 5s. (Roll 40). 



286 HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

Ipswich. Thus all the preparations have been completed for 
the opening meet of the season, 

Saturday, July 22, at Richmond, where we find the Queen 
in a calash, the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Cumberland, 
and the three Princesses on horseback, attended by several 
lords and ladies of the Court. A stag was put up in the New 
Park, and hunted for two hours ; the Queen and all the Royal 
Family that were out having been in at the death. The 
Royal party dined at Richmond, and in the evening the Prince 
of Wales, the Duke of Cumberland, the Princesses Mary 
Caroline and Louisa, went to the theatre there, and saw the 
comedy called The Careless Husband, " and about Eleven at 
Night the Queen with all the Royal Family return'd to 
Kensington, escorted by a Guard of Horse Grenadiers." 

Those members of the Royal Family joined the hunt at the 
meets held in the New Park on July 20, August 12, 21, 28, 
September 4, 18, and 25, each of which yielded an average 
run of about three hours' duration. The King, having re- 
turned from Germany, joined the Queen and his children at 
Richmond, and was out with them at the New Park on 
Saturday, September 30. He missed the well-known face and 
fiofure of Colonel Negus, who died in his hunting harness on 
the 9th of this month. Sir William Strickland, Secretary of 
War, was now nominated to fill the vacant office, but this 
was not confirmed. During this, and some subsequent runs, 
Sir Robert Walpole acted as Field Master of the Buckhounds ; 
but the vacant office was not officially filled until shortly 
before the opening of the ensuing season. Now, to return to 
this, the first run at which the King participated this season. 
The stag gave a good spin of three hours, and was killed near 
Ham Green. During the chase Captain Jackson, Deputy 
Ransrer of the New Park, fell from his horse and was much 
bruised ; and " a Domestick belonging to Sir William Strick- 
land," was thrown, rode over, and killed. The Prince of 
Wales rendered every assistance to the poor fellow, " placed 
him in a chariot and ordered particular care to be taken of 
him." 



1732 : KECORDS of the runs. 287 

Saturday, October 7, Richmond. — Their Majesties and all 
the Royal Family, except the Princess Amelia (who " sprained 
her ancle and did not go "), attended by the officers of the 
Court, and a large field of ladies and gentlemen, roused in the 
New Park a stag which gave them a good run of three hours. 
It rained incessantly all the time. Sir Robert Walpole again 
acted as Field Master of the Buckhounds. 

Saturday, October 14, Hounslow. — Their Majesties and 
all the Royal Family joined the meet at the Powder Mills, 
where a hind was turned out in the presence of " over a 
hundred ladys and gentlemen." After a pleasant chase of 
two hours she was killed at Twickenham. Grief — a page of 
honour to the Queen " left for dead in the field." 

Wednesday, October 18, Hounslow. — All the Royal Family 
at the Starting Post on the Heath, where a hind was uncarted. 
" There was a grand appearance of nobility and gentry in the 
field, and the chase lasted about three Hours, when the Hind 
was killed at the further end of Sunbury Common." 

Saturday, October 21, Hounslow Heath. — The King, 
Prince of Wales, Duke of Cumberland, and the three eldest 
Princesses went from Kensington to the meet, where a hind 
was turned out. The Queen and the Princess Caroline were 
in a calash ; the King and the rest of the Royal Family on 
horseback. " His Majesty was thrown out by a countryman 
giving a wrong scent, and lost sight all the way." The hind 
ran towards Harrow-on-the-Hill. The Duke of Cumberland 
and the Princess Royal rode in view till the death. 

Wednesday, October 25, Richmond. — The King, Queen, 
and all the Royal Family, " attended by several of the Nobility 
and Gentry," left Kensington at 6 A.M. for the New Park, 
where they roused a hind, which gave a good run of three 
hours. All the Royal Family were in at the death, and then 
returned to Kensington to dinner, " except the Prince of 
Wales who dined at his house at Kew." During this run " Sir 
William Billers, Knight and Alderman, dislocated his collar- 
bone, but having timely assistance there are hopes of his 
recovery." Sir William Irby, Bart., Equerry to the Prince of 



288 HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

Wales, fell with his horse, but received no serious hurt ; Mr. 
Buckworth, Gentleman Usher to His Royal Highness, narrowly- 
escaped being gored by a stag " which started suddenly upon 
his Horse and brok off part of his Whip " ; and William Ald- 
ridge, one of the grooms to the pack, was badly bruised by a 
fall from his horse. The pack did not meet on the following 
Saturday. Many of the principal followers of the Buckhounds 
were at the Newmarket races ; and the King's birthday 
festivities were the great attraction in town. The State Ball 
in Kensington Palace seriously interrupted the proceedings of 
the racing division at headquarters ; the demand on the post- 
ing establishments vastly exceeding the supply. The King 
" was pleased to express his satisfaction at the good order the 
Buckhounds appeared to be in," and Mr. Lowen, the hunts- 
man, was to have the charge and care of the pack till such 
time as a Master shall be appointed. This announcement 
dashed the hopes of many courtiers who were soliciting the 
appointment. 

Saturday, November 11, Richmond. — Their Majesties and 
the Royal Family having arrived at the Lodge on Friday, 
November 11, for a short sojourn, they attended the meet in the 
New Park on the following morning, when a hind was roused, 
which gave a good run for three hours. Their Majesties 
pulled up about half an hour before the end of the run ; but 
the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Cumberland, and the Prin- 
cesses were in at the death, and afterwards returned to 
Richmond to dinner. 

W^ednesday, November 15, Richmond. — The Queen having 
been indisposed did not hunt. The rest of the Royal Family 
were out, and enjoyed a brief run of one hour's duration. At 
the end of the week the Royal Family returned to town; and 
so ended the season with this pack. 

Now as to the " HoN. Francis Negus, Esquire, M.P." 
(as he was officially styled), the thirty-sixth Master of the 
Royal Buckhounds, temp. George II., from June 11, 1727, to 
September 9, 1732, we are unable to say " what was his race 



COLONEL FRANCIS NEGUS, THIRTY-SIXTH MASTER. 289 

or whence he came." On December 24, 1715, he was ap- 
pointed, jointly with Coyners Darcy, Commissioner for 
executing the office of Master of the Horse, with a salary of 
800^. a year during His Majesty's pleasure. Those gentlemen 
jointly held this office (the profits of which went to the 
Duchess of Kendal during the reign of George I.) until 
March 25, 1717. Colonel Negus was appointed sole com- 
missioner for executing the same office — which he continued 
to fill until March 27, 1727 — by another patent, according to 
which his salary was to be paid quarterly out of the Treasury, 
from June 10, 1716, at the rate of 800/. per annum, " in lieu 
of all perquisites, etc., relating to the said office." It seems 
that this carried with it the post of Avenor and Clerk Mar- 
shal to the King. The duties Colonel Negus had to perform 
in his capacity of Commissioner of the office of Master of the 
Horse were very onerous, and embraced a wide field of action.* 
To enter upon this subject would involve writing the history 
of the Ro3^al Stud for the time being, a labour we respect- 
fully decline to undertake. Colonel Negus was also Ranger of 
Bagshot Rails and Sandhurst Walks, and Lieutenant and 
Deputy Warden of Windsor Forest. He had a suite of apart- 
ments in Hampton Court Palace ; and on the accession of 
George II. he relinquished his commissionership upon the 
appointment of the Earl of Scarborough to the long-vacant 
office of Master of the Horse. 

We have not been able to find the warrant or the Royal 

* The following items are taken from one membrane of Roll 30 : " William 
Nelson Sturgeon for setting the leg of Thomas Phipps one of H.M. huntsmen, 
lOl. 10s. To a person to teach several huntsmen to sound the French horn 71. 6s. 
John Harris for 10 brass French horns and mending two others for H.M. hunts- 
men, 261. I6s. Wm. Lowen, senior, H.M. chief huntsman as H.M. free gift 
when he was at Cranborne on Holy Rood Day, 1717, 53Z. los. Jax Vander- 
warden, falconer, for wages, etc., 103^. 9*. 6^. 8 couple of buckhounds given to 
the Duke of Lorraine's Envoy, 15 couple of staghounds sent to Zell (cost 
5 guineas a couple), 5 staghounds a present to the King of Sweden, 20 dogs 
for the Emperor of Germany, 2 boar dogs and 2 bitches for the Emperor of 
Morocco, feeding the wild turkeys in Bushy Park, turning down pheasants 
in Windsor Park, distributing King's Plates at race meetings," etc., etc. He 
had to superintend the Royal Menagerie in Hyde Park paddock where the 
King's tiger was fed every day with six lbs. of boiled beef and mutton. 

19 



290 HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT KACES. 

Sign Manual by which Colonel Negus was appointed Master 
of the Buckhounds to George II. There is no doubt, however, 
that he received this preferment almost immediately after the 
King's accession. From non-official but reliable contemporary 
evidence we ascertain that he kissed the King's hand upon 
" his appointment of Master of the Buckhounds," and that he 
set out to Harwich to contest the seat at the General Election 
about this time. Having been appointed to this office prior 
to that election he had not to vacate his seat and offer himself 
for re-election through having accepted a " place of profit 
under the Crown," otherwise the return of the writ would 
have confirmed it more amply. At all events, the accounts of 
the Treasurer of the Chamber distinctly show that he received 
the emoluments of this office in full, commencing on June 11, 
1727, "by virtue of an Establishment under His Majesty's 
Sign Manual dated December 20, 1727." The stipend of his 
office of Master of the Buckhounds, as we now find it re- 
established, was 2,3-tl/. per annum "for his salary and in lieu 
of all charges thereof" ; and he was paid at this rate down to 
the Michaelmas quarter in the year 1732, " by virtue of a 
warrant under His Majesty's Royal Sign Manual, countersigned 
by the Lord Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, dated 
26th day of October, 1732." Then we come to the final payment 
relating to this Master : "To Francis AVhit worth, Esq., with- 
out account which is to be esteemed as part of the allowance 
on the Establishment for His Majesty's Buckhounds (and 
which was payable to Francis Negus, Esq., as Master thereof 
since deceased), to be applied and paid over by him to clear 
the expense on account of His Majesty's Buckhounds for three- 
quarters of a year ended at Midsummer, 1733, by three 
warrants under the Royal Sign Manual — 1,452/. Is. 6id" 

As may be gathered from the above chronicle of the runs 
the name of this Master of the Buckhounds is rarely men- 
tioned. Indeed, it is somewhat remarkable to observe, Sir 
Robert Walpole figures much more prominently in connection 
with this pack. The latter was a most enthusiastic follower 
of hounds, and, of course, his position at the head (and tail) of 



COLONEL FRANCIS NEGUS, THIRTY-SIXTH MASTER. 291 

the Government tended to obscure the lesser Ministers and 
Court officials when he condescended to appear among them. 
Nevertheless, Colonel Negus was an intimate and trusted 
friend of George I. On Christmas eve, 1718, the King " supped 
with the Commissioner of the office of the Master of the Horse 
at his house in St. James's Mews " ; and on August 20, 1720, 
he was summoned to Hanover to consult the King on the im- 
pending financial crisis in England ; and he usually superin- 
tended the arrangements when the King departed from, and 
arrived at Harwich in his journeys to and from Hanover. 
Colonel Neo;us was likewise a great favourite with George II. 
and the Hoyal Family ; and during the time he officiated as 
Master of the Buckhounds the pack was in good fettle, and 
frequently gave good sport. The "official horn" which had 
been entrusted to Mr. Lowen, the huntsman, during the reign 
of George I., appears to have been retained by that able 
though subordinate officer ; and it seems the " official insignia " 
of the Master was the well-known golden couples. On July 1 
1729, Colonel Negus received the sad news that his seat at 
Dallinghoo, near Wickham Market, county Suffolk, had been 
burnt to the ground, together with all the furniture, pictures, 
etc., therein, worth 10,00U^. He was High Bailiff of Harwich, 
and represented that borough in Parliament. He was also 
one of the Commissioners of the Lieutenancy of Middlesex 
and the Liberty of Westminster, and a Director of the Royal 
African Company. He died in his hunting harness at Swinly 
Lodge, on September 9, 1732, and was buried "in the New 
Chapel in the Broadway, Westminster," He left an only son. 
This is all we have been able to ascertain of the thirty-sixth 
Master of the Royal Buckhounds. His career was surrounded 
with a certain amount of mystery and obscurity, which we 
have been unable to penetrate. Even the erudite Davey, in 
his exhaustive collection of historical, topographical, and 
genealogical documents relating to the county Suffolk, hardly 
mentions his name. Like Lord Cardigan, his predecessor in 
this office, Colonel Negus; had a few horses on the turf; and, 
like him, he never won a race except with a bond fide hunter. 



292 HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

GEORGE II. {Continued.) 1733—1736. 

Charles, Earl of Tankerville, Thirty-seventh Master, Juue 21, 1733, to June 
1737 — Annual Cost of the Pack — Records of the Runs — Ascot Races. 

On June 21, 1733, pursuant to the subjoined Royal Warrant, 
Charles, Earl of Tankerville, was ordered to be sworn into the 
office of Master of the Royal Buckhounds, vice Colonel Negus, 
deceased : — 

George R. 
Our Will and Pleasure is, that you forthwith Swear and admit, 
or cause to be sworn and admitted, our Right Trusty and Right 
Wel-beloved Cousin, Charles Earl of Tankerville into the Office and 
Place of Master of Our Buckhounds ; To have, hold and enjoy the 
same during Our Pleasure, with all Rights, Fees, Salarys, Profits, 
Privileges and advantages thereunto belonging, in as full and ample 
manner, to all intents and purposes, as Francis Negus Esq'' deceased, 
or any other Person hath held and enjoyed, or of Right ought to 
have held and enjoyed the same, And for so doing this shall be your 
Warrant. Given at our Court at Richmond the 21^* day of June 
1733, in the Seventh Year of our Reign, 

By His Ma*^^ Command 

HoLLES Newcastle. 
To Our Right Trusty and Right 
Entirely Beloved Cousin and 
Councellor, Charles Duke of 
Grafton, Our Chamberlain of 
Our Household. 
— Home Office Records, Warrant Book, vol. xix., p. 245. 

As we have seen, in the last chapter, the office had been in 
abeyance from the death of Colonel Negus, and during that 
interval the Prime Minister, Sir Robert Walpole, acted in 
the capacity of Field Master to the Pack. In the meantime 



y'' Master of y*' Buck 
Hounds 



V' 



EARL OF TANKERVILLE, THIETY-SEVENTH MASTEE. 293 

Mr. Lowen, the huntsman, very ably conducted all the details. 
His superintendence merited and received the approbation of 
the King, and with the followers of the hunt his assiduity was 
much appreciated. From the death of Colonel Negus to the 
appointment of Lord Tankerville, it would appear, by the 
annexed warrant, that the wages of the six horse and three 
foot servants of the pack amounted to 784^. a year, but, 
apparently, this was exclusive of the salary of the huntsman 
and the annual expenses incidental to feeding the hounds, etc. 

George R. 

__ „ T^ , TT , rOuR Will and Pleasure is that out of 

Horse & Foot Huntsmen , „ i j i i i i ■ i 

^, . „ . . ^_. , „ such our ireasure as hath been or shall be 
their balaries Mich'' Uua"^ . , , ^r . ^ i-. • i <• -n i 
T7^9 • e '\r j issued to You at y*' Jtieceipt or our Jlixcheq'^ 

^ ^^ , p '^ „ -/ , 1 for y'' Use of our Chamber whereof you 

are Treasurer You pay or Oause to be paid 
unto our Horse and Foot Huntsmen here- 
under named y" Sums set against their respective Names amounting 
in y" whole to One Hundred and Ninety Six Pounds, Viz. : — 

Horse Huntsmen : Geo. Lowen 251. W™ Lowen, Rob* Shorter, 
W"' Ives, W™ Holmes, and Charles Remus 26^.. each. 

Foot Huntsmen : John Webb and Rob* Bickar at 15^. 10s. each, 
and Sam' Perrin at 10/. Total 196/. 

Which sum is to be esteemed as part of y® Allowance on y*^ 
Establishment of Our Chamber for our Buck Hounds w*^^ was 
payable to Francis Negus Esq'' as Master thereof who is lately 
deceased & is to be taken by y" said respective Hvmtsmen for one 
Quarter on y respective Sallaries allowed them by y® said late 
Master and due at Michaelmas last 1732. And for so doing this 
shall be as well to you for payment as to our Auditors of y" Imprests? 
or either of them, for allowing thereof upon your Acc^ a sufficient 
Warr*. Given at our Court at Kensington y" 26"^ Day of Oct 1732 
in y'' Sixth Year of our Reign 

By his Ma'''^ Command 

R. W. 
G. D. 
W"^ C. 
To our Right trusty & Well 
beloved John L'' Hobart 
Trearer of our Chamber. 
— Treasury Records, K.W.B., vol. xxx., p. 475. 



294 HISTOKY OF THE KOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

Lord Tankerville's stipend as Master of the Royal Buck- 
hounds was at the rate of 2,341^, per annum, out of which he 
was obliged " to defray all the charges of the same." 

On June 7 Lord Tankerville set out from London en route 
to Windsor, " with a gard of retainers and troops," to take 
command of the pack, and to make all necessary preparations 
against the opening of the hunting season.* Special precautions 
had to be taken to protect the followers of the hunt from the 
designs of the highwaymen, who were, at this time, most 
aggressive in the neighbourhood of Windsor and Epping 
Forests. Deer-stealers, likewise, were so industrious that a 
proclamation had to be issued offering a reward of 50^. for 
every one convicted. 

In August, their Majesties, the Royal Family, and the Court 
arrived from Kensington at Hampton Court Palace, and the 
first meet of the Royal Buckhounds was announced to take 
place in Richmond New Park on Saturday, August 4. We 
have found no allusion to the inaugural meet of the season 
beyond an announcement in the Gazette that " Their Majesties 
and all the Royal Family " partook of that diversion on that 
occasion. 

Wednesday, August 8, same meet. — Their Majesties, Prince 
of Wales, Duke, and all the Royal Family, accompanied by 
several persons of distinction, again out. No particulars or 
incidents of the sport. 

Saturday, August 11, same meet. — Their Majesties, the 
Duke, the Princesses Royal and Amelia, accompanied by 

* " A common occurrance at this time befel the Countess of Tankerville 
almost simelteanously with her husbands portentious journey to Windsor. It 
appears she was then staying on a vistit with the Duchess of Richmond at 
Goodwood. Whiie she was 'taking the air' in a carriage, accompanied by 
the Duchess, Lady Hervey, Mr. Stephen Fox and the Dean of Chichester, they 
were attacked on Eook Hill by two highwaymen who ordered them to stand 
and deliver. Mr. Fox and Lady Hervey lost their gold watches, the Coimtess 
her gold snuflE boox, and the Dean ' about eight guineas.' Soon after this 
incident we read that as Mr. Atlee, groom of the chambers to the Earl of 
Tankerville, was riding over Honslow Heath on his way to the Earl's Lodge in 
Windsor Forest, a ' Gentleman disguised in liquor,' wounded him in the body 
with a sword in a very dangerous manner, upon pretence that he suspected 
him to be a highwayman." 



1733 : EECOKDS OF THE RUNS. 295 

several lords and ladies of the Court, roused a stag "which 
the King had hunted three times last year, which [now] gave 
them very good diversion for about two hours, when his 
Majesty was pleased to order his life to be spared, and their 
Majesties left the chase : His Royal Highness the Duke, who 
was up with the Hounds, ordered he should be killed ; when 
Sir Robert Walpole, as being Ranger of the Park, desired his 
Grace would excuse it, his Majesty having commanded his 
life to be spared." 

Wednesday, August 15, Windsor Forest. — The first meet of 
the Buekhounds in the forest gave rise to much apprehension 
as to the safety of the Royal Family and the ladies and 
gentlemen of the Court. Highwaymen and deer-stealers and 
exasperated politicians were very aggressive ; so much so 
that the Ministers of State took the precaution to order 
detachments of Life Guards and Grenadiers to escort the 
Royal family and the lords and ladies of the Court from 
Hampton to the meet. No unpleasantness occurred ; large 
attendance, and fair run ensued. All the Royal Family up 
at the death. 

Saturday, August 18, Richmond Park. — All the Royal Family 
out. The King and Queen pulled up after two hours, " but the 
Duke and the Princess Amelia were in at the death in an hour 
after, and then follow 'd to Hampton Court." 

Saturday, August 25, Richmond Park. — All the Royal 
Family out, except the Prince of Wales, who was cricketing,* 
and the Princess Royal, who was ordering her trousseau, those 
out having enjoyed a capital run. The Duke of Grafton, Lord 
Chamberlain, had the misfortune to be thrown from his horse 
into a mill-race near Datchet, and was seriously ill from the 
effect of the spill for some considerable time afterwards. 

Saturday, September 1, Sunbury Common. — Their Majesties 
and some members of the Royal Family participated in a good 

* This match was for a silver cup given by His Eoyal Highness, and played 
for by Mr. Stead's 11 men of Kent v. The Prince of Wales' 11 men of Surrey. 
On August 28 the Prince's 11 played against Lord Gage's 11 for 100 Guineas. 
Cricket became very popular in the reigns of George I. and George II., though 
its progress is not recorded in the books of reference on the game. 



296 HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

run. The stag was taken near Harrow-on-the-Hill, and the 
Royal hunting party then returned to Hampton Court. 

Wednesday, September 5. — "Their Majesties and the Royal 
Family hunting a Stag in Surrey, he passed the River 
Thames, and took into some strong Inclosures near Staines in 
Middlesex, belonging to one Richd. Violet, who clap'd up a 
Chain, and refused the Sportsmen Admittance, telling the 
Noblemen, who expostulated with him, he luas King in his 
own grounds. Some of the courtiers were for violent Mea- 
sures; but their Majesties being informed of it, ordered the 
Farmer some Gold, and then he took down his Chain, and the 
Stag was soon after Killed." The good sense and tact here 
exercised by the King and Queen was a severe reproof to the 
indiscretion of those who, smarting at the check, would have 
overridden the law. Considering the unpopularity of the 
Court at the moment, we must commend the farmer's conduct, 
as — 

" One whose free actions vindicate the cause 
Of sylvan liberty o'er feudal laws " {ScoW). 

Saturday, September 8, St. George's Hill (Surrey side). — 
Stag uncarted ; gave a good run for nearly two hours, and killed 
on Red Hill. King, Queen, and the Royal Family reported 
to have taken part in the " diversion." 

Wednesday, September 12, Richmond Park.- — " The Stag that 
was roused at Fan-Grove, carry'd the Royal Family a Chase 
of about 40 Miles, four Miles beyond Bagshot. The King 
changed his Horses four Times, and at length order'd the 
Dogs to be call'd off: Their Alajesties and the Royal Family 
dined with the Earl of Tankerville at Swinley Lodge, upon a 
cold Collation : The King commanded Lady Tankerville to 
sit down at Table ; and their Majesties being highly delighted 
with the Sport as well as with their Entertainment, return'd 
about Five in the Evening to Hampton Court." 

Saturday, September 15, Sunbury Common. — The first hind 
of the season was uncarted in the presence of their Majesties, 
the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Cumberland, the three eldest 
Princesses, and a large field of the nobility and gentry. " A 



1733: KECOKDS of the euns. 297 

Contribution being annually made in Favour of the Huntsmen 
on the first Day of their Majesties hunting the Hind, the Earl 
of Tankerville, Master of his Majesty's Buckhounds, held the 
Purse, and collected about 360L on the Spot, their Majesties 
giving 50 Guineas each, his Royal Highness the Prince of 
Wales 40 Guineas, the Princess Royal 30 Guineas, the Duke 
and the other Princesses 50 between them ; the Ministers of 
State and others of the Nobility gave five Guineas each." This 
is the first circumstantial account we have met with of this 
custom. It seems to have yielded a good round sum, and if 
the liberality evinced on this occasion usually prevailed, it was 
very profitable to the deserving recipients. The hind was 
uncarted at 11 A.M., gave a good run of three hours, during 
which she crossed and recrossed the Thames several times, and 
at last was killed near Weybridge. 

Saturday, September 22, Sunbury Common. — Almost a repe- 
tition of the preceding meet, except in the final incident. The 
King ordered the hind's life to be spared, and a silver collar 
to be put round her neck. She was not to be hunted again. 

Wednesday, September 26, Sunbury Common. — Hind turned 
out ; ran for three hours, when " their Majesties order 'd the 
Dogs to be taken off" between Egham and Old Windsor, and 
return'd about Two to Hampton Court to Dinner." * 

Saturday, September 29, Sunbury Common. — Hind turned 
out. " Ran thro' Feltham, over part of Honslow Heath and 
Twickenham Common and through Hampton Town, where 
taking to the River, several of the Courtiers swam their Horses 
over, but then the Hind return'd, and crossed the Tames be- 
tween Teddington and Twickenham, and after a most delit- 
ful Chace of about three Hours, was kill'd on Sutton Common 

* Her Royal Highness the Princess Royal " lost a very curious wrought snufE- 
box, in the lid of which was a fine picture of great value, and the same was 
picked up by Mr. Wright, a Gentleman of the Life Guards, who was on duty 
to attend the Royal Party in the Chace. H.R.H. did not miss it till her return to 
Hampton Court, when, upon Enquiry the Commanding Officer acquainted her 
who had found it, upon which Mr. Wright immediately attended with it, and 
H.R.H. was pleased to receive it from his own Hands, and to make him a Present 
of Five Guineas." Fortunate Princess ! Lucky Guardsman ! 



298 HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

between Kingston and Epsom. It was remarkable that at 
this Hunting the Huntsman mistook an Ass for the Hind * 
in the Chase, and led on the Dogs, who followed that Scent for 
about Ten Minutes, to the great Diversion of the Company, 
when it was discovered." 

Wednesday, October 3, Feltham.— The King, Queen, Prince 
of Wales, Duke of Cumberland and some of the Princesses, 
" attended by the Great Officers and others of the Court, came 
to Feltham-Field, where a Hind was turn'd out of a Waggon, 
and after running about an Hour and a Half swam across the 
Thames between Sun bury and Hampton ; the King and the 
Duke on Horseback, the Queen and the Princess Royal in a 
Chaise, ferry 'd over at Hampton Town, with great numbers 
of others, and many swam their Horses thro' ; the Hind turn'd 
back over the River between Weybridge and Shepperton, and 
between One and Two was killed in Chertsey Meads." 

Saturday, October 6, The Rubbing House, Epsom. — Hind 
turned out in the presence of their Majesties and the rest of 
the Royal Family, " which led them a Chace of about 50 Miles, 
and was kill'd about Four o'Clock in the Afternoon, near God- 
stow, between Rygate and East Grinstead in Sussex. The 
Lady Arabella Finch was thrown from her Horse, and lay for 
some Time before she could get Help. The Royal Family 
dined with Lord Baltimore, at his House near Epsom, and 
returned about six to the Royal Palace at Hampton Court," 

Wednesday, October 17, Sunbury Common. — Their Majesties, 
the Duke of Cumberland, and the three eldest Princesses 
present, accompanied by the usual suite, hunted a hind, which 
swam across the Thames towards Waltham, and then headed 
for Esher, when, after a chase of two hours, she was killed near 
Upper Moseley. 

Saturday, October 20, Hounslow. — Their Majesties, the Prince 
of Wales, and the rest of the Royal Family, attended by several 
persons of quality, went from Hampton Court to Hounslow 
Heath, " where a Hind was turned out near the Starting-Post 
and hunted, which gave very good diversion for about four 

* A somewhat similar instance is reported in the Field of September 3, 1887. 



1733: EECOEDS OF THE RUNS. 299 

hours, and was at last Kill'd about half a mile from Hampton 
Town ; after which their Majesties and the rest of the Royal 
Family return'd to Hampton Court to Dinner. Col. John 
Lumley, Brother to the Earl of Scarborough, fell from his 
Horse, but receiv'd very little damage. The Prince of Wales 
had like to have been unhors'd by a Country Fellow, who rode 
furiously against His Royal Highness. A Boy, son of the 
Earl of Berkeley's huntsman, happen'd to be thrown from 
behind a Coach, and Mrs. Andrews of Sunbury being in full 
Chace, the wheels of her Chaise ran over his Thighs, but the 
Child only received a slight bruise. The Queen order'd him 
a Guinea." 

Wednesday, October 24, Hounslow. — Their Majesties and the 
rest of the Royal Family, except the Princess Louisa, went to 
the Earl of Isla's near Hounslow, where a hind was turned 
out, " but hurting one of her legs in coming out of the Waggon, 
ran a very short Chace, being Kill'd about 12 o'clock, near 
Hesson, two Miles beyond Hounslow." For some reason not 
mentioned we are told that " the Earl of Tankerville, as Master 
of the Buckhounds, removed Mr. William Lowen from being 
Yeoman-Pricker (or Marker of the Hounds Feet), which 
Place he and his Father had held for Fifty Years," and that 
" Sir Robert Walpole has made the said Mr. Lowen Huntsman 
of the Harriers in the New Park near Richmond." 

Thus the last run of the season was associated with a con- 
siderable amount of grief. During the ensuing week the 
Royal Family returned to town, where great preparations 
were in progress anent the marriage of the Princess Royal. 
On November 7 the Prince of Orange arrived. Shortlv before 
the wedding fixture he was prostrated by a fever ; the nuptials 
had to be postponed, which caused great disappointment, and 
much sympathy was manifest for the bride elect, who was 
deservedly popular with all classes (particularly in hunting 
circles) throughout the length and breadth of the land. 

According to the official record 100 stags and 64 hinds were 
" hunted and killed " by His Majesty's Buckhounds between 
November 5, 1731, and January 2, 1733-4. The fees payable 



300 HISTOKY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

thereon, " to the keepers of His Majesty's forests and parks," 
amounted to 267^. 

William Lowen, G, Mathews, E. Booth, "and Theophilus 
Aldridge and Wm. Albut, successively gamekeepers for 
watching, keeping, and preserving the game of all kinds 
within and for the district of 10 miles about the Palaces of 
Richmond and Hampton Court at 30Z. per annum each for 
their salaries and \0l. each per annum each for their liveries," 
received in 1733, 160/. 

1 734. — The Earl of Scarborough resigned his office of Master 
of the Horse to the King in February 1734, and was succeeded 
by the Duke of Richmond shortly before the opening of the 
hunting season in July. In March the long-deferred marriage 
of the Princess Royal to the Prince of Orange was celebrated 
in London. The happy couple departed for Holland soon 
after the ceremony. The princess returned to England a little 
before the buck-hunting season began, the first meet in the 
year 1734 having been announced to take place on Saturday, 
July 17, at Richmond New Park, at which their Majesties and 
all the Royal Family were expected to be present. For some 
reason or other the opening day was not honoured by any 
member of the Royal Family. The result of the run is not 
known, nor any incidents, except that Sir Robert Walpole was, 
as usual, to the fore, and officiated as field master of the pack. 

Monday, July 29, Richmond. — The Duke of Cumberland 
and several persons of distinction enjoyed a moderate run ; 
His Royal Highness afterwards dined with the Prince of 
Wales at Kew. 

Wednesday, August l,same meet. — Their Majesties, the Prince 
of Wales, the Duke, the Princess of Orange, and the Princesses 
Amelia and Carolina, " being attended by several Persons of 
Distinction, went from Kensington to Richmond New Park, 
and took the Diversion of hunting a Hind (being the first 
Time for this Season), which afforded excellent Sport for about 
two Hours ; and his Majesty was pleased to order his {sic) 
Life to be spared : After which His Majesty and the Royal 
Family returned to Kensington to Dinner." 



1734: EBCOEDS OF THE RUNS. 301 

Saturday, August 3, same meet. — Except the Princess Amelia, 
all the members of the Royal Family which were in the 
preceding run were present again, and in at the death of the 
first stag : " They afterwards hunted another, but His Majesty 
ordered his Life to be spared, and about 3 o'clock returned to 
Kensington." 

Wednesday, August 7, same meet. — The Princess Amelia, her 
brothers and sisters, with her father and mother, attended by 
several lords and ladies of the Court, hunted a stag, " which 
afforded very good sport for about three hours, and afterwards 
took the water ; where the Dogs must have inevitably been 
drowned in pursuing, if the Yeomen Prickers had not taken to 
a Boat, and Killed the Stao^ in the Water." 

Saturday, August 10, same meet. — The Duke of Newcastle, 
the Earl of Tankerville, Sir Robert Walpole, and several 
persons of distinction, hunted a stag and killed after a long 
chase. "They afterwards dined at Cap t. Jackson's Lodge in 
the said Park. That morning being wet, the Royal Family 
did not hunt." 

Wednesday, August 14, same meet. — Their Majesties and the 
rest of the Royal Family out. The King in at the death after 
a chase of two hours; "but her Majesty had but little share in 
the Diversion, she continuing in her Chaise best part of the 
Time under a Tree." 

Monday, August 19, same meet. — The Duke of Cumberland 
attended by a great number of the nobility out. " The first 
Stag that was rous'd not being capable of giving Diversion, 
the Dogs were called off*, and a second unharbour'd, which 
ran for three Hours, when his Royal Highness declaring his 
Pleasure to have his life sav'd, the Huntsman acquainted him 
that the Dogs would receive great Prejudice in being so often 
called off in full Scent, whereupon the Chase was continued 
some Hours longer, till most of the Field being thrown out, 
and all the Hounds to two or three Couple, his Royal Highness 
was Pleased to command the Stag to be spared." 

Wednesday, August 21, same meet. — "Wednesday before Nine 
in the Morning their Majesties, together with the rest of the 



302 HISTOKY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

Royal Family, went from Kensington to Richmond New Park, 
to hunt a Stag : During the Chase the Princess Amelia had 
the Misfortune to be thrown by her Horse, and her Petticoat 
hanging on the Pommel of the Saddle, she was dragg'd near 
200 yards, but most providentially receiv'd no Manner of 
Hurt : The Right Hon. Harry Pelham took her up. Her Royal 
Highness afterwards remounted, in order to pursue the Chase, 
but the Queen would not permit it, so she returned to 
Kensington in a Coach an Hour before the Sport was over, 
and was blooded in her own Apartment by Mr. Ranby, one of 
the King's Surgeons. His Majesty order'd the Stagg's Life to 
be spared, to the End he might be hunted again. Several 
persons were unhorsed in the Chase." 

Saturday, August 24, same meet. — Princess Amelia gone 
to Bath. Their jNIajesties and the rest of the Ro3^al Family 
present at the meet, which attracted the usual crowd. " A 
Woman whose curiosity had carried her thither with a Child 
of about two Years old in her Arms, had the Infant thrown 
down by a Horseman's riding over her, and a Coach and Six 
Horses flying by at that Instant the Babe was trodden to 
Death and the Woman miserably bruised." The Earl of 
Londonderry * — " a Youth of about 17 Years of Age who 
was at School at Cheam " — ^joined in the chase, and after he 
had ridden about a mile was thrown and killed on the spot. 
This fatal accident threw a cloud over the run ; beyond the 
record of the grief nothing else has been recorded, except that 
the field included Prince Charles, " nephew to his most Serene 
Highness the Elector of Treves," accompanied by two German 
noblemen ; there were also present two Indian chiefs f from 
America, who had brought with them, as a present to the 
King, the " body of a flying horse," which died on the voyage. 

Wednesday, August 28, Hounslow Heath. — The King having 

* Thomas Pitt, second Earl of Londonderry. 

f These were Tomo-chichi and another chief of the Creeks. They arrived 
from America to do homage at Court. They were " Buffalo Bill'd " by Colonel 
Oglethorpe. Query if the " Flying Horse " was a Bucker Mustang, and so 
called by the animal's ability to send its rider flying. 



1734: RECOKDS OF THE RUNS. 303 

decided to make Hounslow his hunting headquarters for the 
rest of the season, all the hunters of the Royal Family were 
sent on there from Hampton Court. About 9 a.m. on Wednes- 
day morning, their Majesties and all the Royal Family (except 
the Princess Amelia) set out from Kensington to the new 
fixture. On their arrival there a stag was turned out at the 
starting post. He headed for Staines, but being turned ran as 
far as Brentford, where he crossed the Thames, recrossed the 
river at Hampton Town, ran through Staines, and thereabouts 
crossed the river twice, " and was kill'd about half-an-hour 
after Three, at Water-Oakley near Windsor. Their Majesties 
gave out at Thorp, about a Mile from Staines, after following 
him above 30 Miles ; but their Royal Highnesses the Prince 
and Duke were in at the Death." The latter dined at the 
" Red Lion " at Hounslow, " having been so fatigued with the 
Diversion of hunting the Stag that Day (who ran one of 
the most delightful Chaces ever known), that they could not 
reach the Palace at Kensington by Dinner-time." 

Saturday, August 81, same meet. — -Present their Majesties 
and all the members of the Royal Family above mentioned, 
accompanied by " the Lord High Chancellor and several other 
Persons of Distinction. The Stag ran them a Chace of about 
three Hours, and about twenty Miles, and was kill'd two Miles 
beyond Watford in Hertfordshire. He ran so very hard, and 
in such an enclos'd Country, that there were but six Gentlemen 
in at the Death, and but few of the Huntsmen ; and to 
encourage the Dogs, they were suffer'd to eat the whole Stag. 
The Duke in riding pitch'd over his Horse's Head, but received 
no Hurt by the Fall, and was first in at the Death." 

Wednesday, September 4, same meet. — Present, their 
Majesties and most of the Royal Famil3^ No details of the 
run. 

Saturday, September 7, same meet. — No information.* 

Wednesday, September 11, same meet. — "Their Majesties 
and the rest of the Royal Family hunted a Stag on Honslow 

* The Prince of Wales hunted with the City Hounds. The meet was at 
Cheshunt, Herts, " the Lord Mayor's Country House being near that Place." 



304 HISTOKY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES, 

Heath, which ran several times across the Thames, and about 
three o'Clock was Killed near Egham ; after which their 
Majesties and the rest of the Royal Family accepted an In- 
vitation to dine at his Grace the Duke of Newcastle's at his 
Seat at Clermont." 

Saturday, September 14, same meet. — The King, Queen, and 
Royal Family present, " where a Stag was turned out of a 
Deer Waggon, and run by Hanworth, down French-street, in 
Sunbury, and cross'd the Thames below that Town, run up 
Walton Field, and so to Walton Common and over Redhill by 
Ockham, and was kill'd near Effingham in Surrey. The King 
cross'd the Thames at Sunbury, but the Stag was, when his 
Majesty landed, gone above half an Hour before. The Queen, 
Princess Royal, and Princess Caroline, cross'd the Thames in 
their Chaises at Walton, but all the Royal Family were not 
in at the Death. The Prince in his return from hunting stopt 
and refresh'd himself at Col. Wyvill's at Walton, and went 
afterwards and din'd at Sir John Chardin's at Kempton 
Park near Sunbary. This being Holy Rood Day when their 
Majesties leave off Stag hunting, and on which Day the Con- 
tribution or Bounty Money is usually given in Favour of the 
Huntsmen, the Right Hon. the Earl of Tankerville, Master of 
his Majestie's Buckhounds, held the Purse, and collected near 
300 Guineas, their Majesties giving 100, the Prince of Wales 
40, the Duke, the Princess of Orange, and the Princess Caroline, 
50 between them, and most of the Noblemen five each." 

Wednesday, September 18, same meet. — The Duke of Cumber- 
land and numerous persons of quality had a good run of three 
hours, and killed the stag near Harrow. The Duke and 
several noblemen were mired in a bog near the Powder Mill 
on Hounslow Heath. 

Saturday, September 21, same meet. — " Their Majesties and 
the Royal Family diverted themselves with hunting a Stag 
(that had been hunted several Times before) which afforded very 
good Diversion for near four Hours, when his Majesty order 'd 
his Life to be spared, and returned with the Queen and Prin- 
cesses to Kensington to Dinner. The Prince of Wales and the 



1734: RECORDS OF THE RUNS. 305 

Duke continued the Chase for some Time after, and at length 
the Prince return'd to his House at Kew, and the Duke to 
Kinofston." As the Princess of Orano^e and the Princess Caro- 
line were returnino; to Kensing-ton a wheel came off of their 
carriage, and they were nearly spilled ; but fortunately the 
coachman pulled up the horses in time, and thus prevented 
any accident to the fair Dianas, beyond a slight shock. As 
a precautionary measure the Princess of Orange " was let 
blood " on her arrival at the Palace. This was her last day 
in the hunting fields of old England. 

Wednesday, September 25, same meet. — Duke of Cumber- 
land and a large field out. Killed the stag near Harrow. His 
Royal Highness thrown, but without damage. Bad weather 
prevented their Majesties joining in the chase. 

Wednesday, October 2, same meet. — Their Majesties and some 
of the Royal Family, attended by several lords and ladies of 
the Court, hunted a hind, " which afforded a pleasant chase of 
about 4 hours, and was killed near Brentford." The young 
Ear] of Londonderry, who was on a visit with the Royal 
Family, was in this run, and had for his pilot the King and 
the Prince of Wales. With all their faults, this much-maligned 
King and Prince had their hearts in the right place when any 
circumstance deserving of sympathy came under their notice. 

Saturday, October 19, Richmond New Park. — Their Majesties 
and some of the Royal Family at the meet. No details of the 
sport, which seems to have been eclipsed by the grief. " Mr. 
James Fouch, a Groom belonging to his Royal Highness, was 
thrown from his Horse, by which Accident he had the Misfor- 
tune to break his Collar-bone, together with one of his Legs ; 
but they were immediately set by Mr. Ramby, the King's 
Surgeon. Mr. Lowen, head Groom to his Majesty, was likewise 
flung oflf his Horse, and broke his Arm." So much for the last 
run with the Royal Buckhounds in that season, so far, at 
least, as the reports of the proceedings of the pack have been 
chronicled. As in previous cases, many runs cannot be traced; 
but upon the whole the season appears to have been a good 
one, 60 stags and 17 hinds having been hunted and killed, as 

20 



306 HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

appears by the fees paid by the Master of the Horse to the 
Keepers of Windsor Forest, Windsor Great Park, Richmond 
Park, and Epping Forest, amounting, at the usual rates, 
to 1551. 

1735. — Parliament was prorogued in the last week of July, 
when the Queen Regent announced her intention of hunting 
with the Royal Buckhounds on Wednesdays and Saturdays 
during the ensuing season. The first meet took place in the 
New Park, Richmond, on Saturday, August 9. 

In the meantime the horses appear to have headed the 
hounds, so far as related to the races at Ascot, which were held 
in the preceding week. On Monday, August 4, the 40 Guinea 
Plate for hunters carrying 12 stone each was won by Mr. 
Moor's sorrel gelding Spot, from the Earl of Tankerville's bay 
stone horse Achilles, the Hon. Mr. Masham's chestnut gelding 
Farmer, and Captain Clayton's cropped gelding Squirrel. The 
next day the Huntsmen's Plate of 10 guineas for horses, etc., 
carrying 10 stone each, was won by Mr. Richell's gre}' gelding 
Augur-Eye, from Mr. Lowen's bay stone horse Whitefoot, Mr. 
Ives' bay stone horse Tantivy, Mr. Holme's bay gelding Mad 
Cap, Mr. Tempro's chestnut gelding Fearnought, Mr. Webb's 
black gelding Tinker, and Mr. Shorte's bay mare Tumble 
Down; and on the Wednesday the Duke of Marlborough's 
chestnut gelding Diver won the 30 Guinea Plate, for horses, 
etc., carrying 10 stone each, from Mr. Bowler's bay-brown 
mare Miss Rattle. This was the first meeting at Ascot that 
extended over three consecutive days, with one race per diem, 
including " a great Match of Cock-fighting at the sign of the 
Flower-de-luce in Hatchet Lane, for two Guineas a Battle, 
and Twenty Guineas on the odd Battle, between the Gentle- 
men of Hampshire and the Gentlemen of Berkshire." Festina 
lente seems to have been the motto of the C.C. 

Let us now hark back to the opening day. First and fore- 
most it was announced that " Upon Account of the great 
Crowds and Throngs of People that have attended the Stag- 
Hunting at New-Park, when the Royal Family were hunting 
there, which has rendered the Riding there not only very 



1735 : EECOEDS of the euns. 307 

troublesome, but very dangerous, her Majesty has been pleased 
to order, That no Person shall be admitted into the Park with- 
out a Hunting Ticket, prepared for that Purpose, with the 
Date of the Day, and the Seal of the Ranger; to be given 
Weekly, by the Ranger or his Deputy, upon proper Applica- 
tion." The Prime Minister, who was Ranger there at this 
time, must have had his hands pretty full, (By the way, he 
had just presented the Princess Amelia with "a fine hunting 
horse.") With the exception of the King, who was boar- 
hunting in Hanover, and the Princess of Orange, who had 
recently presented her husband with an heir, all the Royal 
Family followed the stag, " which afforded excellent sport for 
near three Hours." 

Saturday, August 16, same meet. — All the Royal Familj 
above mentioned hunted a stag " for above two Hours ; after the 
Death Her Majesty returned to Richmond to Dinner, and in 
the Evening to Kensington." 

Monday, August 18, Windsor Forest. — The Duke of Cumber- 
land and the Princess Amelia, attended by the Duke of Grafton, 
Sir Robert Walpole, and several persons of distinction, " took 
the Diversion of Staojhuntine: in Windsor Forest." 

Saturday, August 23, Richmond. — Her Majesty and the 
Royal Family out, and in at the death of the stag after a 
run of about two hours. 

Wednesday, September 3, Windsor. — " On Wednesday morn- 
ing about Four o'Clock [a.m.], their Royal Highnesses the Duke 
and Princess Amelia set out from Kensington, and about Eight 
rous'd a Stag in Windsor-Forest, which gave them very good 
Sport for near five Hours, when he was kill'd at Billingbear 
near Egham ; soon after which they accidentally rous'd an out- 
lying Stag, which continued their Diversion till about Four 
in the Afternoon, when their Royal Highnesses quitted the 
Chace, and did the Earl of Tankerville the Honour of dining 
with him at his Lodge at Swinley." The Prince of Wales 
lost this good run and 1,000^. besides, for which sum he backed 
his eleven against Kent in a cricket match. 

Saturday, September 6, Richmond. — All the Royal Family 



308 HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

hunted a stag, which was killed in the pond " after a pleasant 
chase of three hours." 

Saturday, September 13, — Two meets were announced for 
this day — viz., at Richmond and Hounslow. At the latter a 
hind was to be turned out for the first time this season. We 
cannot find any further reference to either of them. 

Wednesday, September 17, Windsor. — The Duke of 
Cumberland and the Princess Amelia hunted a hind in the 
forest, which was killed after a pleasant chase of about two 
hours, and afterwards dined with the Master at Swinly 
Lodge. 

Saturday, September 20, Richmond. — Her Majesty and the 
rest of the Royal Family hunted a hind, which was killed 
after a good run of three hours. The Queen dined at Kew, 
and afterwards returned to Kensington. 

Saturday, September 27, same meet. — The Queen, Prince 
of Wales, Duke of Cumberland, the Princesses Amelia and 
Caroline, attended by several persons of distinction, hunted a 
stag. No details of tiie run mentioned. 

Saturday, October 4, same meet. — All the Royal Family, 
" attended by several Nobles of the Court," hunted a stag for 
about two hours. Her Majesty afterwards dined at Kew, and 
returned to Kensington in the evening. 

Wednesday, October 15, Windsor. — The Duke of Cumberland 
and the Princess Amelia, attended by the Dukes of Newcastle 
and Grafton, and other persons of distinction, " took the 
Diversion of hunting a Hind in Windsor Forest." 

Saturday, October 18, Richmond. — The Queen and all the 
Royal Famil}'^ hunted a hind, " which afforded a pleasant chase 
fur two hours." This was the last run of the season with the 
Royal Buckhounds. The King arrived at Harwich from 
Hanover on Sunday, October 26, consequently he could not 
have hunted with this pack at all, although he had good sport 
at Gohree during his absence from England. 

It is somewhat remarkable to notice that during this season 
there is not a single instance of grief recorded. Possibly the 
reporters had instructions not to go into details. If they 



1736 : EECOEDS of the euns. 309 

•offended, the hunting ticket might have been withheld, so far, 
at least, as the meets in Richmond Park were concerned. 

The official record of sport with the pack for this season 
shows that 54 stags, 36 hinds, and 2 bucks were hunted and 
killed, and the fees paid thereon to the keepers amounted to 
145^. 

1736. — The Parliamentary Session having closed in May, 
the King proceeded to visit his German dominions, as he had 
likewise done in the preceding year, taking with him Mr. 
Horace Walpole as Deputy Secretary of State, and leaving 
the Queen as Regent in England. During his absence, the 
tranquillity which England had now enjoyed for so many 
years was slightly ruffled. A great number of poor Irish 
having come over in the summer, not merely worked at the 
hay and corn harvest as was usual, but engaged themselves at 
the Spitalfields looms at two-thirds of the ordinary wages. 
The cockney weavers, declining to have their wages reduced 
from lOs. and 12s. to 6s. or 8s. a week, raised riots on several 
nights during the first week of the buck-hunting season, and 
attacked a public-house where the Irish resorted. Similar 
riots occurred about Michaelmas, when the new Gin Act came 
into operation. But the presence of Sir Robert Walpole on 
both of these occasions checked these riots without bloodshed 
or injury or damage. In Edinburgh, however, a serious dis- 
turbance took place, culminating in the well-known Porteous 
riots, by which the Queen was greatly irritated, as she construed 
them to be an insult to her person and authority. There is a 
tradition that Her Majesty, in the first burst of her resentment, 
petulantly exclaimed to the Duke of Argyle, that, sooner than 
submit to such things, she would make Scotland a huatiuoj 
field. " In that case. Madam," answered Argyle, with a pro- 
found bow, but with no courtly spirit, " I will take leave of 
your Majesty, and go down to my own country to get my 
hounds ready ! " Eventually these difficulties were overcome, 
and domestic affairs again ran smoothly in the old grooves. 

Unfortunately another obstacle had arisen in Che bosom of 
the Court. Frederick, Prince of Wales, was now in open 



31 U HISTOEY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

opposition to bis father and mother's Court. Although in 
political alliance with many honourable patriotic members of 
the opposition, there was a back-stairs influence of unprincipled 
persons, by whom he was unwittingly led away from the right 
path. His marriage in April 1736, to Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, 
a princess of beauty and excellent judgment, did not, as was 
hoped, restore union to the Royal Family. His establishment 
was not one fitting to support his dignity, and the Ministry 
enforced this parsimony, not from economical motives, but to 
suit their own book. 

Saturday, July 24, Richmond. — Her Majesty, the Prince 
and Princess of Wales, the Duke of Cumberland, and the rest 
of the Royal Family, "hunted (for the first Time this Season) 
a Stag in Richmond New Park, and in the Evening their Royal 
Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales, attended by 
several Persons of Quality, went to the Theatre at Richmond 
to see the Comedy of the Tender Husband and the Honest 
Torksiiireman (which was perform'd to a splendid Audience 
with universal Applause), and they afterwards returned to 
Kensington." 

Wednesday, July 28, Windsor. — The Prince of Wales, Duke 
of Cumberland, and the two eldest Princesses, accompanied by 
a large field, hunted a stag for " above four hours," and killed 
him on Ascot Heath. 

Saturday, July 31, Richmond. — The Queen and the rest of 
the Royal Family roused a stag in the New Park, which was 
run into and killed after " a chase of about three hours." In 
the evening the Prince and Princess attended the Theatre at 
Richmond, and afterwards returned to their residence at Kew. 
Wednesday, August 4, Richmond. — Meet announced, but 
was not attended by the Queen or the Royal Family, as on 
this day, "the Queen, the Duke, and the Princesses came in 
Coaches from Kensington, and drove round Grosvenor, Han- 
over, and Soho Squares ; and came afterwards to Lincoln's- 
Inn Fields to see the Works carrying on there." The following 
day the Prince and Princess of Wales went to breakfast at 
Windsor Castle, dined with Lord Archibald Hamilton at 



1736: RECORDS of the runs. 311 

Henley, and angled for salmon in the Thames. The Queen 
reiterated the order of last season, " that no Stranger be 
admitted at Richmond New Park on Hunting days without 
tickets, which are to be delivered by the Ranger there." 

Saturday, August 7, Richmond, — The Queen, accompanied 
by the Duke of Cumberland, and the Princesses Amelia and 
Caroline, went from Kensington and were joined at the New 
Park by the Prince and Princess of Wales. A stag was 
hunted, but no particulars of the run transpired. 

Wednesday, August 11, Richmond. — Neither the Queen nor 
any member of the Royal Family hunted on account of the 
intensity of the heat. 

Saturday, August 14. — Heavy rain in the morning prevented 
the Queen, and probably many others, from hunting, although 
they were at the meet. 

Wednesday, August 17, Windsor. — No intelligence. 

Saturday, August 21, Richmond. — The Queen, accompanied 
by the Duke of Cumberland, the Princesses Amelia and 
Caroline, the Prince and Princess of Wales, hunted a stag, 
" and after a pleasant Chase of about three Hours, the Stag was 
killed by the Water-side. Her Majesty dined at Richmond, 
but returned to Kensington in the evening." 

Saturday, August 28, Richmond. — Her Majesty and the Royal 
Family hunted a stag, " and after a Pleasant Chase of severall 
hours killed it near the Great Pond, after which the Queen, 
&c., went to Kew to Dinner, and returned to Kensington in 
the evening." 

Wednesday, September 1, Windsor. — The Duke of Cumber- 
land and the Princess Amelia arrived from Kensington at the 
Castle; but in consequence of the heavy rain did not join in 
the hunt. 

Saturday, September 4, Richmond. — The Queen, accompanied 
by the Duke of Cumberland and the Princess Amelia, were 
present at the meet. The weather being "foul" Her Majesty 
did not hunt, and returned to Kensington in the evening. 
The meet was largely attended; many coaches were "delivered" 
by the highwaymen on their return to town. 



312 HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

Saturday, September 11, Richmond. — Her Majesty, the Duke 
of Cumberland, the Princesses Amelia and Caroline, were joined 
at the meet by the Prince and Princess of Wales, where a stag 
was uncarted, and " after a pleasant chase of two hours and a 
half was killed near the Pond." 

Saturday, September 18, Richmond. — "On Saturday morning, 
about six o'clock [a.m.]. Her Majesty, accompanied by their 
Royal Highnesses the Duke, and the Princesses Amelia and 
Caroline, went from Kensington to take the Diversion of 
hunting at Richmond New Park ; where the Prince and 
Princess of Wales repaired from Kew ; and after a Chace of 
about three Hours, the Stag was killed near the Waterside. 
Her Majesty dined there, and in the Afternoon walked about 
the Garden, and stay'd about half an hour at Merlin's Cave, 
to consider the properest Place where to put the twelve 
Bustos of the Queens of England, etc., and returned to 
Kensington about ten o'Clock at Night, escorted by a squadron 
of the Horse Guards." * 

Saturday, September 25, Richmond. — Present, the Queen, 
Duke of Cumberland, and the Princesses Amelia and Caroline, 
when they hunted a stag. No details of the run. 

Wednesday, October G, Sunbury Common. — The Queen and 
the Royal Family (as previously mentioned) hunted a hind, 
" which was kill'd after a Chase of about Three Quarters of an 
Hour." 

Saturday, October 9, Richmond. — '* The heavy Rains that fell 
on Saturday last, prevented the Royal Family's Hunting in 
the New Park." 

Wednesday, October 13, Hounslow. — The Duke of Cumber- 
land, the Princesses Amelia and Caroline, and a very large 
field hunted a hind, which was turned out about 10 A.M. at 
Feltham, on Hounslow Heath. She ran by Hanworth to 
Sunbury, where she crossed the Thames, and made to Walton 
Common, then passed through Esher, and, after crossing the 

* It was announced that a hind was to be turned oiit on Hounslow Heath 
on the date of this fixture, " when the annual Contribution will be gather'd for 
the Huntsmen " ; but we can find no further reference to it. 



1736: RECOKDS OF THE EUNS. 313 

river again, recrossed the Thames at Hampton Court. She 
next headed for the river, and swam across, when she was 
driven back, and, after a chase of four hours, "was Kill'd near 
the House of the Hon. Arthur Onslow, Esq., at Ember Court 
near Ditton. Their Royal Highnesses followed the Chace 
no further than Esher; and after dining with the Hon. 
Mr. Pelham, returned in the Evening to Kensington." Grief: 
the Earl of Lincoln thrown into a ditch, and very much 
brused ; Mr. George Stanforth, " a Young Gentleman of good 
Family in Yorkshire," both legs broken. 

Wednesday, October 20, Hounslow. — The Duke and the two 
eldest Princesses, attended by divers noblemen and gentlemen 
present. At the starting post a hind was turned out; she 
gave a good run for " several hours," and was killed near 
Hampton town. 

Wednesday, October 27, Hounslow. — The same members of 
the Royal Family and a large field hunted a hind for about 
two hours, which they killed near Staines. 

Saturday, October 30, Richmond. — " Tho' her Majesty has 
left off the Diversion of Hunting till his Majesty's Return to 
England ; the Duke and the Princesses Amelia and Caroline, 
accompanied by several of the Nobility went from Kew to 
hunt a Stag at Richmond New Park ; and, after a Pleasant 
Chase till one o'clock the Stag was killed near the Pond." 

Thursday, November 4, Hounslow. — A hind was turned out 
at Fan Grove, in the presence of the Duke of Cumberland, the 
two eldest Princesses, and a considerable field. No details. 

Saturday, November 6, Hounslow. — Ditto. 

Thursday, November 11, Hounslow. — -Ditto. 

Saturday, November 13. — "On Saturday last her Majesty, 
accompanied by her Royal Highness the Princess Caroline, 
went to Kew, whither the Duke and the Princess Amelia 
repaired from Hounslow-heath, where they took the Diversion 
of hunting a Hind, which was killed after two Hours pleasant 
Chaise, and returned to Kensington in the evening." 

Wednesday, November 17, Banstead Downs. — The Duke of 
Cumberland and the Princess Amelia, attended by several 



314 HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

persons of distinction, hunted a hind, and, after a pleasant 
run of two and a half hours, killed on Forest Hill. 

Wednesday, November 24, Barham Downs. — "Their Royal 
Highnesses the Duke and the Princess Amelia, attended by 
several of the NobiHty, went to take the Diversion of hunting 
a Hind at Barham Downs ; but the Weather proving very 
indifferent, they returned to Kensington without Killing the 
Hind." 

Wednesday, December 1, Banstead Downs. — The Duke of 
Cumberland and the Princess Amelia, attended by several 
persons of distinction, hunted a hind, which was killed " near 
the Pond " after a pleasant run of about two hours. Although 
the young Duke and his hard-riding little sister were announced 
to hunt a hind on Banstead Downs on the following Saturday, 
that event did not take place. When the fixture was made it 
was probably forgotten that on that day the Princess Amelia 
entered her thirteenth year ; consequently the family festivities 
on the happy occasion at Kensington prevented any hunting 
at Banstead. Hence December 1 was the last hunting day 
recorded (so far as we can ascertain) with the Royal Buck- 
hounds in the year 1736. With this season came the dawn 
of that change, or rather prolongation, of staghunting, and the 
subsequent alteration of the hunting season as we find it now 
established. And it is to those two royal youths we owe, in 
a great measure, the result. The King set sail from Helvoet- 
sluys on Monday, December 23, and, the wind being fair, he 
expected to be back in London on Christmas Day. After a 
run of about six leagues the wind changed, and blew very 
hard, the sea ran mountains high, and the Royal Yacht, with 
his Majesty on board, got within ten miles of Yai'mouth, but 
could not reach the beach without great risk of going ashore ; 
consequently she had to put about, and run before the wind 
back to Helvoetsluys, where the King disembarked. There he 
was detained by contrary winds and foul weather till February 
13, 1737. The following day he arrived ofi' Lowestoft, " where 
40 Sailors in White Shirts, went into the sea up to their 
Chins, and as soon as the Boat, his Majesty was in, came 



ASCOT KACES. 315 

at them, they took it out of the Sea, and carried it safe to 
Land," The King proceeded thence by road in his coach to 
London, where he arrived the following morning. During his 
stay in Hanover he frequently hunted the stag, but his prin- 
cipal sport was among the wild boars of the Westphalian 
mountains, the royal bag on September 24, near Gifhorn, 
having totalled no fewer than 70 head of those unclean though 
savoury tuskers. 

The official record of sport with the Royal Buckhounds for 
this season shows that 101 head of deer were killed and 
hunted.* 

The Ascot races took place in September, On Monday, the 
20th, the purse of 40 Guineas for hunters carrying 12 stone, 
saddle and bridle included, which had been ridden by their 
owners, "being gentlemen, to the death of a leash of stags 
this season, and that have not won the value of 51. in plate 
or money." The best of three heats (4 miles) was walked 
over for by Mr. Smith's bay horse Factor. On Tuesday, the 
21st, the Town Plate of Windsor of 20^. for any horse, mare, 
or gelding, carrying 10 stone, that never won above the value 
of 201. in plate or money at any one time, was won by Lord 
Gower's horse, Tumbler, by beating Mr. Downe's chestnut- 
grey mare Stay till I Come. On Wednesday, the 22nd, the 
Purse of 30 Guineas for hunters, carrying 10 stone, including 
saddle and bridle, "conformable to the qualifications of the 
first Article," was won by the Hon. John Spencer's bay horse, 
Robin Hood, beating Mr. Smallwood's grey mare, Lightfoot, 
and Mr. Long's chestnut horse Sly. The horses had to be 
entered on September 13 "at the house of Mr. John Tempro 
at Sunning-Hill Wells, at 4 o'clock in the afternoon," each 
horse entered for the 80 and 40 Guinea Plates, to pay one 

* The keepers of Swinley Walk, New Lodge Walk, Bagshot, and Easthamsted 
Walk, Billingbear Walk, Cranborn Walk, the Great Park, Richmond Park, and 
Epping Forest, for their fees for killing, with his Majesty's hounds 68 stags, 
at 21. each, 29 hinds at 11. each, and 3 bucks at os. each between December 31, 
1735, and December 31, 1736, by virtue of a warrant dated March 14, 1730, and 
a certificate under the hand of Charles, Earl of Tankerville, of the number 
killed, nil. 10.9. 



316 HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

guinea entrance, if a subscriber; if not, two guineas. The 
entrance for the Town Plate was two guineas on the day of 
entrance, or three guineas at the post, " and no less than three 
horses to start which are esteem'd running horses." A good 
ordinary was announced on every day of the races " at the 
said Mr. Tempro's." 



317 



CHAPTER XV. 

GEORGE II. {continued)— 1737 -17 U. 

Ralph Jenison, Esq., Thirty-Eighth Master : July 7, 1737, to December 25, 1744. 
— Records of the Runs. — Ascot Races. 

1737. — The hunting season of 1737 with this pack opened 
late and ended early. Mr. Ralph Jenison had succeeded Lord 
Tankerville as jNIaster of the Royal Buckhounds shortly before 
the season began. About the first week in August the King 
and the Royal Family arrived from Richmond at Hampton 
Court Palace. The Prince and Princess of Wales were at Kew, 
The King was far from well. The Queen was slowly, but 
surely, approaching her death. The weather was inclement. 
Political affairs were in a worse muddle than ever, and the 
botheration over the financial allowance of the Heir-Apparent 
and the settlement of the Princess gave rise to much unneces- 
sary unpleasantness in Court and political circles. Then the 
Princess of Wales was sent to St. James', and there safely 
delivered of a princess by " Mrs. Cannon, the Midwife of the 
Archbishop of York." These and other circumstances partly 
broke up and interrupted the hunting fixtures, so far as related 
to the Royal Family and the Court. When these interruptions 
were to some extent adjusted. Lady Walpole died, and she was 
soon after followed to the grave by another of the King's most 
intimate friends, Baron Hartoff, who was Secretary of State 
for Hanover, and a prominent follower of the Royal Buck- 
hounds. 

The first meet of this season took place on 

Wednesday, August 3, Richmond. — The King, Queen, Duke 



318 HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

of York, and the Princesses Amelia and Caroline arrived at 
the New Park from Hampton Court. A stag was roused, " and 
Notwithstanding the Heaviness of the Rain they staid till 
Twelve o'Clock before they quitted the Field." 

Saturday, August 19, Hounslow. — "His Majesty, the Duke 
and the Princess Amelia, attended by several Persons of Dis- 
tinction, went from Hampton-Court to Hounslow-Heath, where 
a Stag was turn'd out of a Waggon at the Starting-Post, which 
afforded them excellent Diversion for about two Hours, and 
was Kill'd in Feltham Fields near Hounslow." 

Wednesday, August 24, Twickenham Common. — " It rained 
so very hard, that his Majesty got into his Coach soon after 
the Hounds were laid on, and went to Hampton Court ; this 
was the first Stag that has been brought from Windsor Forest, 
and turned out this Year. This Stag took the Enclosures 
directly, and shew'd little Sport ; and it rained hard great Part 
of the Chase." 

Saturday, September 3, Hounslow. ^ — The King, Queen, 
Duke of Cumberland, and the Princesses at the meet, " where 
a Stag was turn'd out which had been brought from Windsor 
Forest. It gave a great deal of good Diversion for about four 
Hours, and was Kill'd near Hampton-Town ; his Majesty 
chang'd Horses four Times." 

Wednesday, September 14, Hounslow (?) — The King, Queen, 
Duke of Cumberland, and the Princesses Amelia and Caroline 
" took the Diversion of Stasf-Huntino- " where not mentioned. 
" It being Holy Cross Day, Ralph Jennison, Esq., Knight of 
the Shire for Northumberland, and Master of his Majesty's 
Buck-Hounds, held the Purse according to Custom to their 
Majesties, Nobility, Gentry, &c., when a considerable Contri- 
bution was made for the King's Huntsmen. After the Diver- 
sion was over their Majesties returned to Hampton-Court to 
Dinner." 

Saturday, September 17, Sunbury Common. — The same 
members of the Royal Family, attended by several persons 
of distinction, hunted a stag, " which carry 'd them from 9 to 
1 o'clock a Chace of about forty Miles, he crossing the Thames 



1737 : EECOEDS OF THE KUNS. 319 

several times, and at last took to Windsor-Forest, where his 
Majesty order'd the Dogs to be call'd off and a silver Collar 
to be put about the Stag's neck, and order'd that he should 
never be hunted again ; after which they returned to Hampton- 
Court to Dinner." 

Monday, September 19, Sunbury Common. — Their Majesties, 
the Duke of Cumberland, and the Princesses hunted a hind, 
which gave a good run for two hours. Killed near Teddington. 
" During the Chace his E,oyal Highness fell from his Horse on 
Hounslow-Heath, and receiv'd a slight Hurt." 

Wednesday, September 21, Sunbury Common. — The same 
members of the Royal Family hunted a hind, " which afforded 
them good Sport for two Hours, when it was Killed near 
Kingston- Wick." 

Saturday, September 24, Hounslow Heath. — The same 
members of the Royal Family " took the Diversion of Hunting 
a Hind from Hounslow-Heath, which cross'd the Thames and 
ran beyond Guildford in SuiTey, then turn'd back, and was 
taken as she was crossing the Thames near Staines ; but his 
Majesty order'd her Life to be spared, and about Five o'Clock 
their Majesties and the rest of the Royal Family return'd to 
Hampton-Court to Dinner. The Duke of Cumberland fell 
with his Horse, and pitching on his Face, his Royal High- 
ness had a great Effusion of Blood from his Nose." The 
highwaymen in the neighbourhood of Hounslow Heath were 
in battalions strong, and woe betide the straggling stag-hunter 
who fell into their clutches. 

This was Queen Caroline's last appearance in the hunting 
field. She died on the ensuing November 20, to the deep and 
lasting grief, not only of the King, her family, and friends, but 
of the nation. During the ten years (1727 till 1737) in which 
she yielded so great an influence over public business, it con- 
tinued to flow in a smooth and uniform current, seldom broken 
by obstacles, and bearing along comparatively few materials 
for history. It was her greatest pleasure to mingle with the 
people, and for many years she took especial delight in frater- 
nising with the field at the meets of the Royal Buckhounds. 



320 HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

As we have already recorded, the unrestrained liberty which 
was so cheerfully accorded to every one to attend those happy 
reunions with the Royal Pack in the New Park at Richmond, 
was so grossly abused, chiefly by importunate Germans, that 
it became absolutely necessary to restrict the loafers and beg- 
ging impostors, who frequently interfered with the real followers 
of the hounds. To stop these abuses the hunting tickets were 
a happy thought, as no one was allowed to enter the Park 
on these hunting mornings except those provided with one. 
All bond-fide followers of the pack obtained the necessary 
" permit " ; indeed, no instance of any refusal is recorded. The 
young members of the Royal Family were " well entered " by 
Her Majesty in the art and mysteries of the chase, and their 
subsequent career in the hunting field proved how worthy 
they were of such an able preceptor. In strictly political 
matters holes can be picked in the Queen's conduct. She cer- 
tainly governed by bribery. Her Ministers were corrupt and 
venal ; they wanted their price, and got it. That was the 
Queen's misfortune, not her fault. Unprincipled politicians 
brought her name into unnecessary conflict with the people 
over the Excise Act ; and although the Royal Family had 
really nothing to do with the Great Gin Question of the day, 
it was made a party cry to the prejudice of the Court. This, 
like many other libels on the personality of the members of the 
House of Hanover, must be ignored by the impartial and dis- 
passionate analyst of their form in rural affairs. 

It is asserted by the editor of Lord Hervey's " Memoirs of 
the Reign of George the Second," that Queen Caroline did not 
love hunting. Without disputing this statement, it would 
appear by the contemporary chronicles of the runs with the 
Royal Buckhounds that Her Majesty evinced more than a 
passing interest in the chase, and was solicitous that her 
children should be courageous and prudent followers of the 
pack. Possibly Lord Hervey may have found those Wednes- 
days and Saturdays, " which were the King's days for hunting," 
favourable opportunities of entertaining the Queen, " whilst 
other people were entertaining themselves with hearing dogs 



1738 : EECORDS OF THE RUNS. 321 

bark and seeing crowds gallop." We are told Lord Hervey 
did not love hunting, although he was mounted on those 
occasions on hunters placed at his disposal by the Queen. 
With Walpole so prominent in connection with the pack it 
is possible Lord Hervey deemed it prudent to avoid anything 
which might be construed to give umbrage to the Prime 
Minister, who could rarely brook a rival in the field or senate. 

According to the official certificate of the Master of the 
Buckhounds, 55 stags and 15 hinds were hunted by the pack 
during this season. 

1738. — Preparatory to the opening of the season of 1738, 
with our pack, the Duke of Kingston was gazetted to the 
ofiice of Master of His Majesty's Staghounds " on the North 
side of Trent," vice the Earl of Carlisle deceased ; and the 
Right Hon. Pobert Lord Walpole to be Master of His Majesty's 
Harriers and Foxhounds. The Earl of Tankerville resigned 
his gold staff as one of the Lords of the Bedchamber to the 
King, and soon after embarked for Holland. George III. was 
newly born. The Prince and Princess of Wales and young 
George and his little sister arrived at Cliefden House " for 
the summer season," where they received a present, from the 
Earl of Chesterfield, " of Cato (his Black), who is recon'd to 
blow the best French Horn and Trumpet in England."* 

Then we are told that there were " Shipp'd for Copenhagen 
six fine hunting horses and a Pack of Stag Hounds for the use 
of his Danish Majesty." " A Stag Hunter's Plate was run for 
on Honslow Heath, and won by Dr. Munro's ch. gelding 
All-deceiv'd-in-Toby." The King's hunting horses were 
ordered to be in readiness against August 2 " for the stag and 
hind hunting on Sunbury Common." 

* " Cato," previous to this time, had been in the service of Sir Robert Walpole. 
His portrait was painted in a group of hunting celebrities by Wooton, and is 
here engraved from the original picture in the possession of Walter Gilbey, Esq., 
at Elsenham Hall, Essex. The Prince of Wales appointed " Cato " head game- 
keeper at Cliefden, and afterwards at Richmond Park. Among the novel 
presents sent to the Prince and Princess of Wales, on the birth of George III., 
was a " newly invented " perambulator, made by "Mr. Bassinet, the eminent 
upholsterer in Piccadilly.'' 

21 



322 HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

The fii'st meet with the Buckhounds was announced to take 
place in the New Park, Richmond, on Saturday, July 1, but 
nothing further about it, or any ensuing one, transpires until 

Wednesday, July 26, Windsor Forest, when the Prince of 
Wales, the Duke of Cumberland, " and the eldest Princess took 
the Diversion of staghunting, which afforded them good Sport 
for several Hours." 




C^TO. 



Wednesday, August 2, Windsor. — The King, Duke 'of 
Cumberland, and the Princesses Amelia and Caroline roused 
a stag, which gave a run of " several hours ; after which His 
Majesty returned to Kensington to dinner." 

Saturday, August 12, Richmond. — The King, Duke of 
Cumberland, and the Princesses arrived from Kensington at 
the New Park, where they roused a stag, " which carried them 
a Pleasant Chace of an Hour and a Half, and was killed as he 
was going to take the great Pond. After the Chace was ovei', 



1738: RECORDS OF THE RUNS. 323 

the Dake and the Princesses returned to Kensinofbon, his 
Majesty and the Lords of the Bedchamber in Waiting, went 
to view her late Majesty's House at Richmond, and at two 
o'clock returned to Kensington." 

Wednesday, August 16, Richmond. — No information, 

Wednesday, September 20, Hounslow Heath. — The Duke of 
Cumberland and the Princesses Amelia and Caroline announced 
to hunt a hind. No reports. 

Saturday, September 2.3, Hounslow, — The King, Duke of 
Cumberland, and the Princesses " went from Kensington to 
Hounslow Heath, where a Hind was turn'd out to be hunted ; 
the Chace began at Ten o'Clock, and lasted 'till One, during 
which Time the Hind cross'd the Thames several Times, and 
after a fine Chace, was Kill'd near Staines. A Contribution 
being annually made, on the first Day of his Majesty's hunting 
the Hind, Ralph Jennison, Esq., Master of his Majesty's 
Buckhounds, held the Purse, and collected about 350 Guineas, 
his Majesty giving 100 Guineas, the Duke 30, and the 
Princesses 50 between them, the Ministers of State and others 
of the Nobility gave five Guineas each." 

Wednesday, September 27, Hounslow. — The King, accom- 
panied by the Duke of Cumberland, the Princesses Amelia 
and Caroline and suite, " took the Diversion of Staij-Huntinsr 
on Hounslow Heath as usual." 

Monday, October 1, Richmond. — The King, the Duke of 
Cumberland, and the two eldest Princesses "took the Diversion 
of Hunting in Richmond New Park. Next Monday a Hind 
will be turn'd out on Epsom Downs, so much Company 
spoiling the Diversion on Hounslow Heath." 

Wednesday, October 11, Richmond. — The same members of 
the Royal Family arrived at the New Park, where they hunted 
a hind, which gave a good run ; " and therefore the King did 
not receive the Compliments of the Nobility, Quality, and 
Foreign Ministers, on the Anniversary of his Coronation," 
which were to be " performed " on the following day. The 
hunting fixture was more important than that function ; a 
great honour for the chase ! Sir Robert Walpole " and divers 



324 HISTOKY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

other persons of Distinction" were present. The Premier, who 
had lately been prostrated with illness at the New Lodge in 
Richmond Park (his Ranger residence), was heartily con- 
gratulated on his restoration to health. 

Saturday, October 14, Richmond. — The Duke of Cumberland, 
the Princess Amelia, the Dukes of Newcastle and Grafton, Sir 
Robert Walpole, " several other persons of distinction," and a 
large field roused a hind in the New Park, " which was Kill'd 
after a fine Chace of two Hours." 

Wednesday, October 18, Richmond. — The King, the Duke of 
Cumberland, the Princesses Amelia and Caroline, attended by 
several of the nobility and gentry, roused a hind, " which 
afibrded a pleasant chace of two hours " ; and thus (so far as 
the Royal Family were concerned) the season ended. 

According to the ofiicial certificate of the Master of the 
Buckhounds, 51 stags and 26 hinds — which had been procured 
in Swinly, New Lodge, Bagshot, Easthampstead, Billingbeare 
Walks, Richmond Park, and Epping Forest — constituted the 
quarry during this season. 

1739. — Preparatory to the opening of the season of 173D 
Parliament was in full cry upon going to war with Spain. 
However, the belligerent legislators found time to pass a grant 
of 15,0001. a year for the Duke of Cumberland, and 24,000Z. a 
year for the Princesses Amelia, Caroline, Mary, and Louisa, 
who had just successfully negotiated a bad bout of the measles. 
The Royal children attended in the House of Lords when the 
Bills received the Royal assent, whereupon they returned 
thanks in the usual manner. The Prince and Princess of 
Wales received an ovation at Guildford races. The hunting 
horses belonging to the Royal Family were ordered to 
Hampton Court stables, and put to rights there for the 
ensuing season, which opened on 

Saturday, July 1, Richmond.— Earl}^ in the morning the 
Duke of Newcastle, Lord Harrington, Sir Robert Walpole, 
' and divers other Persons of Quality and Distinction hunted 
a Stag in Richmond New Park, beino; the fii'st Time of that 
Diversion this Season," 



1 739 : KECORDs of the runs. 325 

Saturday, July 21, Windsor. — The Duke of Cumberland, the 
Princesses Amelia and Caroline, attended by several persons 
of distinction, "went to Windsor New Forest, and took the 
Diversion of Hunting a Stag, which carry'd them a Chace of 
about thirty Miles, and was Kill'd between Wateroakly and 
Holyport." 

Wednesday, August 15, Eichmond. — The King and the Duke 
of Cumberland, attended by several persons of distinction, 
roused a stag in the New Park, which gave a good run of 
about two hours. "After the Sport was ended, his Majesty 
dined at Eichmond, and returned in the Evening to Kensing- 
ton." This was the first time George II. was out with the 
pack this season. Military preparations and frequent reviews 
of the troops in Hyde Park and on Hounslow Heath con- 
siderably interrupted the hunting arrangements of the Eoyal 
Family. 

Wednesday, August 22, Eichmond. — The same members of 
the Eoyal Family hunted a stag from the New Park, " which 
afforded excellent Sport till one o'Clock," when His Majesty 
returned to Kensington, 

Saturday, August 25, Eichmond. — " His Majesty and the 
Eoyal Family hunted a Stag in Eichmond New Park, which 
was Killed after a Chace of Two Hours." 

Saturday, September 1, Eichmond. — The King, attended by 
the Dukes of Marlborough, Grafton, Newcastle, etc., hunted 
from the New Park. No details. 

Wednesday, September 5, Eichmond. — " His Majesty, the 
Duke, and the Princesses took the diversion of huntinor a staer 
in Eichmond New Park." 

Saturday, September 8, Hounslow Heath. — The first meet 
of the season here gave one of the best runs. A large field 
assembled, including the King, Duke of Cumberland, and the 
Princesses, who were attended by "the Ministers of State, 
others of the Nobility, and Foreign Ministers." The Stag 
(which was brought from Epping Forest) was turned out at 
the starting post, ran directly to Sunbury, thence back to 
Hounslow Heath, thence to Southwell, and back to the Heath 



326 HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

again. He then ran to Hampton, where he crossed the 
Thames, and proceeded by Moseley Hurst away to Walton, 
where he recrossed the Thames, and came back to Hounslow, 
where he was run into and killed "after a chace of above forty 
Miles." The King, Sir Kobert Walpole, Lord Harrington, and 
Sir William Cope were up with the hounds during the whole 
of the run. " Mr. Serjeant, Master of the Crown Inn at 
XJxbridge, had the Misfortune to break his Thigh, by his 
Horse running away with him near Hampton Town," and was 
so ill that his life was despaired of. The Prime Minister was 
likewise laid up at his Lodge in the New Park, "having 
suffr'd a Great Fatigue in attending his Majesty in the long 
Hunting Chace." 

Wednesday, September 18, Hounslow, — The King, Duke of 
Cumberland, " and several of the Nobility," were at the meet. 
No details of the run ; nevertheless it must have been a 
" full head " one, as it was soon after announced that " His 
Grace the Duke of Newcastle recovers daily from his Indispo- 
sition, which was a violent Cold, he took in attending his 
Majesty a Hunting some Days ago." Sir Kobert Walpole was 
also on the mending list, and congratulated accordingly. Sad 
to say, the Prime Minister's chief motive in so constantly 
hunting with the Buckhounds was not exclusively attributable 
to his love for the chase. His presence here drove the Prince 
of Wales out of the field, and Walpole perceived that 
every encounter between the Prince and his father, amid such 
harmonising surroundings, would tend to heal the rupture 
which kept them apart. His equestrian portrait, in the 
summer costume worn by the followers of the Royal Buck- 
hounds in those days, is engraved after the original picture by 
Wooton. It is more interesting as a souvenir of the Royal 
Hunt in the reign of George II., than as a work of art. 
Divide et iinpera was the motto of this minister ; in no 
instance did he practise that precept more successfully than 
in fomenting dissension in the Royal Family. The heir- 
apparent being thus boycotted, and practically prohibited 
of hunting with the Royal Buckhounds, which he so dearly 




/^ 



Sir Robert Walpole 



328 HISTOKY OF THE KOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

loved, His Eoyal Highness now purchased " a set " of 
Foxhounds, supplemented them with drafts from the then 
famous Lincolnshire strain, hired the Durdans for a hunting- 
box, and announced three meetings a week at Epsom Downs. 
To checkmate this move the Premier appointed his eldest son, 
Lord Kobert Walpole (whom he had previously created a peer), 
to the office of Master of the Eoyal Harriers and Foxhounds, 
with a salary of 2,000^. a year. Foxhunting had now become 
the most popular pastime throughout the land. The famous 
Charleton Club had recently celebrated its second jubilee — 
the club having been the pioneer of this rising branch of the 
chase. The Duke of Cumberland had been formally inducted 
into its mysteries with the Duke of Newcastle's pack, two 
years previously, in Sussex. And it was introduced, "according 
to the English method of foxhunting," into France in 1737, by 
the Earl of Berkeley, who " hunted that Kingdom from 
Aubigny." His Lordship, therefore, had plenty of room to 
follow his hounds. We have no room here to devote to the 
subject, which we commend to the investigation of those who 
may be interested in the rise and progress of fox-hunting. 

As may be inferred from the above account of the runs 
recorded with the Buckhounds during this season, the current 
of sport with the pack was frequently dammed by pressing 
political and cognate affairs of State. Only one hind is men- 
tioned as having been hunted, and only two meets assembled 
at Hounslow Heath, when a stag was the quarry on both of 
these occasions. Before the season began great preparations 
were made in Windsor Forest, where the officers of the Board 
of Works were erecting "a large room adjoining to Swinley 
Lodge for his Majesty and the Royal Family to dine in on 
Hunting-days." But, so far as we can ascertain, only one 
meet was reported there in this season ; hence it is possible 
this large room must have been better than the company. 
The King did not visit Windsor during this year. 

It would, nevertheless, appear that this had been a brilliant 
season. It transpires, by the official certificate of the Master 
of the Buckhounds, that at least 87 stags and 85 hinds 



ASCOT EACES. 329 

had been killed and hunted by the pack. Unfortunately, 
the records of the runs — even on those occasions when the 
King and the Royal Family were out with the hounds — 
do not seem to be fully reported, and when Royalty did 
not appear in the hunting field the chroniclers of those days 
invariably disdained to give publicity to the proceedings of 
the pack. Still, we must be thankful for such small mercies, 
and make the most of the intelligence thus placed at our 
disposal. From this season onward we shall be far worse off 
in this respect. War — that spoil-sport — was now upon us, 
and during the ensuing ten years very little about the pro- 
ceedings of the Royal Buckhounds in the hunting field is to 
be found in our rural annals or cognate domestic history. 

Ascot races were held on July 9 and 10. On the first day 
of this meeting the 40 Guinea Plate for hunters carrying 12 
stone was won by Colonel Horley's grey horse beating two 
others. On the second day the 20 Guinea Plate was won by 
Mr. Ives' (one of the yeomen prickers) grey mare beating six 
others. 

We shall hear nothing of Ascot races for some years hence. 
They were, indirectly, suppressed by the Jockey Club, and by 
the Act of Parliament of 13 George II. c. 19. Nearly ten 
years prior to this time the members of the Jockey Club held 
a memorable meeting on August 1, 1729, at Hackwood, the 
Duke of Bolton's seat in Hampshire, for the ostensible purpose : 
" to consider of methods for the better keeping of their respective 
strings of horses at Newmarket." At this meeting of the 
(original) members of the Jockey Club it was agreed unani- 
mously that steps should be taken to discountenance, and, if 
possible, to suppress the so-called race meetings which had, 
about this time, sprung up in every part of the country, on the 
ground that such race meetings were inimical to the true in- 
terests of the turf. In the metropolis several of those so-called 
race meetings were conducted in the most disgraceful manner. 
They were associated with disgusting scenes of gross profligacy, 
brutality, drunkenness, and robbery. During the decade 



330 HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

ending 1739 these hole-and-corner racing fixtures — at which a 
thoroughbred race-horse rarely ran — attained unenviable noto- 
riety, and were almost universally condemned by the public 
and in the press. At length the remonstrances of the members 
of the Jockey Club and others had the desired effect. A bill 
was introduced in Parliament, in which were embodied certain 
provisions calculated to put a stop to the atrocities perpetrated 
under the disguise of horse-racing. The outcome of this bill 
was the Act of Parliament, 13 George II. c. 19, pursuant to 
which it was enacted that from and after June 24, 1740, no 
person was allowed to enter, start, or run any horse, mare, or 
gelding for any race unless the animal so entered was the 
bond fide property of the person by whom it was entered. 
No person could enter more than one horse in any race. No 
plate could be run for under the value of 50^., any infringe- 
ment of this stipulation being liable to a penalty of 200^. ; five- 
year-old horses to carry 10 stone, six-year-olds 11 stone, and 
seven-year-olds, 12 stone each. The owner of any horse carrying 
less weight to forfeit 200^. The entrance money to go to " the 
second best horse," and not to what is now technically called 
the " Fund." The Act did not apply to Scotland or Ireland, nor 
to matches run for at Newmarket or York. The primary object 
of this Act was to hamper the objectionable hole-and-corner 
" race meetings " above referred to, at which one of the chief 
prizes was a cask of beer to the person who overtook and 
lifted a pig by the tail — the tail having been well greased 
for the occasion ! For a time, at least, the purport of this 
Act had the desired effect, inasmuch as these objectionable 
" race meetings " could not conform to the dictates of the law. 
Unfortunately, in passing the Act, such genuine races as those 
run for at Ascot and elsewhere by horses owned by staghunters 
and hunt-servants — to whom a large stake was not a primary 
object — had been overlooked ; consequently, as Ascot was too 
poor to raise sufficient money, or to increase the 40 and 20 
Guinea Plates to two of 50^. each, this meeting had to drop 
out of the annals of the turf during the ensuing four years. 
1740. — We were now at war with Spain. At home military 



1740 : EECOEDS OF THE EUNS. 331 

oi'ganisation, the camp at Hounslow, reviewing, massing, and 
shipping troops and sailors was the order of the day. The 
Royal Family were divided, and in doleful dumps among 
themselves. The Duke of Cumberland was not on friendly 
terms with the Prince of Wales, who rarely took any interest 
in the Royal Buckhounds, and devoted his spare time to his 
own particular pack. The Duke of Cumberland volunteered 
to serve in the naval expedition on the Spanish Main ; sailed 
in the Boyne frigate, and returned victorious in October. In 
May the King set out for Hanover, and did not return to 
England until November. The Princess Mary, heretofore a 
conspicuous follower of the pack, was married to Frederick, 
Prince of Hesse, consequently Her Royal Highness was never 
seen again with the Royal Buckhounds. As to the other 
members of the Royal Family, they are not mentioned as 
having been out with the pack during this season. We can 
find no reports of the runs. It appears, by the official certi- 
ficate of the Master, that the sport was good : 72 stags and 33 
hinds having been " killed " by the hounds during this year. 

1741. — The King set out for Hanover in May, and did not 
return to England until October. During this interval the 
Duke of Cumberland assumed a prominent position in home 
affairs, exhibiting much energy in directing military matters 
at the principal camps. However, His Royal Highness found 
time to hunt pretty frequently with the Royal Buckhounds; 
and he also organised a pack of staghounds of his own. It was 
publicly announced, on July 8, that " their Royal Highnesses 
the Duke and Princesses began last Monday to hunt a stag in 
Windsor Forest, which sport is to be continued two days in 
every week during the hunting season." How far this arrange- 
ment was carried out we are unable to ascertain, the records 
of sport with these packs having been almost eclipsed by 
intelligence from the battlefield and camps. Indeed, we can 
only trace two circumstantial reports from the hunting field — 
viz., on Saturday, September 17, when their Royal Highnesses 
the Princesses hunted a stag which ran from Windsor Forest 
to Guildford, " from whence their Royal Highnesses came to 



332 HISTOKY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

St. James's in a hir'd coach, their horses being all tir'd with 

the chase " ; and on Saturday, October 24, " H.R.H. the Duke 

took the diversion of hunting in Windsor Forest ; but the 

company was a little retarded in the sport by one of his 

Highness's horses accidentally dropping down dead on the 

road near Hounslow." It does not appear that the Prince of 

Wales was out with the Royal Buckhounds during this season. 

However, His Royal Highness hunted for some time in the New 

Forest, and devoted a considerable portion of his spare time to 

cricket and yachting. According to the official certificate of 

the Master of the Buckhounds, it appears that, from Christmas 

1740 to Christmas 1741, 92 stags, 61 hinds, and 80 bucks had 

been killed and hunted " by His Majesty's and the Duke of 

Cumberland's hounds." * 

1742.— War. Hunting intelligence nil. In April the King 

formed an army in Flanders. Walpole's Government was 

overthrown, when he retired from office with a peerage and 

untold plunder, while his three sons held sinecures and places 

for their several lives amounting to nearly 20,000Z. a year. 

The Prince of Wales and his father were reconciled. The 

Duke of Cumberland embarked for Flanders. Somerville — 

that glorious laureate of the chase — died at the beginning of 

the hunting with the Royal Buckhounds, whose praises he so 

often sang in undying verse. We can find no records of the 

runs during this season ; nevertheless, it must have been a 

very good one, as, according to the official certificate of the 

* We hear nothing of Ascot races in this year. The Staghunters' Plate of 
-to guineas for " real hunters, that have been in at the death of two brace of 
deer with the King's hounds since the 1st of July last, carrying 10 stone, 
bridle and saddle, etc.," was to have been run for on Hounslow Heath on 
Tuesday October 4, but " by reason of the bad weather and the badness of 
the course" it was subsequently decided to change the venue to Mosley 
Hurst, in Surrey, when the race came off, and was won by the Duke of New- 
castle's grey mare Surrey, she having beaten the Duke of Cumberland's horse 
Whitefoot, the Hon. Peter Wentworth's black gelding Come-tickle-me-lightly, 
and four others, belonging to Messrs. Jenison, Hammond, Jennings, and Eaby. 
Notwithstanding the '• badness of the course " at Hounslow, races were held 
there for some years after. This was contrary to the recent Act of Parliament ; 
but it seems that Hounslow having been under martial law at this time, a civil 
writ could not run there. 



1742-1744 : becoeds of the kuns. 333 

Master of the Buckhounds, the quarry provided for this pack 
and that of the Duke of Cumberland, from Christmas 1741 to 
Christmas 1742, was 90 stags, 64 hinds, and 27 bucks. 

1743. — War. George II. entered into an alliance with 
Frederick II. of Prussia, of which the most prominent outcome 
was the battle of Dettingen, where the Duke of Cumberland 
received a severe wound. We were threatened by, and greatly 
alarmed at, the imminent prospect of an invasion by France; 
while the almost overt movements of the Jacobites at home 
placed the safety of the Kingdom in a very precarious position. 
These events left no room for hunting intelligence ; conse- 
quently we hardly hear anything of the proceedings of the 
Royal Buckhounds in the hunting field, except that the Princess 
Amelia was frequently out with the pack. It seems the Duke 
of Cumberland gave up, or put aside, his pack of staghounds, 
as we hear nothing of it in the official certificate of the Master 
of the Buckhounds during this and for some subsequent years. 
The number of " deer " killed by His Majesty's hounds in the 
year ended at Christmas 1743 was 54 stags and 30 hinds, 
from which we may infer the runs were good and the pace a 
cracker.* 

1744. — On July 25 it was publicly announced that the 
Duke of Cumberland and the Princess Amelia " began to take 
the diversion of staghuntinsf in Windsor Forest." In the 
ensuing month the Duke went to Hanover ; consequently the 
Princess Amelia was the principal representative of the Royal 
Family to be seen out with the pack during the remainder of 
this season. The Duke did not return until October 18, the 
King having arrived from Hanover on September 1. In the 
meantime, the ordinary followers of the Royal Buckhounds 
appeared twice a week in force. The Duke of Grafton arrived 
at Sunning Hill early in August " for staghunting and to drink 
the waters of that place." The official certificate of the Master 

* On October 13 the Duke of Bedford's hounds are reported to have roused a 
deer at Wooton Woods, near Bedford, which they ran for six hours without 
a check. " By the least computation they ran upwards of 60 miles, which by 
sportsmen is thought to be the greatest chase ever run hy hounds." 



334 HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

of the Buckhounds shows that between Christmas 1743 and 
Christmas 1744 the pack had killed and hunted 63 stags, 
17 hinds, and 20 bucks, and that the keepers of the several 
walks and parks from which the quarry was derived received 
in the usual fees 154/. This was Mr. Ralph Jenison's last 
year of office in the first period of his Mastership of the Royal 
Buckhounds. As we shall presently see, Mr. Jenison assumed 
the official couples for the second and last period of his Master- 
ship two years after this time. 

Ascot races were resumed on September 17 and 18. We 
have not been able to ascertain the entries or the results. 
Beyond the subjoined programme of the two 50Z. plates and 
the announcement of the assembly and concert to be held in the 
Town Hall, Windsor, no further intelligence has apparently 
been preserved : — 

" Ascot Heath Races, Berks. 

" To be run for on Ascot Heath, in Windsor Forest, on Monday the 
17th of September, Fifty Pounds, by any Horse, Mare or Gelding, 
that is at this Time in the Possession of the Huntsman, or one of the 
Yeomen Prickers of his Majesty's Buck Hounds, or in the Possession 
of the Keepers of the said Forest, or Windsor Great Park in the said 
County ; to carry twelve Stone, Bridle and Saddle included, as never 
started for Match or Plate, and has been hunted in the said Forest 
between Lady-Day last and Michaelmas -Day. All Disputes for this 
Plate, relating to Entering or Running, to be determin'd by Ralph 
Jennison, Esq. ; or whom he shall appoint. 

" And on Tuesday, the 18th Instant, Fifty Pounds by Hunters, that 
never won either Match, Plate or Stakes, and that never started for 
any Thing except a Hunter's Plate, to carry twelve Stone, Bridle 
and Saddle included. No less than three deem'd Hunters to start, 
and if only one comes, to have Twenty Guineas, and the Plate not 
run for ; and if two only, to have Ten Guineas each. No Person to 
enter two Horses. 

" All horses that run for the first Plate must be enter'd on Monday 
next, the lOth of this Month, between the Hours of One and Six in 
the Afternoon, at Sunninghill Wells in Whidsor Forest, by the Clerk 
of the Course, paying Half-a-Crown to him. Entrance Fee. 



ASCOT RACES. 335 

" And for the second Plate to enter at the same Time and Place, 
paying if a Subscriber One Guinea Entrance, if a Non-Subscriber 
Three Guineas, or at the Post Two Guineas if a Subscriber ; if a 
Non- Subscriber Five Guineas, to go to the second best tho' distanc'd. 

" All Horses to be kept from the Time of Entering to the Time of 
Running, at some Publick House within three Miles of the said 
Course ; and all Horses, &c., to be plated by some Smith that lives 
within that Distance. 

" All Disputes for this Plate, relating either to Entering or Run- 
ning, to be determin'd by the Majority of Subscribers their present. 

" There will be Ordinaries each Day, at Sunninghill Wells at One 
o'clock." 

•' Windsor, Sept. 17, 1744. 
" rr^HESE are to certify the Gentlemen and Ladies, that there 
-L will be an Assembly at the Town-Hall there Tomorrow, the 
18th instant, being the Day of the Horse- Race on Ascot-Heath, 
near Windsor." 



"AT the Town-Hall, Windsor, this Day the ITth Instant, will be 
-^--^ perform'd 

SOLOMON. 

A Serenata, taken from the Canticles. 

Set to Musick by Mr. Boyce. 

Tickets to be had at the Maidenhead, the Ball and Castle, and 

the White Hart."* 



* This aristocratic gatliering contrasts favourably with the entertainments of 
the upper ten in Belgravia on the same day, to wit : " At May-Fair Dnckuig 
Pond. This Day, precisely at Two o'Clock, three Dogs will hunt Six Ducks, 
for Three Guineas. And on Monday the 1st of October next, will be Goose 
Hunting ; and the famous Flying Dean will hunt six Ducks, for Two Guineas, 
against the noted Nero, at the above Place, precisely at Two o'Clock." 



336 HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

GEORGE II. {concluded)— 11^^-11 m. 

The Earl of Tankerville, Thirty-ninth Master: December 31, 1744, to June 25, 
1746. — Ealph Jenison, Esq. (ii), Fortieth Master : July 2, 1746, to 
February 5, 1757. — Viscount Bateman, Forty-first Master : July 1, 1757, 
to October 25, 1760.— ii. March 17, 1761, to July 5, 1782(?).— Records of the 
Runs. — Annual Expenses of the Pack during the Reign of George II, — ^The 
Huntsmen and the Hunt-Servants. — Ascot Race". 

On the last day of the year 1744 the Earl of Halifax was 
appointed successor to Ralph Jenison, Esq., and his lordship 
consequently became the Thirty-ninth INIaster of the Royal 
Buckhounds on the day above mentioned. He retained the 
official insignia of the hunt during the years 1745 and 174G 
down to the opening of that season, when he retired from this 
office. During Lord Halifax's mastership we find very few 
allusions to the proceedings of the R.oyal Buckhounds in the 
hunting field. His first season must necessarily be drawn 
blank, so far as concerns any records of sport with the pack. 
'Twas '45, and " '45 " explains the matter. Prince Charles 
Edward Stuart was making a gallant attempt to recover the 
kingdom which he, and many others, deemed to be his alone 
by inheritance and "right divine." The proceedings of the 
" Younir Pretender " and his Jacobite adherents need no further 
reference here. In May George II. left for Hanover, and did 
not return to England for some months. The Duke of 
Cumberland was also absent, and was otherwise too much 
engaged to take any interest in hunting. Nevertheless, the 
pack had been out at least twice a week during the season, 
and apparently gave good runs. It does not appear, however. 



1746 : EECORDS OF THE RUNS. 337 

that any members of the Royal Family, except the Princess 
Amelia, participated in the sport. The official certiticate of 
the Master of the Buckhounds indicates that 44 stags and 16 
hinds had been killed and hunted by the pack during this year. 

1746. — The Civil War practically came to an end with the 
Battle of Culloden in the spring of this year. Then followed 
the preparations for decorating Temple Bar with human heads. 
Midsummer and the opening of the hunting season arrived in 
due course, when it was found there was a deficiency in the 
Civil List amounting to 456,733^. 16.s. S^d. This having been 
made good by Parliament, the Lords of the Treasury wrote to 
the Lord Chamberlain conveying His Majesty's commands that 
he should exercise economy and prudence, and to be careful in 
his expenses, and to use his utmost endeavour to lessen the 
incidental cost of the Household, and to prevent any addition 
of the expenses thereto. It does not appear, however, that the 
cost of maintaining the Royal Buckhounds had increased, or that 
there were any considerable arrears due or owing on account 
of the pack. The Duke of Cumberland proceeded to Windsor 
in July, the King went there on a flying visit soon after, " and 
view'd the Lodge in the Park there and that on the Forest, 
both of which are fitted up for the Duke." His Royal 
Highness sojourned in the vicinity during the month of 
August, and, apparently, hunted occasionally with the Royal 
Buckhounds. The Princesses were gone to Bath. Mr. Ralph 
Jenison became the Master of the Royal Buckhounds, for the 
second time, at the opening of this season ; and according to 
his certiticate 46 stags and 22 hinds had been killed and 
hunted by the pack from Christmas 1745 to Christmas 1746. 

1747. — War. The King and the Duke of Cumberland 
absent in Hanover, etc. No huntings intellisence.* Never- 

* We can only trace the report of one run with the pack this season, when 
it appears it was taken to Epping Forest, on Wednesday, August 24, which 
" being the day fix't for the Ladies' Hunt, a stag was rous'd, near the Green 
Man, which ran several hours, and afforded excellent Diversion. There were 
present a great number of Ladies finely mounted, many of whom kept in view 
the whole chase and came in at the death. Several in the chase were thrown 
from their horses, rode over and receiv'd much hurt." 



338 HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

theless, this season with the Royal Buckhounds must have 
been a fairly good one, as 45 stags and 28 hinds had been 
killed and hunted by the pack. 

1748. — Peace and plenty — of racing at Ascot. "What were 
the fruits which Britain reaped from this long and dreadful 
war ? A dreadful expense of blood and treasure, disgrace on 
disgrace, and the national debt accumulated to eighty millions 
sterling." — Hume. The King did not return to England until 
November 24. The Duke of Cumberland arrived at his 
hunting quarters at Windsor on August 20. His Royal 
Highness, who had been Ranger of the Great and Little Parks 
since July 174G, was now appointed Lieutenant of Windsor 
Forest during the life of the King and the Princess Amelia or 
the longest liver of them. Notwithstanding the attraction 
presented by the local duties belonging to the Lieutenancy of 
the Forest, the Duke soon left the locality and returned to 
Hanover. Meanwhile the Princess Amelia occasionally hunted 
with the Buckhounds ; and although we are unable to unearth 
any records of the runs, it seems the sport was good, the fields 
large, and the pace a cracker.* The official certificate of the 
Master shows that 52 stags and 81 hinds were killed and 
hunted by the pack from Christmas 1747 to Christmas 1748. 

At Ascot the races were resumed and run for on August 15, 
16, and 17, as appeal's by the subjoined programme of this 
meeting : — 

* Good runs seem to have prevailed in foxhunting and staghunting during 
this season. " On Monday (December 5) Lord Chedworth's and Mr. Button's 
confederate pack of Foxhounds had the most remarkable fox-chase that ever 
was seen in those parts (Camden, Gloucestershire). They ran a fox five hours 
without a check over the finest country in England ; no chase could have 
afforded more entertainment, no hounds could pursue their game with more 
steadiness and resolution, no fox could more boldly run over a fine country, 
and no sportsmen could pursue with more spirit and judgment in riding ; for 
it was remarkable that there was not a hunter at the unkenneling that was not 
at the death ; and not five horses out of thirty able to go a mile further : many 
horses were obliged to be blooded to save their lives." On November 25 the 
Duke of Marlborough's staghounds had a run in Oxfordshire of " at least 
50 miles." The Duke and many of his friends were in at the death. Most of 
the field, "though well mounted, tired their horses before the chase was ended." 



ASCOT EACES. 339 

" To be run for on Ascot-Heath, in Windsor Forest, on Monday, the 
15th of August next, a Purse of 50^., by actual Hunters of the past 
Season, that never started for Match or Prize, nor never had a Sweat 
before Lady Day last. Those of full age ten Stone and a half ; all 
vinder that Age ten Stone ; a Certificate of which to be produced at 
the Time of Entrance. 

" On Tuesday the 16th will be run for, on the same Course, a 
Purse of 50^., by any Horse, Mare or G-elding, carrying ten Stone ; 
the best of three Heats ; but whatever Horse, Mare or Gelding that 
wins two Heats shall have the Plate ; the winning Horse to be sold, 
if demanded by any one of the Subscribers, for 80/,, but if demanded 
by more than one to be determined by a Raffle. 

" On Wednesday the 17th a Purse of 50/., by Horses, &c., which 
have been only Hunters, and Stag- Hunted in Windsor Forest this 
Year, and hunted by the Owners ; and that never were in Training 
with Intention to run for any Match or Prize by an Hunter's Plate, 
Weight twelve Stone. 

" Each Horse etc., that runs for the Hunter's Plate must be the 
Property of a Subscriber, and have been in his Possession from Lady 
Day last to the Day of Running. 

" To enter at Sunning-hill Wells on the Monday se'nnight before 
the Race Week ; if a Subscriber of two Guineas to pay one Guinea 
Entrance ; if a Subscriber of only one Guinea to pay two Guineas 
Entrance. No less than three to start for each Plate. 

" The winning Horse for each of the above Prizes to pay five 
Guineas towards mending the Course and Rails. 

"To run according to Articles, which will be produced at entering. 

"If any Difference should arise to be Determin'd by a Majority 
of the Subscribers then present. 

" N.B. — There will be Assemblies at the Town Hall in Windsor, 
during the Races, as usual." 

We can find no account or reference to the results of these 
races, except that one of the Plates or Purses of 50^. was won 
by Mr. Bowie's horse, of Windsor, which likewise won a match 
of 100 guineas run for at Ascot on Thursday, August 25, from 
a horse belonging to a Mr. Burton. 

1749. — We cannot find any records of the runs with the 
Royal Buckhounds during this year. The Duke of Cumberland 



340 HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

was at his hunting lodge in A\^indsor Forest for a short sojourn ; 
he was absorbed in military affairs. The King and the Prin- 
cesses stayed at Kensington Palace. The Prince of Wales gave 
his spare time to hunting in the New Forest and yachting 
about the Nore. The ordinary followers of the Royal Buck- 
hounds apparently had a good season, there having (according 
to the official certificate of the jMaster) been killed and hunted 
with the pack 64 stags and 21 hinds. 

Ascot Races were announced to come off on Tuesday, Wed- 
nesday, Thursday, and Friday, the 1st, 2nd, .3rd, and 4th of 
August. The race for the first day was for a Purse of 50^., by 
hunters that had never started for match or plate, and used as 
regular hunters, which had been in at the death of a leash of 
stags in Windsor Forest " this season," carrying 12 stone; the 
second day a Plate of 50^., free to any horses that had never won 
above 50^. at any one time (bar in matches), those of full age 
to carry 11 stone, six-year-olds 10 stone, five-year-olds and 
under that age, 9 stone ; the third day 501. was to be run for 
by the hunters belonging to the huntsmen, yeomen prickers, 
and keepers, carrying 12 stone ; and on the last day the prize 
was 50/'. for any horse, mare, or gelding carrying 10 stone. 
Each of these races was three heats of four miles a heat. The 
entrance money was as in the year 1744, but the winners were 
now called upon to pay five guineas " towards mending the 
course." Three to run, or do race. The competitors to be 
shown at Sunning-hill Wells on July 24, and to run according 
to the articles submitted on the day of entry. We can find 
no return of the results of this meeting except as to the 
Hunter's Plate, which was won by JNIr. Withers' chestnut 
horse Windsor by the first two heats, defeating Mr. Buckley's 
bay gelding Speaker, and Mr. Fisher's bay horse Ramper. 
Possibly the other items in the programme did not fill. 

1750. — The King was abroad ; the Duke of Cumberland was 
principally occupied with military affairs, consequently we 
hear hardly anything of the Royal Buckhounds in the hunting 



1750 : llECORDS OF THE RUNS. 341 

field during this year. When the hunting season opened 
Windsor was en fete on the occasion of the installation of 
Prince George, K.G. ("who shall be King hereafter"). In 
September, 'two bucks and a stag having been killed by 
poachers within the parish of Bray " in the Forest of Wind- 
sor," the churchwardens and overseers of the poor, " desirous 
to declare their abhorance of such practices," offered a reward 
of 10^. for the discovery and conviction of any one concerned 
in the same. Dennis Gainer, saddler, in Long Lane, near West 
Smithfield, London, " and no where else," announced to all 
gentlemen and sportsmen that he had lately invented a new 
method of making velvet hunting and jockey caps, and also 
a neat light sort for ladies, without any seam or button, in 
one entire piece of velvet, which would not rip or wear bare, 
and the skull was so stout as to defend the head from any 
blow or fall. As appears by the official certificate of the 
Master only 40 stags and 4 hinds had been killed and hunted . 
by the pack this year. 

1751. — Horace Walpole, writing under date of June 25, 
1751, in his "Memoirs of the E,eign of George II.," says: 
" The Duke [of Cumberland] had a fall as he was hunting at 
Windsor, and was taken up speechless, and refusing to be 
blooded, grew dangerously ill with a pain in his side, and 
was given over by his physicians, but recovered. The King 
was inexpressibly alarmed, wept over him, and told everybody 
that was in his confidence that the nation would be undone, 
left to nothing but a woman and children ! He said to Mr. 
Fox of the Duke, ' He has a head to guide, to rule, and to 
direct.' "... If Walpole is correct in his date the hunting 
season with the Royal Buckhounds must have opened rather 
early in this year. The accident to the Duke must not have 
been so serious as it was represented to have been, for His 
Royal Highness was out with the pack on July 18, on which 
occasion he was accompanied " by several persons of distinc- 
tion." In the ensuing week there was consternation in London 
on receipt of the news that the Duke had died at Windsor. 
It was quite true the Duke was dead ; his defunct grace was 



342 HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

a favourite charger of that name, which his Eoyal Highness 
" rode in Scotland during the late unnatural Rebellion." A 
groom reporting the circumstance in Windsor, " the Publick, 
without enquiry catched the News, and with swifter currency 
than the Tide, it came to Town." On the 10th of this month 
the Princess Amelia was sworn into the office of Ranger of 
Richmond New Park by the Chairman and High Bailiff of 
the City and Liberty of Westminster, at Kensington Palace — 
an appointment which, directly and indirectly, led to great 
contention and lawsuits during the ensuing ten years. In 
August, Cranborn Lodge — which had been occupied by the 
late Duke of St. Albans — was given to the Duke of Cumberland 
for the natural term of his life. On the 8th His Royal High- 
ness took possession of this Lodge, when the occasion was 
celebrated with a cricket match between " the Duke of Cum- 
berland's XI. V. Sir John Elvill's XI., which the latter won by 
an innings." On Monday, July 12, the Duke and a large field 
were out with the Buckhounds, and this is the last allusion 
we have met with relating to the runs with the pack during 
this season. It is improbable that any of the Princesses hunted 
with the pack before September 8, on which day the Court 
went out of mourning for the late Prince of Wales. Poor Fred 
had been devotedly attached to the Royal Hunt down to the 
time when, by the specious policy of Walpole, he was forced 
to seek other hunting quarters. Like the Princess Anne, in 
the days of yore, he cast long lingering glances after the Royal 
Buckhounds, and it is alleged that he employed scouts, during 
the period of his banishment from Windsor, to inform him 
(when he was in residence at Cliefden and Kew) whenever 
the pack ran in those directions. A saddled hunter was con- 
tinually kept in readiness ; and whenever an opportunity 
of this sort presented, Fred unexpectedly fell in with the 
hunt, and enjoyed the sport to his heart's content. During 
his exile in Hanover he was trained on sausages and sower- 
crout (orthography not warranted sound in wind or limb) ; 
nevertheless there must have been a good current of true 
British blood in his veins. On his arrival in England he 



1751 : KECORDS OF THE RUNS — ASCOT RACES. 343 

adapted himself, like a true son of the soil, to all our national 
sports and pastimes, and soon became proficient in hunting, 
cricket, yachting, racing, angling, and falconry. Unfortunately, 
he was somewhat addicted to betting ; and, according to the 
custom of those days, he invariably had a heavy stake and a 
wager on every run made in a cricket match.* The primary 
cause of the fatal illness which somewhat unexpectedly carried 
off the Prince was attributed at the time to " a blow on his 
side with a ball about two years ago, playing at cricket, which 
diversion he was very fond of, and 'tis thought was the occa- 
sion of his death, having a bag [imposthume] near six inches 
long, down his side, full of putrescence." 

Upon the whole, this season with the Royal Buckhounds 
must have yielded better sport than some of the preceding 
ones, 73 stags and 14 hinds having been killed and hunted 
by the pack. 

The programme of the "Ascot Heath Races " for 1751 com- 
prised the following events : On Tuesday, July 2, a plate 
of 50^. value, open to any horse, mare, or gelding that had 
been used as a regular hunter, and had been at the death of a 
leash of stags in Windsor Forest, " and rid by his owner this 
last season," and that never started for anything except a 
hiTnter's plate ; to carry 12 stone, the best of three heats, and 
to be the property of a gentleman. On Wednesday, July 3, a 
plate of 50^. value, free for any horse, mare, or gelding ; weight, 
10 stone ; three heats ; open to all horses, etc., that never won 
more than 50 guineas at one time, matches excepted. On 
Thursday, July 4, a plate of 50/., free to any horse, etc., 
belonging to any or either huntsmen, yeomen prickers, or 
keepers belonging to any or either of the packs of Windsor 
Forest; each horse, etc., to carry 12 stone, saddle and bridle 

* The notorious Bubb-Doddington incident, which every writer on the 
Hanoverian era, from Thackeray to McCarthy, has misconstrued, was a bet on 
a run in a game of cricket. In those days what are now termed "runs " were 
called " notches," the runs made by the batsmen having been cut or " nicked " 
on a piece of wood. Hence, a person in speaking of losing a bet on a run, said 
" So-and-so nicked me for so much." 



344 HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT KACES. 

included ; the best of three heats ; every horse, etc., to be the 
property of a huntsman, etc., and to be in his possession for 
six months at the time of entering, to be a known hunter, and 
never started for any plate but a hunter's plate, and that in 
Windsor Forest. On Friday, the 5th, a plate of 501. for any 
horse, etc., that never won 50^., matches excepted ; six-year- 
olds 10 stone, five-year- olds 9 stone ; three heats ; certificates 
to be produced at the time of entrance ; all horses to be 
entered at Summerhill Wells on Tuesday, June 26, between 
the hours of three and eight in the afternoon, and be subject 
to the Articles produced at the time of entrance. Every sub- 
scriber of 2 guineas to pay 1 guinea entrance ; subscribers of 
1 guinea to pay 2 guineas ; a non-subscriber to pay 3 guineas 
entrance ; which entrance money to go to a futui^e Plate. 
Every horse entered to pay 5s. to the clerk of the course. No 
less than three horses to start for each of these Plates. If but 
one enters to be allowed 10 guineas; if two, I7i guineas; and 
the Plate not to be run for. 

No booths to be erected on the course, or carts, by any 
person unless a subscriber to the plates, and by the direction 
of the clerk of the course. 

" No Horse, Mare, or Gelding that was on the 7th Day of 
April last the Property of Mr. Prentice (who was then the 
Owner of Trimmer), or shall belong to him at the Time of 
these Paces, shall be admitted to start for any of these Plates." 
" The Hunter's Plate on Tuesday last was won by Mr. 
Walker's chestnut gelding Slender, beating with great ease 
William Walker, Esqr.'s, Windsor ; Col. Bosca wen's Northaller- 
ton ; Captain Phillips' Red Tail ; and Mr. Osborn's Grist. 

" The Aged Plate was not run for on Wednesday, to the great 
Disappointment of Multitudes, who went thither to see the 
Decision between Capt. Vernon's Grey Horse, Beau (late Lord 
Portmore's), and Mr. Marshall's Chestnut Horse, Diver, upon 
which great Sums were depending. 

" There were but three Horses to start for this Plate ; and 
Beau, since his Entrance, being match'd to run with some 
other Horse for a considerable Sum, Diver receiv'd Ten 



1752: ASCOT EACES — EECOKDS OF THE KUNS. 345 

Guineas; and is gone, as we are inform'd, to Hounslow ; where 

'tis said, he will meet Mr. Roger's Grey Horse, Garland, late 

Sir Ralph Gore's. The Odds are Five and Six to Four on 

Diver against Garland, the first Time they meet." 

Tlie following Horses started for a Purse of Fifty Pounds, 

and came in as follows : — 

IstHt. 2ndHt. SrdHt. 
Mr. Benj. Rogers's grey horse, Pumpldn, 

late Loi'd Portmore's, got by Steady, five 

Years old 3 1 1 

Mr. Swymmer's Bay Horse, Saturn, Babram's 

Brother, six Years old .... 1 3 2 

Sir Charles Goreing's Chestnut Horse, 

Golden Locks, got by Golden Locks, five 

Years old 2 2 3 

The Odds at starting were on Golden Locks. 

1752. — The Duke of Cumberland occupied his hunting 
lodge in Windsor Forest during a considerable part of this 
year. A large body of troops were encamped there through 
the summer. The Royal Buckhounds met twice a week, as 
also did the Duke's Staghounds ; and although we can find 
but few circumstantial records of the runs, it seems the sport 
was good from the first to the last meet, which was held on 
Wednesday, December 6. The King did not visit Windsor 
this year. He did his hunting in Hanover.* According to 
the official certificate of the Master of the Royal Buckhounds 
it appears that 49 stags and 16 hinds were killed and hunted 
by the pack during this year. 

The horse races were held on Ascot Heath in the second 
week of August, when the programme comprised four events — 
viz., on Tuesday, the 11th, a plate of 501., "the Property of 

* "His Britannic Majesty was highly pleased with the grand Hunting Match 
of the Boar, at which he was present on the 21st (of October), in the Forest of 
Osterwald. The Noblemen and Gentlemen that accompanied him in that 
Diversion, din'd after 'twas over under five several Tents, which were pitch'd 
in the Field on Purpose, His Majesty return'd hither (Hanover) that Evening 
about Five." 



1st Ht. 


2nd nt 


1 


1 


3 


2 


4 


3 


2 


dr. 



346 HISTOEY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

Gentlemen Subscribers, for Hunters, for which six horses were 
entered, resulted thus : — 

Mr. Walker's bay gelding, Orphan 

Sir Charles Ledley's grey gelding, Richmond 

Col Bosca wen's bay gelding, Poker 

Lord Bury's black stone horse. Little Blaze . 

H.B.H. Duke of Cumberland's chestnut gelding, 

Button ........ 5 dis. 

Wednesday, the 12th, for Weight for Age Plate, Josiah 
Marshall's chestnut horse, Diver, and Mr. Bowie's bay horse, 
Johnny Armstrong, ran, which the former won. " These two 
Heats were exceeding good ; but an Accident happened to Mr. 
Bowie's Horse at the End of the second Heat, after coming in, 
by a Man's being in the Way ; whereby the Horse was flung 
down, and it is believed will die. The rider saved himself." 

On Thursday, the 4th, for the Give and Take Plate, Captain 
Shaftoe's chestnut horse. Silver Legs, and Mr. Sparrow's grey 
gelding were entered ; and the 50/. Plate for the keepers 
and yeomen prickers of Windsor Forest obtained an entry of 
three : Mr. Kennedy's brown gelding, Rat ; Mr. Ricard's bay 
mare, Cat ; and Mr. Ives' bay mare, Betsy-Feel-the-Tap. The 
results of the last two events are not recorded. No member of 
the Royal Family was present on this occasion. Lords Anson, 
Montfort, and Monson were mentioned as having attended the 
meeting on the second day. 

In connection with this meeting we obtain the following 
additional information in a letter from Mr. Rigby to the Duke 
of Bedford, dated (London) August 13, 1752: "And now to 
send you what little news I have been able to pick up yester- 
day ; for the day we landed, Ascott Heath races had engaged 
the few people that remained in town, and I could find no 
soul to dine or sup with. In short, I have seen but three 
intelligent beings. Lord Waldegrave, Fox, and Harris. The 
first . . . was at the above mentioned races on Tuesday, 
where the Duke of Cumberland's horse ran, and would have 
been distanced " [in the first heat] " if his master had not 



1753 : ASCOT EACES. 347 

been higher bred than himself : there was much company there, 
and the Duke invited Lord Waldegrave and his companion 
Lord Anson, to Cranbourne that night, but they did not go. 
Sandwich was not there." * . . . 

1753. — The Duke of Cumberland was at Windsor Forest for 
most part of this year ; but it does not appear that the King 
or any other members of the Royal Family had been there. 
The Royal Buckhounds and the Duke's pack hunted as usual 
in the vicinity of the Forest, but we have found no reliable 
chronicle of the runs which ensued. The former pack met on 
one occasion, in March, in the New Park, Richmond. The 
Princess Amelia would not admit pedestrians, and only chaises, 
chariots, and persons on horseback were allowed to enter. The 
local inhabitants resented this restriction of their legal rights, 
and to vindicate their privileges instituted a suit which was 
tried at the Kingston Assizes on April 3, 1754, which ended in 
a verdict in favour of the claimants.! We believe the meet 
of the Royal Buckhounds, above mentioned, was the last which 
was held in Richmond Park with this pack. According to the 
official certificate of the Master of theRoyal Buckhounds 38 stags 
and 22 hinds were killed and hunted by the pack in this year- 

On May 2G, 1753, a match was run over Ascot Heath new 
course, the best of three two-mile heats for 50^. " and 50^. bye," 
and was won by Mr. Fisher's bay gelding in the first two heats 
from Mr. Coat's roan filly. 

The annual meeting was held on Tuesday, Wednesday, and 
Thursday, August 14, 15, and 16. On the Tuesday the 50^. 
Plate, " free only to such horses, etc., as had been in the pos- 

* " Correspondence of John, 4th Duke of Bedford : selected from the originals 
at Woburn Abbej^" by Lord John Russell, vol. ii., pp. 110, 111. In another 
letter from Mr. Rigby to the Duke, dated October 5, following, he mentions 
having lately been at " a turtle feast " at Windsor, where he saw both of the 
Duke of Cumberland's lodges in the forest, his hounds, and his wild beasts. He 
adds that the Newmarket October race meeting had then made London " emptier 
than it had been over the whole summer." 

f Tim Bennet, " the honest Presbyterian cobler of Hampton Wick," who 
died in June 1756, "had a noble monument erected to his memory," for per- 
sisting and obtaining a right of way through Bushey Park, which had been 
closed to the public in the reign of William III. 



348 HISTOEY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

session of the owner from October before starting, and had 
been regularly hunted with the Duke's hounds,* carrying 
12 stone," was won by Captain Vernon's bay gelding, Blaze, 
by winning the first two heats ffom Mr, Walker's bay gelding, 
Orphan, and Mr. Wimbourn's bay gelding. The same day the 
50/. Plate, for the huntsmen, yeomen prickers of the Royal 
Buckhounds, and Keepers of Windsor Forest, was run for, and 
won by Mr. Ricket's bay mare. Flora, by taking the first two 
heats from Mr. Ives' chestnut gelding, Saucebox, Mr. Canada's 
[Kennedy] chestnut gelding. Pea Cagen, and Mr. Johnson's 
bay gelding. Viper. On the Wednesday the Plate of 50^. was 
run for by four-year-old horses that never won above 50 
guineas at one time (matches excepted), carrying 9 stone, two 
mile heats, and was won by Mr. Burford's bay horse, Coomb, 
by landing the second and third heats from Lord Craven's 
grey horse, Anthony (which got the first heat), and Mr. 
Everett's bay horse. Creeper (which came in last in each 
heat). On the Thursday the Plate of 50^. was run for, open 
to any hoi'se, etc., that never won more than 50 guineas at 
one time (matches excepted), carrying weight for age — viz., 
five-year-olds, 9 stone ; six-year-olds, 10 stone ; and those of full 
age, 10 stone 9 lb. Three started for this race : Mr. Rogers' 
grey horse. Garland, and two others to qualify ; but upon a 
dispute arising the Plate was withheld. 

1754. — In July the King hunted with the Royal Buck- 
hounds in the vicinity of Windsor Forest. The meets were 
well attended " by persons of distinction " during this season, 
and also by the usual followers of the pack. The Duke of 
Cumberland still represented royalty at the head of the hunt ; 
nevertheless. His Royal Highness contemplated to yield that 

* In the programme the conditions for this race stipulated that the horses 
had been " regularly hunted with H.R.H. the Duke's Hounds, or any real Pack 
of Staghounds, which must be certified by the Master of the Hounds he has 
hunted with, and has never won a plate or match but a Staghunter's plate." 
The horse that won two heats in any of those races not to be obliged to start 
for a third. Entries to be made at Sunninghill Wells, on August 6. The 
entrance remained unaltered, except for those entering at the post, which was 
raised from 3 to 5 guineas. 



1754 : ASCOT EACES. 349 

position to Prince George, the heir-apparent, and to seek for 
fresh hunting fields and pastures new in some other locality.* 
By the official certificate of the Master of the Royal Buck- 
hounds, we learn that 58 stags and 22 hinds were killed and 
hunted by the pack during this year. 

Ascot Races were held on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, 
and Thursday, June 17 to 20. On Monday, June 17, a Plate 
of 50L for horses, etc., that had been in the possession of the 
owner since January 1 last past, and had been regularly 
hunted with " the King's Hounds, his Royal Highness the 
Duke's Hounds, or any real pack of Stag Hounds," and had 
never won plate or match, carrying 12 stone each, was won by 

1st Ht. 2nd Ht. 
Mr. Jenison's grey horse, Why-not (late Mr. 

Hartley's, Bashful), got by Cartouch . 1 1 

Mr. Wither's bay gelding, Stag Hunter . . 2 2 

" The odds at starting were 2 to 1 on Why-not, and very high 
at starting the second heat, which Stag Hunter would have 
won, it being 2 to 1 on him in running, but he died a Rogue." 
On Tuesday, 18, a Subscription Purse of dOl. for four-year- 
old horses, etc., that were the property of a subscriber on 
March 25 last past, one four-mile heat, carrying 9 stone each, 
was won by the Duke of Cumberland's bay colt Shock, got 
by Shock, by beating Mr. Jenison's bay colt Regulus, got by 
Regulus. The odds at starting were 3 to 1 on Shock. On 
the same day, a Plate of oOl. for huntsmen, yeomen prickers 
and keepers of Windsor Forest, weight 12 stone, was won by 

1st Ht. 2nd Ht. 
Mr. Ives' bay gelding, Warhawk ... 1 1 

Mr. Packet's bay mare. Flora .... 2 2 

Mr. Johnson's grey gelding, Viper ... 4 3 

Mr. Oanadey's [Kennedy] chestnut gelding, 

Pickpocket ...... 3 dr. 

* In the first week of March it was publicly announced that the Duke of 
Cumberland was fitting out a hunting-box near Basingstoke, Hampshire, 
'' where kennels are provided for 160 couple of Foxhounds to hunt 3 Days 
in a Week during the Season ; and about 50 couple will always be taken into 
the Field. " 



350 HISTOEY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

The odds at starting were 6 to 4 on the field against Viper ; 
4 to 1 on the field against Warhawk ; after the first heat, 
6 to 4 on the field against Viper ; 4 to 1 on the field against 
Flora ; and even betting Warhawk won. 

On Wednesday, 19, for the Free Plate of 501., the Duke of 
Cumberland's grey horse Crab walked over. His Royal High- 
ness declined to accept the Plate, and gave it to be run for by 
hunters that were never sweated (i.e., untrained horses), which 

was won by— 

1st Ht. 2nd Ht. 

Mr. Walker's chestnut horse, Chance . . 1 1 

Mr. Ives' black gelding, Crop .... 2 2 

Mr. Jenison's gi'ey gelding, Grantham . . 4 3 

Hon. Levison Gower's bay gelding, Squirrel . 3 4 

Mr. Benwell's bay gelding, Last-of-all . . dis. 

The third and last run on this day was a match for 50^., 
between Mr. Lam ego's bay Galloway mare, Whitenose, 13 
hands high, carrying a feather, against Mr. Pond's brown 
gelding, Cripple, got by Swift, carrying 10 stone, the best of 
three four-mile heats, was won by Whitenose. The odds were 
3 to 1 on Cripple. 

On Thursday, 20, a Plate of 50L — four-year-olds 8 stone 71b. ; 
five-year-olds 9 stone 71b. — was run for by the following five- 
year-old horses, and won by — 

IstHt. 2ndHt. SrdHt. 
Mr. Grisewood's grey horse, Teazer, got by 

Teazer ....... 

Mr. Burfoot's bay horse. Coomb, got by Janus . 
Duke of Cumberland's bay horse, Entrance, full 

brother to the Godolphin gelding 
Mr. Jenison's black horse, Tawney, got by Shock 

At starting Teazer was taken against the field ; 5 to 4 on the 
field against Entrance; 65 to 10 on the field against Coomb; 
after the first heat 5 to 4 on Teazer ; 6 to 4 against Entrance ; 
and 3 to 1 against Coomb ; after the second heat, 4 to 1 Teazer 
won. 

On Friday, August 30, 1754, a match was run on Ascot 



2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


3 


4 


3 


2 


3 


dr. 





1755 : ASCOT EACES. 351 

Heath, between the Earl of Sandwich's chestnut gelding, 
Forester, by Forester, and Colonel Hodgson's bay gelding, 
Brisk, owners up, one four-mile heat, for 50 guineas, and was 
won by the former. 5 to 1 were laid on Brisk. 

1755. — The King was in Hanover from April until September. 
The Duke of Cumberland was chiefly occupied in reviewing 
troops and conducting State affairs in his capacity of First 
Lord of the Regency Council, during the absence of the King. 
We are unable to trace any reliable records of the runs with 
the Ro^^al Buckliounds during this year ; but as the pack had 
killed and hunted 47 stags and 18 hinds, the regular followers 
of the hunt must have enjoyed good sport. 

The races on Ascot Heath were held on Monday, Tuesday, 
Wednesday, and Thursday, May 26 to 29, of this year. On 
Monday, May 26, the Duke of Cumberland's grey colt beat the 
Earl of Gower's roan colt, weight 8 stone each, in one four-mile 
heat, over Ascot Course, for 200 guineas. " The roan colt run 
rusty." The same day a Purse of 501. was run for, free, only 
for the huntsmen, yeomen prickers, and keepers of Windsor 
Forest, by horses, etc., carrying 12 stone, resulted as follows: — 

1st Ht. 2iid Ht. 
Mr. Ricket's bay mare, Flora .... 1 1 

Mr. Ives' bay gelding, Warhawk ... 2 2 

Mr. Chapman's bay mare .... 3 dis. 

On the 27th oOZ. was run for, give and take, by horses carrying 

weight for inches, that had not won 501. this year. They 

came in thus :— 

lstHt.2ndHt.3rdHt. 
Mr. Lesson's chestnut gelding, Ely, 14 hands 

and I inch, weight 9st. lib. 12oz. . .4 1 1 

Mr. Marshall's grey gelding, Grey Stag (late 

Mr. Croft's Trinket), 14 hands and ^ inch, 

weight 9st. lib. 12oz 1 2 dr. 

Hon. William Howe's grey mare, Poor Jenny, 

14 hands 1 inch, weight 9st. 71b. . . 2 dr. 

Mr. Humphrey's grey horse, 14 hands 2 inches, 

weight lOst 3 dr. 



1st 
Ht. 


2nd 
Ht. 


3rd 
Ht. 


4th 
Ht. 


2 


3 


1 


1 


4 


1 


2 


2 


1 


4 


3 


3 


3 


2 


4 





352 HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

On the 28th 50^. was run for by six-year-olds and aged 
horses — the six-year-olds carrying 9 stone 71b., the full aged 
10 stone 31b., and was won by 



Marquis of Rockingham's bay horse, Cato, aged 
Mr. Lamego's chestnut horse, Diver, aged 
Mr. Merdiths' brown horse. Shock, 6 years old 
Duke of Cumberland's grey horse. Crab, aged . 

" The second heat was hard run between Crab and Diver ; 
the third and fourth as fine sport as ever was seen, Cato 
beating Diver but half a length." 

On the 29th 50^. was run for, free for four-year-olds carrying 
8 stone 7 lb., and five-year-olds carrying 9 stone 5 lb. This 
prize was won by Mr. Merdiths' bay colt. Monkey (four years 
old), by winning the first two heats from the Duke of Cumber- 
land's brown horse, Shock (2nd), Mr. Marshall's brown horse, 
King Alfred (3rd), and Mr. Bowles' bay mare, Lady Ann (4th), 
as placed in each heat. The last three were five-year-olds. 

The same day a Sweepstakes Match for 45 guineas, by four- 
year-olds, the propert}^ of subscribers, was run, and won by 
Lord Gower's bay filly, beating Lord Chedworth's brown colt, 
Bauble, the Duke of Cumberland's bay colt, Stamp Crab, and 
Captain Vernon's chestnut filly, in the order named. 

Then followed two matches. The first, of 2 miles, was won 
by Lord Walgrave's bay colt, from the Duke of Cumberland's 
grey colt; the second was won by Mr. Ives' bay gelding, 
Warhawk, carrying 10 stone, from Mr. Ricket's bay mare, 
Flora, carrying 10 stone 5 lb. 

1756. — War with France. No hunting intelligence. The 
Duke of Cumberland was absorbed in military affairs ; conse- 
quently, the Boyal Buckhounds were left entirely to the 
Master's devices and the pleasure of the permanent followers 
of the pack, who were frequently augmented by the metro- 
politan and military division, whose name was legion. It 
seems that all the meets took place in the vicinity of Windsor 



1756 : ASCOT KACES. 353 

Forest, the keepers of the walks therein having provided 44 
stags and 12 hinds to show sport with the pack in this year, 
for which they received, at the usual fees, the sum of 100^. 

The races on Ascot Heath came off on Monday, Tuesday, 
Wednesday, and Thursday, on June 14 to 17 of this year. On 
Monday, the 14th, Mr. Ralph Jenison's grey horse, Why-not 
(9 stone 6 lb.), beat Lord Rockingham's bay gelding, Auacreon 
(9 stone), in one four-mile heat, for 100 guineas. The same 
day 50^. was run for by horses, etc., carrying 12 stone, the 
property of the huntsmen, yeomen priekers, and keepers of 
Windsor Forest, and was won by Mr. Ives' bay gelding, 
Warhawke, beating Mr. Ricket's bay mare. Flora (2nd), and 
Mr. Shorter's brown gelding (3rd), in both heats. 

On Tuesday, the loth, 50^. was run for, free only for four 
and five-year-olds — four-year-olds, 8 stone 7 lb. ; five-year-olds, 
9 stone 5 lb.— in two-mile heats, and was won by — 

Mr. Roger's chest, h. Newcastle Jack, 5 years old 
Lord Gower's bay h. Coxcomb, 5 years old 
Lord Portmore's chest, h. Steady, 4 years old 
Lord March's grey h. Trial, 4 years old 

On Wednesday, 16th, a sweepstakes match, by horses the 
property of subscribers on March 25 last, weight 8 stone 7 lb., 
the winner to receive 40Z., the remainder to be disposed of as 
the subscribers thought proper, one four-mile heat was run, 
and won by Lord Orford's chestnut horse, Lucifer, beating 
Lord Portmore's grey horse, Centurion (2nd), Marquis of 
Granby's black mare (3rd), and the Duke of Cumberland's 
grey gelding, Caristina (4th). The same day 50^. was run for, 
six year olds carrying 9 stone 71b., and full aged 10 stone 3 lb. 
This prize was won by — 

Mr. Blake's chestnut horse Slider, 6 years old 
Mr. Swymmei-'s bay horse Tantivy, aged 
Mr. Pytt's bay horse Liberty, aged 
Duke of Cumberland's chestnut horse Ranger, 
6 years old ...... 

Lord Eghngten's bay horse Lightfoot . 



1st Ht. 


2ncl Ht. 


1 


1 


2 


2 


4 


3 


3 


dr. 



1st Ht. 


2nd Ht. 


3rcl I 


I 4 


1 


1 


. 1 


2 


3 


. 3 


3 


2 


2 


4 


4 


. 5 


dr. 
23 





354 HISTOEY OF THE KOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

On Thursday, 17th, 50^. was run for by hunters, weight 12 
stone, four-mile heats, and was won by — 

IstHt. 2ndHt. 3rd Ht, 

Mr. Boothby's bay horse Bobadil ..31 1 

Mr, Churcbill's bay gelding Sportsman .1 2 dr. 
Mr Hayes' black gelding Belzebub . . 2 dr. 

The same day the Duke of Cumberland's grey horse, Crab, 
beat Lord Gower's bay horse, Little David, weight 8 stone 
7 lb., in one four-mile heat, for 100 guineas. 

1757. — War. No hunting intelligence. Nevertheless, this 
season with the Royal Buckhounds opened at Midsummer 
1756, and closed at Easter 1757. It seems the Duke of 
Cumberland intended to join the hunt in February, with the 
object of having a few days in the hunting field before going 
into the field of battle. But, on his arrival at his villa vena- 
tica, "the arch of the cellar under His Royal Highness' bed 
chamber fell in, which happily was attended with no other 
accident, notwithstanding that he was in bed ; since which 
H.R.H. removed to Cranborne Lodge, at a little distance. 
Windsor Lodge is so out of repair, that it is necessary to be 
rebuilt, and a plan is prepared for that purpose." The Duke 
soon after returned to London, and left there on April 9 to 
take command of the expedition against the French. The 
Duke's forces were defeated at the battle of Hastenbeck. 
George II. immediately recalled him to England, and on his 
arrival treated him with the utmost coolness. The Duke re- 
sented this treatment, resigned all his military employments, 
almost abandoned hunting, and his only relaxation was on 
the turf Henceforward he lived in comparative obscurity. 
He died 1765. This was Mr. Ralph Jenison's last season as 
Master of the Royal Buckhounds, he having resigned office on 
February 5, 1757. He was succeeded by Lord Batemau, who 
donned the official insignia of the hunt on the ensuing June 1. 

Ascot Races took place on June 27, 28, 29, and 80. Five 
races were run for during the four da3^s over which this 



1758 : ASCOT EACES. 355 

meeting extended. On the 27th, a Plate of 50^., for four-year- 
olds, 8 stone 7 lb., and five-year-olds, 9 stone 5 lb., in two-mile 
heats, was won by Mr. George's bay horse Juniper, beating 
in the second and third heats Mr. Humphrey's brown horse 
Snake, and Lord Portraan's chestnut horse Steady. 

On the 28th, a Plate of 501., for horses, etc., of the huntsmen, 
yeomen prickers, and keepers of Windsor Forest, was won 
by Mr. Ives' chestnut gelding Forester, in the first and second 
heats, by beating Mr. Ricket's bay mare Flora, and Mr. 
Kenned}' 's bay horse Sportsman. 

On the 29th, a Plate of 50^., for six-year-olds, 9 stone 7 lb., 
and full aged, 10 stone 3 lb., was won by Mr. Vernon's grey 
horse Myrtle, six years old, beating in the first and second heats 
Mr. Shelly's grey horse Success, Mr. Bennet's bay horse Trifle, 
and Lord Craven's grey horse Anthony. 

And on the 30th, a Plate of 50/., Give-and-Take, 14 hands^ 
9 stone 7 lb., allowing 7 lb. for every year under seven, was 
won in the first two heats by Mr. Button's bay horse Tim, 
five years old, 14 hands, carrying 8 stone 7 lb., beating Mr. 
Adams' chestnut horse Crispin, Mr. Chapman's bay horse 
Sylvia, and Mr. Cox's chestnut horse Trip. 

A sweepstakes match for four-year-olds, weight 8 stone 7 lb., 
one four-mile heat, was won by Mr. Jenison's bay colt, beating 
Lord Portman's black colt Pug, and Lord Granby's grey colt. 

1758.— During this year we were implicated in war through 
all the four quarters of the globe ; consequently one may seek 
in vain for any hunting intelligence worth recapitulation. 
Except the Prince of Wales, who attended the meets frequently 
and was in the runs occasionally, no other member of the 
Royal Family hunted during the season with the pack, which, 
it would appear, by the following ofiicial statement, showed 
faiily good sport to the ordinary followers of the hunt : " Robert 
Nunn, for the Keepers of Windsor Forest, for their fees on 59 
stags, at 21. each, and 20 hinds at 1/. each, which were hunted 
and killed by His Majesty's staghounds in Windsor Forest 
from the month of January, 1757, to Midsummer, 1758. by 



356 HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RAGES. 

vertue of a warrant, &c., and an account thereof certified by 
Lord Viscount Bateman, Master of His Majesty's hounds, and 
the receipt appears, 146 1?." 

Ascot Eaces were held on May 29, 30, and 31, and June 1. 
During the four days only six races were run for at this 
meeting. On the 29th, a Plate of 50^. was run for by five- 
year-olds, carrying 9 stone 5 lb. each, in two-mile heats, and 
was won, in the second and third heats, by Mr. Button's bay 
horse Quid Nunc, beating Lord Craven's bay horse Aquillo, 
and Mr. Stewart's chestnut mare. 

On the 30th, a sweepstakes was run by four-year-olds, carry- 
ing 8 stone 7 lb. each, in one four-mile heat, and was won by 
Lord Orford's grey filly, beating Lord Gower's bay colt Moses, 
and Lord Portman's bay colt, the Duke of Cumberland's black 
colt, and Lord Chedworth's Spot. 

The oOl. Plate for the hunt-servants and keepers of Windsor 
Forest for horses carrying 10 stone each, was won by Mr, Ives' 
chestnut gelding Forester, beating in the first and second heats 
Mr. Nunn's bay horse Babram, Mr. Shorter's brown gelding 
Bullock, and Mr. Ricket's bay horse Dumpling. 

On the 31st, a Plate of 501. was run for by six-year-olds, 
9 stone 7 lb., and full aged, 10 stone 3 lb., was won in the 
second and third heats by Mr. Jones' roan horse Adolphus, 
beating the Duke of Cumberland's bay horse Blacklegs, Mr. 
Vernon's chestnut horse Forester, Mr. Brooks' chestnut horse 
Rainbow, and Mr. Larkin's black gelding Sloe. 

On June 1, a 501. Give-and-Take Plate was run for by five 
horses, and was won in the third and fourth heats by Mr. 
Wynn's bay horse Compton, carrying 9 stone 4 lb. 6 oz. 

And then the meeting terminated, when the Duke of Cum- 
berland's black colt, Jet, beat Lord Gower's bay colt, Coxcomb, 
in two matches, the first of two miles, the second of half a mile, 
weight 8 stone 7 lb. each, for 100^. each match. 

1759. — War abroad — at home an expected invasion by the 
French- -put hunting intelligence altogether out of the question. 



1759 : ASCOT KACES. 357 

Nevertheless, we ascertain by the official certificate of the 
Master of the Buckhounds that 50 stags and 38 hinds had 
been hunted and killed by the pack " in one year ended the 
24tb of June, 1759." 

Ascot Races were announced to take place on June 12, 13, 14, 
15, and 16, but on Friday, the loth, the only race on the card 
for that day — viz., a Plate of 501. for six-year-olds and aged 
horses — was not run for, " for want of horses to enter for the 
same." However, on Tuesday, June 16, a Plate of 50^. was 
run for by five-year-olds, carrying 9 stone 5 lb., in two-mile 
heats, and was won, in the first and third heats, by Sir Hugh 
Smithson's* bay horse Persius, beating Mr. Gore's bay horse 
Snap, Mr. Vernon's chestnut horse Stow Hill, Mr. Pytt's mare 
Sportly, Mr. Barrot's chestnut horse Scrub, Lord Albemarle's 
black gelding Jet, and Mr. Snell's dun mare Atalanta. 

On the 13th, a Plate of 501. was run for, free only for 
horses of huntsmen, yeomen prickers, and keepers of Windsor 
Forest, carrying 12 stone each, which was won, in the second 
and third heats, by Mr. Shorter's grey horse Babram, beating 
Mr. Ives' chestnut gelding Blameless, and Mr. Nunn's bay 
horse Babram. The next and last race on this day was for 
" the great sweepstakes," by four-year-old horses, carrying 

8 stone 7 lb., in 1 four-mile heat. This race was won by 
H.R.H. the Duke of Cumberland's brown colt Dapper, beating 
Lord Portman's grey colt Grey Jack, Mr. Shaftoe's chestnut 
colt Hooke Nose, the Duke of Ancaster's grey colt, Mr. Blake's 
colt. Lord Rockingham's colt, and Lord Gower's chestnut colt, 
which " fell sick in running and pull'd up," the competitors 
passing the winning post in the order named. 

On the 14th, a Plate of 501. was run for by five and six-year- 
old mares, carrying, according to their age, 8 stone 7 lb. and 

9 stone 3 lb. respectively, which was won, in the second and 
third heats, by Mr. Rogers' Fair Rechael, beating Mr. Harvey's, 

* He married, in 1740, Elizabeth, only child of Algernon Seymour, Earl of 
Northumberland, and was created Earl Percy and Duke of Northumberland 
October 22, 1766. He dieil in 1784. From the time of his marriage to the date 
of his elevation to the peerage he was commonly styled Lord Northumberland. 



358 HISTOKY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

the Duke of Kingston's, Mr. Pitt's, Sir Richard Grosvenor's 
and the Duke of Cumberland's mares, which ran in this race. 
A four-mile match between Mr. Grant's Spotted Roan mare, 
10 stone 8 lb., and Mr. Early's chestnut gelding, 10 stone 13 lb., 
was won by the former. As previously mentioned, the 501. 
Plate for six-year-olds and aged horses did not fill. 

On the 16th, a Give-and-Take Whim Plate of 50?. was 
won by Mr. Adam's chestnut horse Crispin, 9 stone 7 lb., 
beatiug Sir J. Lowther's chestnut horse Whitelegs. And thus 
the meeting ended. 

1760. — Saw the end of the reign of George II., His 
Majesty having expired on October 25 in that year. During 
the thirty- four years of his reign, the regular followers of the 
Royal Buckhounds thoroughly enjoyed and highly appreciated 
the exhilarating sport provided by the pack. As in the 
preceding year we have not found any records of the runs 
that had taken place in this season, nevertheless, it appears 
by the certificate of Master of the Buckhounds, that down to 
June 24, 44 stags and 39 hinds had been killed and hunted in 
the vicinity of Windsor Forest by the pack. 

The Ascot Race Meeting was celebrated on the Tuesday, 
Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, June 10 to 14, 
in 1760. 

On Tuesday, the 10th, a Plate of 501. for four and five-year- 
olds was run for, in two-mile heats; four-year-olds 8st. 71b., 
five-year-olds 9st. 51b., resulted thus : — 

1st Ht. 2nd Ht. 

Lord Gower's bay filly, 4 years old ... 1 1 

Mr. ClinrchiU's chestnut horse, 5 years old . 2 2 

Mr. Aldridge's bay horse Americus, 5 years old 6 3 

Duke of Grafton's grey gelding Cocker, 5 years 

old 5 4 

Duke of Cumberland's bay horse Pam, 5 years 

old .4 5 

Lord Waldegrave's bay gelding Skim, 5 years 

old 3 dr. 

Mr. Cooke's bay horse Bolton Boy, 5 years old . 7 dr. 



1760: ASCOT RACES. 359 

On Wednesday, the 11th, a 50^. Plate was run for by horses 
belonging to the yeomen prickers and keepers of Windsor 
Forest, carrying 12 stone each, the best of three heats, which 
was won by Mr. Shorter's grey horse Babran,* by beating 
Mr. Ives' grey horse Stag Hunter in the first two heats, and 
Mr. Ricket's bay gelding Dumpling, distanced. 

During the interval between the first and second heats for this 
race, the " Great Subscription " or " Sweepstakes " for four-year- 
olds, carrying 8st. 71b., one four-mile heat, was run for, and won 
by Lord Portman's grey colt Tiney, from the Duke of Ancaster's 
grey colt (lamed) (2nd), Mr. Shaftoe's chestnut colt (3rd), Lord 
Northumberland's grey colt (4th), Lord Waldegrave's grey colt 
(oth). Lord Bolingbroke's bay colt (Cth), Mr. Churchill's bay 
colt (7th), and the Duke of Cumberland's' grey colt (8th). 

On Thursday, the 12th, a 50^. Plate for mares which never 
won a Royal Plate ; five-year-olds Sst. 71b., and aged lOst. 31b., 

was won by — 

IstHt. 2ndHt.3rdHt. 
H.R.H. the Duke of Cumberland's bay mare 

Madam .1 3 1 

Mr. Fortescue's bay mare Lady Cai-olina ..31 3 

Lord Chedworth's bay mare .... 2 2 2 

*' The odds at starting were 5 to 1 against the Duke, and 5 to 
4 on Lady Carolina, who took the rust, and left the knowing 
ones on the wrong side of the post. J. Marshall did not ride 
for the Duke on account of a sore knee." We seldom hear of 
the jockeys in those days ; Marshall's name is occasionally 
mentioned. 

On Friday, the 13th, a Plate of oOl. was run for, the best 
of three heats, six-year-olds carrying 9st. 71b., and aged lOst. 31b., 

and was won by — 

1st Ht. 2nd Ht. 3i'd Ht. 4th Ht. 
Mr. Elliott's bay horse Trifle, aged .321 1 

Mr. Crosoer's chestnvit horse Elephant, 

aged 2 1 2 2 

Mr. Adam's chestnut horse Stanby, 6 

years old ..... 1 3 dis. 

* This horse is frequently returned by the name of Walmouth Tom, 



1 


4 


3 


5 


2 


2 


3 


3 


dr. 


2 


dis. 





360 HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

On Saturday, the 14th, the 50^. Give-and-Take Plate, 14 
hands, weight 9st. 71b., allowing 71bs. for every year under 7? 
resulted as follows : — 

IstHt. 2ndHt. 3rdnt. 

Mr. White's brown horse Gamester, aged .41 1 

Hon. Mr. Howe's bay horse Spotless, 5 years 
old 

Sh- E. Grosvenor's bay horse Dragon, aged 

Mr. Watt's Chestnut horse Crispin, aged . 

Mr. Fisher's bay mare .... 

It appears the Duke of Cumberland, the Duke and Duchess 
of Ancaster, and a large assemblage of the nobility and gentry 
attended this meeting. 

Now we must hark back here and say "a few words " about 
the four Masters of the Royal Buckhounds, who flourished and 
filled this office successively, after Colonel Negus, during the 
reign of George II. 

Charles Bennet, second Earl of Tankerville, was sworn 
into the office of Master of the Boyal Buckhounds on 
June 21, 1733. His stipend was 2,341^. per annum, out 
of which he had to defray all the ordinary expenses of the 
pack. He bore the official insignia of the pack for only a 
brief term, his Lordship having resigned it in June 1736. 
During those three years the Prime Minister, Sir Robert 
Walpole, invariably acted as Field Master, and, of course, 
when he was in the saddle the actual master was more or less 
left in the shade. Charles, second Earl of Tankerville, thirty- 
seventh Master of the Royal Buckhounds, from June 21, 1733, 
to June 1736, the eldest son of Charles, first Earl of Tankerville, 
by his wife, Lady Mary Grey, only daughter of Ford, Viscount 
Grey of Glendale, succeeded to the family honours and estates 
on the death of his father. May 21, 1722. He was born in 
1696, educated at Eton, was a colonel in the army, a Lord of the 
Bedchamber to Frederick, Prince of Wales, from 1729 to 1733, 
and was appointed to a similar office in the Household of 
George II. in 1737. He was made Lord-Lieutenant of the 



—» 




RALPH JENNISOHESQ.M.P. 

Master of tine Royal Buclchounds , to H.M. King George II. 
June 18, 1737-Decem]Der30,1744. (ii) July 2 ,1746 -July 4, PS 6. 

Fromthe ori ginal picture by Sir Josliua Reynolds in the posses si on 
of Col. AlexanderAdair,Heatlierton Par\,WellinQton ,Sorner5ft- . 



RALPH JENISON, ESQ., THIRTY-EIGHTH MASTER. 361 

county Northumberland, February 11, 1740, and created LL.D. 
of Cambridge University, July 3, 1749. He was one of the 
original members of the Jockey Club, and was present at the 
great meeting of that Turf Senate, which was held at Hackwood 
on August 1, 1729. His Lordship had some good horses on 
the turf: Sophonista, Bay Wilkinson, and Tippet, winners of 
King's Plates, while his galloway, Harlequin, was famous for 
his inches and triumphs on many courses. His Lordship was 
taken suddenly ill on Tuesday, March 13, 1753, in a post 
chaise on the road between Aldborough Hatch, Essex, and 
London; and, notwithstanding all the assistance that could 
be rendered, he died on the following night, and was interred 
at Hounslow "among his ancestors in a private and decent 
manner." 

In 1737 Lord Tankerville was succeeded by Ralph 
Jenison, Esq., M.P., who became the thirty-eighth Master of 
theKoyal Buckhounds; and, pursuant to the subjoined Warrant, 
was sworn and admitted to that office, and entered upon the 
duties appertaining thereto, commencing on July 7, 1737. 

George R. 

Our Will and Pleasure is, that you forthwith swear and admitt or 
cause to be sworn and admitted Our Trusty and Well beloved Ealph 
Jenison Esq'" into the Office and Place of Master of our Buckhounds; 
To have, hold and enjoy the same, during Our Pleasure, with all 
Rights, Fees, Salaries, Profits, Privileges, and Advantages thereunto 
belonging, in as full & ample manner, to all Intents and Purposes 
as Charles, Earl of Tankerville, or any other Person hath held and 
enjoy'd, or of Right ought to have held and enjoy'd the same. 
And &c. Given &c. the eighteenth day of June 1737, in the Eleventh 
Year of our reign. 

By His Majesty's Command 

HoLLEs Newcastle. 

To his Grace the Duke 
of Grafton &c. 
— Lord ChamberlaivJs Records : Wa7'rcmts of Several Sorts, vol, xxviii., 
p. 333. 



362 HISTOEY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

As appears by the Accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber 
of the Royal Household, Mr. Jenison's stipend was 2,341/. a 
year, out of which he had to discharge the ordinary annual 
cost of the pack. He was paid at this rate down to Christmas 
1744, when he went out of office, and was succeeded by the 
Earl of Halifax, 

Mr. Jenison was reappointed about eighteen months after 
this time, and in pursuance of the subjoined Warrants was sworn 
in, and thus de facto became the fortieth Master of the Royal 
Buckhounds : — 



George R. 

Our Will and Pleasure is, that you forthwith swear and admit, or 
cause to be sworn and admitted, Our Trusty and Welbeloved Ralph 
Jenison Esq^' into the Office and Place of Master of Our Buck- 
hounds ; To have, hold and enjoy the same, during Our Pleasure, 
with all Rights, Fees, Salaries, Profits, Privileges, and Advantages 
thereunto belonging, in as full and ample manner, to all Intents 
and Purposes, as George Dunk, Earl of Halifax, or any other 
Person, hath held and enjoyed, or of Right ought to have held and 
enjoy'd the same. And for so doing, This shall be your Warrant. 
Given at Our Court at Kensington the 2'^ Day of July 1746, in the 
Twentieth Year of Our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command 

HoLLES Newcastle. 

To Our Right Trusty 
and Right entirely 
beloved Cousin and 
Councillor Charles, 
Duke of Grafton, Our 
Chamberlain of Our 
Household. 

— Home Office Records : Warrcmt Book, vol. xxiv., p. 119. 



EALPH JENISON, ESQ., FORTIETH MASTEE. 



363 




xl 


Stamp 

shillings. 




xl 


Stamp 
shillings. 




xl 


Stamp 
shillings. 



Copy. 

These are to Certify that I have sworn and 
admitted Ralph Jenison Esquire into tlie Place 
and Quality of Master of His Majesty's Buck- 
hounds (in the room of the Rt. Honble. The Earl 
of Halifax) To have hold exercise and enjoy 
the said place together with all Rights Profits 
Privileges and Advantages thereunto belonging 
in as full and ample manner as the said Earl of 
Halifax formei'ly held or of right ought to have 
held and enjoyed the same. 

Given under my hand and Seal this 2"'' day 
of July 1746 in the Twentieth year of His 
Majesty's Reign. 

Grafton. 



ENTRED in the Office of Treasurer of His Majesty's Chambers 
the 10«' September 1746. 

An^ Follett, Jun'., Dep*^. 

Entred in the Office of W™ Aislabie Escf Aud^ October SP* 1746. 

Ja^ Thomas, Dep*y Aud^ 

Entred in the Office of W" Benson Escf And'' the 26"' day of February 
1746[-7j. 

Edw'' Bangham, Dep*y Aud"^.* 

About this time he was accorded a noble suite of apartments 
overlooking the bowling green, f in Somerset House, and of 

* Copied from the original Warrants, and communicated, by Colonel Adair, 
Heatherton Hall, "Wellington, Salop. 

f THESE are to require you to deliver to Ealph Jennison Esq"" the Keys and 
possession of the Lodgings in His Majesty's palace of Somerset House late held 
by Mr. Jervase. And for so doing this shall be your Warrant. 

Given under my hand this 14"^ Day of November mi in the Twentj-^-first 
year of His Majesty's Reign. 

Grafton. 

To Mrs. Grovenor (sic) Under Housekeeper 

of His Majesty's palace Somerset House. 

The bovsrling green at Somerset House had been accessible to the public from 



364 HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

course he occupied Swinly Lodge, in Windsor Forest, during 
the hunting season, where he frequently dispensed, in an ultra- 
liberal manner, the official hospitality of the Master to the 
followers of the pack, and occasionally to the King and the 
Royal Family, whenever the latter honoured him with their 
presence, before the chase began and after it was over. 

We believe (but not quite certain before 1782, when Viscount 
Hichingbroke undoubtedly obtained the allowance) that all 
the Masters of the Royal Buckhounds, from the time of Colonel 
Negus onwards to the time of the Marquess of Cornwallis in 
1812, received 300Z. a year in addition to their established 
salary to provide " breakfasts " for the followers of the Buck- 
hounds at Swinly Lodge.* This also reminds us that the 
Masters occasionally received a supplementary grant of 7001. 
on account of their extraordinary expenses in providing 
hunters and other necessaries, as, for example, in the subjoined 
Warrant issued in favour of Mr. Jenison in 1747, and a similar 
one in 1748-9 : — 

George E,. 

T-, 1 1 T • -n V /"Our Will and pleasure is that By virtue of 
Kalpli Jemson Esq' -^ . <^ , , 

Our General Letters oi pnvy Seal bearing 

date the 26"' day of June 1727 You issue 

and pay or cause to be issued and paid out of 

any Our Treasure or Revenue in the Receipt 

•of Our Exchequer applicable to the uses of 

Our Civil Government unto Our Trusty and Welbeloved Ralph 

Jenison Esq'' or to his Assignes the sum of Seven hundred pounds 

without Acco* : We being graciously pleased to allow the said sum 

time immemorial. In 1735 the Lord Cliamberiain, the Duke of Grafton, gave 
orders to the Hon. Mrs. Campbell, the then housekeeper. " to permit the neigh- 
bours to walk in the garden and to play at bowls on the green there, as in former 
times." In those days the grounds at Somerset House constituted a charming 
sylvan retreat, and were greatly appreciated by the citizens. 

* It is possible this hospitality grant continued to be received by the suc- 
cessive Masters of the Buckhounds to the time when Swinly Lodge was pulled 
down in 1824. But it seems the official dog-in-the-manger would have gone 
mad if this simple point was allowed to be ascertained. 



700/. for Extra as 
Master of the Buck- 
hounds for the year 
ended Mids'' 1747 



EALPH JENISON, ESQ., FOKTIETH MASTEK. 365 

to him in consideration of the Extraordinaiy Charge he was at in 
furnishing himself with Horses and other necessaiy Equipage as 
Master of Our Buckhounds in and for the Year 1747. And for 
so doing this shall be Your Warrant. Given at our Court at 
St. James's the 28"" day of October 1747 in the 2P* year of Our 
Reign 

By His Majesty's Command 

H. Pelpham. 

G. Lyttelton. 

J. Campbell. 
To the Comm^^ of 
Our Treasviry, 
War* signed thereupon 
29*^ Ocf 1747. Do. Lords. 

— Treasury Records, K. W. B., vol. xxxvii., pp. 151-537. 

At any rate, we know for a positive fact that during this, 
his second term of office, Mr. Jenison received his stipend 
yearly from 1746 down to the quarter of a year ended 
January 5, 1757, at the rate of 2,.341L per annum. He retired 
from this office, which he had filled altogether for seventeen 
years, on February 5, 1757, and on relinquishing the golden 
couples was accorded a pension of 2,000^. a year, which is the 
only instance (so far as we are aware) of a pension .having 
been granted to any Master of the Buckhounds under similar 
circumstances. It does not appear, however, that this re- 
tiring allowance, or any part of it, had ever been received by 
him, his heirs, or executors. 

Mr. Jenison was a prominent patron of the turf, and one of 
the original members of the Jockey Club. He owned and 
bred some fairly fine horses, amongst which his bony black 
mare Faustina (foaled in 1725), by Hartley's blind horse out 
of Blossom — Pulleine's chestnut Arabian — old Vintner mare, 
won (in those days of little prizes and large sport) a Plate 
of 40 guineas at Barnard Castle in September 1729, carrying 
9 stone, 3 miles ; at Morpeth, September 1730, a Plate of 20^., 
carrying 10 stone, in two heats, beating four others, 4 miles ; 
at Preston, July 1732, a Purse of 40 guineas, 10 stone, 4 



366 HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

miles. At the Hambleton May meeting of this year she beat 
Mr. Bowe's Othello in a match for 100 guineas, 10 stone each, 
4 miles. In the ensuing September she won the Gold Cup at 
Barnard Castle, 10 stone, 4 miles; at Leeds, May 16, 1733, a 
Plate of 201., 10 stone, 4 miles — after three heats, in which she 
beat Mr. Brewster's black mare, Miss Nesham, and the Duke 
of Hamilton's dun mare. At Durham, on the 9th of July in 
this year, Faustina and five other horses ran for a Purse of 60 
guineas ; 10 stone each, 4 miles. The first heat was so near, 
that three out of the six tryers in the chair gave it in favour 
of one horse, and three in favour of another. It was, there- 
fore, after some disputing, declared to be a dead heat. Four 
more heats followed, at the conclusion of which the prize was 
claimed by the representatives of four of the competing 
animals. One of these resigning his claim, the others proposed 
to the stakeholder that if he would pay it to them in con- 
junction, each would give him his discharge, and they would 
divide the prize. This proposition was accepted. On the last 
day of this meeting (July 13) Faustina ran and won a Plate 
of 50 guineas, 4 miles, 10 stone, by beating the Duke of 
Bolton's chestnut horse, Sweepstakes, and Mr. Penny man's 
black gelding. Thumper, in the two first heats. Mr. Jenison 
slso owned Joseph Andrews, a chestnut horse, foaled in 1743, 
l>y Roundhead, out of Hip — Hartley's blind horse — Flying 
Whig, upon which this Master of the Buckhounds frequently 
followed the Royal pack. This horse made his fii'st appear- 
ance on the racecourse at Lincoln on September 14, 1748, 
in a Plate of 50^., for five-year-old horses which had never 
won ; three 2-mile heats, 11 stone each, and won the race by 
beating the Duke of Ancaster's Scar, and four others. Joseph 
Andrews also won a Plate of 50^. for six-year-old horses, 
4-mile heats, 10 stone, on the following May 2 at Epsom ; 
His Majesty's Plate of 100 guineas, 4-mile heats, 12 stone, at 
York on July 31 ; a similar Plate at Lincoln on September 5 ; 
and ran second to Lord Portmore's Othello in His Majesty's 
Plate of 100 guineas in the ensuing October meeting at New- 
market. Shortly before his defeat in the last-mentioned race 



EALrH JENISON, ESQ., FOKTIETH MASTER. 367 

Mr. Jenison gave the horse to his nephew, Captain Shafto, b}^ 
whom he was sold to Messrs. Smith and Luck, in whose names 
he ran on this occasion. 

At Barnet Races, August 5, 1756, Mr. Jenison's grey horse, 
Second, beat Mr. Adam's chestnut horse, Crispin, in a oOl. 
Plate. The odds at starting were 5 to 1 on Crispin, who won 
the first heat, " pretty hard run " ; but the second and third 
were won by Second. "They were very fine heats, and the 
Knowing Ones were taken in again." During this meeting- 
some persons " being arrived there too soon for the Diversion 
proposed to entertain themselves with a ride to Kirk's-End 
to pull down the famous Admiral Byng's home there, but a 
person present, who had great interest therein, persuaded the 
people, that his house being forfeited to the Government, was 
designed as a present to General Blakney, which prevented 
their journey, and fully satisfied the angry Populace for the 
present." 

Mr. Ralph Jenison was the last commoner who filled the 
office of Master of the Royal Buckhounds. He married on 
November 10, 1751, Miss Suky Allen, of Durham (of whose 
family Sir Henry Havelock-Allan, Bart., is the present repre- 
sentative), by whom he had no issue. He had one sister, who 
was married to Robert Shafto, Esq., of Benwell, county North- 
umberland. Two of their sons were celebrated sportsmen, 
proficients in all phases of athlette, Jenison Shafto having 
been famous for riding at Newmarket 50 miles in less than 
1 hour and 50 minutes. To his great-grandson, Colonel A. W. 
Adair, of Heatherton Park, Wellington, Somerset, we are 
indebted for the engraving of his ancestor, Ralph Jenison, Esq., 
Master of the Royal Buckhounds, from the original picture by 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, for which that celebrated artist onl}- 
charged the modest sum of 18 guineas, for the good of his pains ; 
a unique masterpiece (from our point of view), which is now, 
in all probability, worth eighteen hundred times that money. It 
is the only portrait of a Master of the Buckhounds we know 
of in which the Master is represented in the official uniform 
of the Royal Pack. Here we see Mr. Jenison in his hunting 



368 HISTOEY OF THE KOYAL BrCKHOTJNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

habit as he lived. His coat is green, full skirted, with upright 
collar, very narrow lace round the cuffs and on the button- 
holes; gold-braided chevrons embellish the front, sloping on 
either side. The waistcoat is red, and more deeply laced. 
This Master is represented in a sitting posture ; his bridle hand 
reclines upon the near side arm of the chair ; his whip hand 
lovingly caresses the neck of a hound, which gazes on his master's 
face with unspeakable affection. At the moment the Master 
seems to have partly turned his face, as if in the act of address- 
ing some auditor, " Love me, love my dog " — an adage we 
would commend to some occasional careless followers of the 
pack, in the modern language of venery, " 'ware, hounds ! " 
The whole ensemble of the picture is exquisite in conception 
and execution, worthy of the magic brush by which it was 
created ; and as a faithful historical relic of the Royal Hunt 
in the days of George II. it is simply unique. 

Mr. Jenison was M.P. for county Northumberland during 
several sessions of Parliament. In 1737 he had to relinquish 
his seat, and offer himself for re-election, in consequence of 
having accepted an office of profit under the Crown — i.e., the 
Mastership of the Royal Buckhounds — on which occasion he 
was returned without opposition. He afterwards sat for the 
borough of Newport, Isle of Wight, which latter constituency 
he represented in the House of Commons to the time of his 
death. He died in London May 15, 1758, sincerely regretted 
by a large circle of friends, more especially by the numerous 
followers of the Royal Hunt. 

George Montagu Dunk, second Earl of Halifax, succeeded 
Mr. Jenison on the termination of the latter's first term of 
office, and consequently his lordship became the thirty-ninth 
Master of the Royal Buckhounds, and was duly installed into 
that office, pursuant to the annexed Warrant, dated December 
31, 1744:— 

George R. 

Our Will and Pleasure is, That you forthwith swear and admit, 
or cause to be sworn and admitted, Our Plight Trusty and Right 



EAEL OF HALIFAX, THIRTY-NINTH MASTER. 369 

Welbeloved Cousin, George Earl of Halifax, into the Office and 
Place of Master of our Buckhounds ; To have, hold, and enjoy the 
same, during Our Pleasure, with all Rights, Fees, Salaries, Profits, 
Privileges and Advantages thereunto belonging, in as full and ample 
Manner, to all Intents and Purposes, as Ralph Jenison Esq"', or any 
other Person has held and enjoyed, or of Right ought to have held 
and enjoyed the same. And for so doing This shall be your Warrant. 
Given at Our Court at St. James's the 31st day of Dec'', 1744, in the 
Eighteenth Year of our Reign. 

To Our R* Trusty & By His Majesty's Command 

R* Entirely Beloved Holles Newcastle. 

Cousin and Councillor, 

Charles Duke of Grafton, 

Our Chamberlain of Our 

Household. 

— Home Office Records. Warrant Booh, vol. xxiii., p. 372. 

Lord Halifax received the same remuneration as his pre- 
decessors and successors holding this office during the reign of 
George II. — viz., 2,.341Z., out of which sum he had to discharge 
all the ordinary charges incidental to the pack. His term of 
office was short and merry, he having resigned on June 25, 1746, 
when Mr. Jenison, for the second time, donned the official 
insignia of the pack. His Lordship — ^eldest son of George 
Montagu, first Earl of Halifax, by his wife, Lady Mary Lumley, 
daughter of Richard, Earl of Scarborough — was born on 
October 6, 1716. He was educated at Etcm and Trinity 
College, Cambridge. On the death of his father, May 9, 1739, 
he succeeded to the family honours and estates ; and was ap- 
pointed Ranger and Keeper of Bushey Park, and Chief Steward, 
Keeper, and Lieutenant of Hampton Court. About this time 
his Lordship was a Lord of the Bedchamber to Frederick, 
Prince of Wales. On the resignation of his office of Master of 
the Buckhounds he was appointed Chief Justice in Eyre of all 
the Royal Forests, Parks, Chases, and Warrens, south of Trent. 
His Lordship subsequently held several high offices of State, 
and was Principal Secretary of State for the Northern Depart- 

24 



370 HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

ment at the time of his death, which occurred on January 22, 
1771, when all his honours became extinct. 

When Mr. Ralph Jenison relinquished his second term of 
office, early in the year 1757, Lord Bateman was appointed 
his successor ; and in pursuance of the subjoined Warrant his 
Lordship was ordered to be sworn and admitted to the vacant 
post. Consequently, he became the fortieth Master of the 
Royal Buckhounds on July 2, 1757. 

George E. 

Our Will and Pleasure is That you forthwith Swear and admit, 
or caLise to be sworn and admitted, Our Right Trusty and Welbe- 
loved Cousin John Viscount Bateman, of Our Kingdom of Ireland, 
into the Office and Place of Master of Our Buckhounds ; To have, 
hold and enjoy the Same, during Our Pleasure, with all Rights, 
Fees, Salaries, Profits, Privileges and Advantages thereunto belong- 
ing, in as full and ample Manner to all Intents and Purposes as 
Ralph Jenison Esq"^ or any Other Person, hath held and enjoyed, 
or of Right ought to have held and enjoyed the Same. And for so 
doing This shall be your Wairant. Given at Our Court at Kensing- 
ton the Second Day of July 1757, in the Thirty First Year of Our 
Reign. 

To Our Right Trusty^ 
and Right Entirely 

Beloved Cousin and -r, . • , ^, 

^. ..-, -iTT-iT By His Maiestys Command, 

Councillor, William, v -^ '' -^ ' 

T^ T -. -r. 1 . HOLDERNESSE. 

Duke oi Devonshire, 
Our Chamberlain of 
Our Household. 

— Home Office Records. Warrant Boole, vol. xxvii., p. 392. 

The first payment recorded in the Accounts of the Treasurer 
of the Chamber of the Household to this Master is as follows : 
" To Ralph Jenison Esq'' and John, Lord Bateman successively 
Master of the Buck Hounds, at 2,341^. c(p annum (for their 
salaries for three-quarters of a year) from January 5, 1757 to 
October 10, 1757, 1,755/. 15s." In the following year Lord 
Bateman was paid "in lieu of all other charges at 2,841^. 



LOED BATEMAN, FOKTY-FIRST MASTER. 371 

a year, for one year ended October 10, 1758, 2,341^." . His 
Lordship received the annual stipend of this post down to the 
year 1782 (when the office of the Treasurer of the Chamber 
was abolished by Act of Parliament), when what appears to be 
the last payment, in that series of official documents, runs as 
follows : " To William (sic) Lord Viscount Bateman and the 
Earl of Jersey successively Master of the Buck Hounds at 
2,341L per annum for three-quarters of a year ended July 5, 
1782, 1,755^. 15.S." 

In plodding through these accounts, we find, down to 
the end of the reign of George XL (17G0), that the then 
Master is designated therein as " John, Lord Bateman " ; but 
in the Account for the first year of the reign of George III. 
(1761) he is designated "William Viscount Bateman." From 
this year onward to 1782 — when this series of documents 
terminated by the abolition of the Department — the Master is 
styled William Viscount Bateman ; but whether he altered his 
Christian name from John to William, or whether the scribe 
altered it for him, we are not allowed to ascertain. If you 
please, gentle reader, the official dog-in-the-manger objects to 
having this momentous State Secret divulged, as to whether 
the Christian name of the forty-first Master of the Hoyal 
Buckhounds, at this time, was John or William. Faugh ! 



CHAPTER XVII. 

GEORGE III. TO VICTORIA. 

The History of the Royal Buckhounds stopped by Her Majesty's Ministers. — 
Official Dog-in-the-Mangerism. — Red Tape. — No more Official Information 
permitted. — Conjectures and Speculations. — No Official Information of the 
Buckhounds during the Reigns of George IV., William IV., and Victoria. — 
The Masters and the Hunt- Servants. — And, " God Save the Queen." — 
Postscript. 

George II. expired quite unexpectedly on October 25, 1760. 
The sad intelligence was immediately conveyed to his grand- 
son, George, Prince of Wales, henceforward King George III. 
And it is a remarkable circumstance — especially in relation to 
our subject — that just as the young monarch had unknowingly 
passed over the threshold of the throne, he was proceeding, 
accompanied by Lord Bute, to a meet of the Royal Harriers 
in the New Park, Richmond. This good omen in the career 
of the Royal Hunt during his long and prosperous reign was 
not belied, as it is notorious the Royal Buckhounds were 
sustained more efficiently, showed better sport, gave the best 
average runs, and were better patronised by all classes during 
this sovereign's reign than had ever previously been known 
in the annals of the hunt. Yet in full view of this universally 
admitted fact, how tantalising is the circumstance that during 
the greater portion of this glorious epoch the official dog-in- 
the-manger effectually puts an embargo on the voyage of this 
" harmless historic." 

Soon after his accession, George III. renewed and filled up 
all the patent and other offices of the Household and admini- 
strative departments, one of the first appointments being the 
Earl of Huntingdon as Master of the Horse. Lord Bateman 
retained the official insignia of the Buckhounds, and was most 

372 



LOED BATEMAN RE-SWORN AS MASTER. 373 

appropriately re-sworn into that office on the festival of his 
national saint— March 17, 1761 * — an office which he con- 
currently retained for a quarter of a century, which we believe 
to have been a record of unprecedented duration in the Master- 
ship in the latter-day annals of the pack. The Princess Amelia 
having resigned the office of Ranger of Richmond Park, the Earl 
of Bute was nominated to succeed Her Royal Highness in that 
turbulent office. This appointment occasioned a full gale of 
apprehension, it having been assumed that in consequence of 
the strong convictions which the King and the Royal Family 
entertained as to their rights and privileges in that park, 
Lord Bute's long and trusted services at the Court would 
naturally lead him to second those views to the prejudice of the 
public. Nevertheless, the apprehension entertained on this 
point was promptly and emphatically allayed, for the first act 
of the new Ranger was to conform to the dictates of the law ; 
and by a stroke of his pen all the objectionable notice-boards 
and bars were removed for ever, amid the rejoicings of the in- 
habitants. One result of this policy was the immediate removal 
of the Royal Fox and Harrier Pack from Richmond — where 
those hounds had been kennelled at and for some years before 
his time — to Windsor, where the}^ were located down to the 
time when they were abolished, pursuant to the provisions of 
the Act of Parliament of 22 George III., chapter 82, in 1782. 

Soon after the accession of George III. the House of Com- 
mons granted His Majesty, for the support of his Household 
and of the honour and dignity of the Crown, a yearly fund of 
800,000/., out of which the Dowager Princess of Wales was 
to receive an annuity of 50,000/., the Duke of Cumberland 
15,000/., and the Princess Amelia 12,000/., each during their 
lives respectively. Upon the determination of those annuities 
the clear yearly sum of 800,000/. was to be paid to the King 
per annum. As this income represented about one and a half 
million sterling in present currency, there could be no lack of 
funds to sustain all the departments of the Royal Household 
in a thorough state of efficiency. Of course we have nothing 
* Home Office Records. Warrant Book, vol. xxix., p. 99. 



374 HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

to do with the then establishment of the Civil List, except so 
far as it related to the Royal Buekhounds. 

It seems (so far as we can ascertain) that the nominal 
yearly cost of the Royal Buekhounds from the 1st to the 22nd 
regnal year of the reign of George III. was 2,341^. ; but there 
must have been additional annual expenses for kennels, 
hound meat, and other incidental charges which we are not 
allowed to ascertain. However, we may take it generally that 
the annual cost of the pack from 1761. to 1782, when Lord 
Bateman went out of office, was about the same as prevailed 
during the reign of George II. In the latter year, the depart- 
ment of the Treasurer of the Chamber having been abolished, 
some of the duties of that office were transferred to other 
departments ; that of the Master of the Horse taking over and 
administrating some functions and discharging certain liabilities 
incidental to the pack, which had been executed in the office 
of the Treasurer of the Chamber during the preceding 225 
years. 

Owing to a fortuitous oversight on the part of a clerk at the 
Public Record Office, we obtained access to the accounts of the 
Master of the Horse from 1783 to 1813, the outcome of that 
mistake having led to the withdrawal of the restrictions which 
had been previously placed on the official documents of that 
classification — viz ., the Audit Office Records, Declared Accounts 
(Treasury Series), all of which are now open without reserve 
to the investigation of historical students down to the year 
1821. Thus in the first of these accounts it transpires that 
the department of the Master of the Horse was saddled in 1 783 
with certain duties which previously had been executed by 
the defunct department of the Treasurer of the Chamber ; and 
" according to His Majesty's Establishment, dated the 27th of 
August, 1783," we obtain the following payments in connection 
with the Royal Buekhounds for the year 1783, viz. : — 

George, Earl of Jersey, and Viscount Hutchingbrook, successively 
Master of His Majesty's Buck Hounds, at 2,000^. #>* ann., 
and for an allowance for breakfasts at Swinly Lodge, at 300?. 
#' ann., for the same time — 2,300?. 



PAYMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH THE BUCKHOUNDS. 375 

William Kennedy, huntsman, at 100^. W ann., for the same time 

—100?. 
James Johnstone and five other yeomen prickers, at 104^. each #>" ann. 

—624?. 
WUliam Kennedy, huntsman, for the expenses of His Majesty's 

Buck Hounds, for the same time, by four quarterly abstracts 

signed by the Master of the Buck Hounds, appears 812?. 5s. 3d. 
More to him for sundry disbursements on account of the stables for 

the same time as by four like abstracts appears — 275?. 12s. lOgfZ. 
Richard Harrison, for saddler's work and goods delivered in September 

1783—65?. 15s. Qd. 
William Kennedy, for carting deer within the time of this account, 

as by an account thereof signed by the Master of the Buck 

Hounds — 163?. Os. Qd. 
Thomas Cox, Esq., head keeper of Hanniken Lodge, for keeping deer 

within the time of this account, as by a like account, signed as 

aforesaid— 72?. 4s. lOc?. 
William Kennedy, for stag fees for one year to Michaelmas 1783, as 

by a like account signed as aforesaid — 129?. 

It therefore appears from the above several sums that 
through this Department alone nearly 4,450?. had been distri- 
buted in the year 1788 on account of the Pack. It is obvious 
other expenses were incurred and payable through different 
offices which we are not permitted to investigate, and, what is 
more important, the details would probably be ascertained. It 
is, therefore, hardly necessary to give the items as they are 
recorded in these accounts of the Master of the Horse year by 
year down to 1813, when this series terminates. From 1784 
onward the Master of the Buckhounds received in addition 
an allowance of 150/. a year for horses to mount the yeomen 
prickers. In this year, also, the huntsman's salary was raised 
to 125?. per annum. David Johnston appear to have suc- 
ceeded William Kennedy as huntsman in 1785, with a salary 
of 125?. a year. From 1787 onward, what appear to have 
been the Kennel expenses exhibit an annual increase in main- 
tenance. In i795 three widows of deceased yeomen prickers 
received a pension of 20?. a year each. In 1797 Martha Grover 



376 HISTORY OF THE KOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

received 63/., " His Majesty's bounty, in consideration of her 
being maimed by one of the King's deer." Thomas Lamb, 
surgeon, in payment of his bill " for cutting Martha Grover of 
a broken leg," received 24/. 16s. In 1800 George Gorden and 
others received an allowance of 152/. 10,9. a year " for attending 
the King home after hunting." This item appears in the 
accounts to 1812, but the amount was reduced to 31/. 10s. 

The subjoined is the final account (which we have been 
permitted to consult) in this series, for the year ended 
January 5, 1813: — 

£ s. d. 
The Marquis Cornwallis, Master of the Buck Hounds, 
at 2,000/. '^ ann., for one quarter of a year 
to the 5th of April, 1812, 500/., and at 1,700/. 
'^ ann. for three-quarters of a year to the 5th of 
January, 1813, 1,275/. O5. Oc/. In both . . . 1,775 
More to the same Person, at the rate of 300/. '^ ann., 
an allowance for Breakfasts at Swinley Lodge 
for one quarter of a year to the 5th of April, 1812 75 
One Huntsman, at 125/. '^ ann., for a year to the 5th 

of January, 1813 125 

Six Yeomen Prickers, for salary at 50/. #^ ami. each, 
necessaries at 8/. #' ann. each, and for keeping 
two horses each at 46/. W ann. each, for one 
quarter of a year to the 5th of AprU, 1812 — 156/. 
The same Persons at 104/. ^ ann. each, and for 
keeping two horses each at 25/. W ann. each, for 
three-quai'ters of a year to the 5th of January, 

1813—580/. 10s. In all 736 10 

The Marquis CornwalKs, Master of His Majesty's 
Buck Hounds, an allowance at the rate of 150/. 
#' ann. for the Horses of Yeomen Prickers for 
one quarter of a year to the 5th of April, 1812 . 37 10 
Jane Johnstone and Mary Jewell, widdows of Yeomen 
Prickers, allowance at 20/. "^ ann. each for one 
year to the 5 th of January, 1813 — 40/. ; and 
Jane Johnstone, Huntsman's widdow, at 30/. 
W ann., for one quarter and forty-three days, to 
the 5th of January, 1813—10/. 16s. ^d. In all 50 16 ^ 



PAYMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH THE BUCKHOUNDS. 377 

£ s. d. 

Two Feeders, at bll. W ann. each, for three-quarters 

of a year to the 5th of January, 1813 .... 85 10 

In all Hunt Salaries and allowances 2,885 6 5| 

David Johnstone and George Sharpe, successively 
Huntsmen, for the expenses of His Majesty's Buck 
Hounds, as by four quarterly abstracts, signed 
by the Master of the Buck Hounds, appears . .2,192 9 11^ 

More to the said Persons on account of the Hunters' 
Stables, as by the like abstracts, signed as afore- 
said (including 6^, Qs,, the net produce of a horse 
sold, and which forms an article of voluntary 
charge in this account) 71510 

G. Sharpe, Huntsman, expense of taking lame Hounds 

to Shoreham, signed as aforesaid 75 1(3 \h 

David Johnstone and others, for Carting and feeding 
deer, as by accounts of particulars signed as 
aforesaid 441 11 3 

David Johnstone and G. Sharpe for Stag-fees, as by 
certificates signed by the Master of the Buck 
Hounds 105 

David Pollock, sadler 99 

Edward Addams, bitmaster 12 

Dr. R. Pope, for attending the late David Johnstone, 
Huntsman, as his Physician, as by Treasury 
Letters respectively dated 30th November, 1812, 
and 4th March, 1816, and the receipt of Dr. Pope, 
appears 22 1 

Mr. W. Leake, apothecary, for medicines and attend- 
ing the before mentioned person, as by the same 
authorities, and the receipt of Mr. Leake, appears 55 12 

George Gosden and two other Yeomen Prickers, their 
allowance for protecting the King and the Prince 

Pegent while hunting 31 10 

In all Hunt-bills and other disbursements .3,751 1 9 

Now, as to Masters of the Royal Buckhounds in succession 
to John, Viscount Bateman, with whom we closed our last 
chapter, we are compelled to turn from the official information, 









18 


5 


2 






378 HISTOKY OF THE KOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

which has been hitherto derived from the Home Office Records, 
to imperfect printed ephemerides and cognate calendars, in 
order to continue the chronicle of the holders of the office down 
to the present time. Thus we miss all the authentic details 
given in the Home Office and Treasury Records relating to 
the Masters, the hunt-servants, the kennels, and the horses,* 
connected with the pack. Here, at the very outset, the printed 
ephemerides are at fault, as the Earl of Jersey's name, as 
Master of the Royal Buckhounds, does not occur in them until 
the year 1783, whereas he was sworn into the office by 
the Lord Chamberlain March 29, 1782. In 1784, Viscount 
Hichingbroke t is first mentioned in the " Royal Kalendar " 
as Master of the " Royal Hunt," with a salary of 2,300i. 
a year, under whom was one huntsman (W. Kennedy), 
salary 125^,, and six yeomen prickers, who received 129Z. each 
per annum. This is likewise inaccurate, as his lordship was 
sworn into office by the Lord Chamberlain on May 30, 1783 ; 
he carried the official insignia of the pack until February 12, 
1806, when he was succeeded by the Earl of Albemarle. The 
Marquis Cornwallis does not appear in the " Kalendar " list 
until 1808, nevertheless, if we had access to the Home Office 
Records we should probably find the Warrant of his appoint- 
ment dated about March 1807 — when the Earl of Albemarle 
resigned; at any rate, the marquis was sworn into office by 
the Lord Chamberlain on May 13, 1807, as appears by the 
subjoined certificate : — 

Certificate of A'pj^ointment of Charles, Marquis Cornwallis. 
These are to Certify that in Obedience to His Majesty's Conimancls 
I have Sworn and Admitted the Most Noble Charles Marquis 
Cornwalhs into the Office and Place of Master of His Majesty's 

* On March 11, 1782, George III. commanded the Lords of the Treasury 
to pay Viscount Bateman the sum of 700Z. to reimburse him for " the extra- 
ordinary charges he was at in furnishing himself with horses and other 
necessary equipage as Master of our Buckhounds." This annual allowance 
probably continued to be paid to subsequent Masters ; but, of course, it is 
impossible to say whether or no, in the absence of the Records containing the 
facts. 

f Became Earl of Sandwich on the death of his father, April 30, 1792. 



APPOINTMENT WAEEANTS. 379 

Buckliounds to have hold and enjoy the same during His Majesty's 
Pleasure with all Rights, Fees, Salaries, Profits, Privileges & Advan- 
tages thereunto belonging in as full & ample manner to all Intents 
& Purposes as William Charles Earl of Albemarle or any other Person 
hath held & enjoyed or of Pight ought to have held and enjoyed the 
same. Given under my hand and Seal the 13th day of May 1807 In 
the forty-seventh year of His Majesty's .Reign. 

Dartmouth.* 



According to the " Kalendar," his lordship's stipend was 
2,000/. a year ; the huntsman, David Johnson, had 12.5/.; and 
six yeomen prickers, whose names are not given, were in 
receipt of 104/. each per annum. We believe the marquis 
carried the golden couples of the Royal pack for seventeen 
years — from the 47tli year of the reign of George III., 
during the Regency, and into the 4th year of the reign of 
George IV., and that he died in his hunting harness in 
August 1823, when he was succeeded by Lord Maryborough 
(afterwards third Earl of Mornington), . who was ordered to 
be sworn into the office on August 22, 1823, pursuant to 
the following copy of the Royal sign manual in that 
behalf: — 

George R. 

Our Will and Pleasure is, that you forthwith Swear and Admit, 
or cause to be sworn and admitted. Our Right Trusty and Welbe- 
loved Councillor William Lord Maryborough, into the Office and 
Place of Master of Our Buck-Hounds ; to have hold and enjoy the 
same during Our Pleasure, with all Rights, Fees, Salaries, Profits, 
Privileges and Advantages, thereunto belonging in as full and ample 
Manner to all Intents and Purposes as Charles Marquis Cornwallis, 
deceased, or any other Person hath held and enjoyed, or of right 
ought to have held and enjoyed the same, and for so doing this shall 
be Your Warrant. 

* Lord Chamherlain's Records. Appointments, 1793-1820, vol. cxciii., 
p. 104. 



380 HISTORY OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

Given at our Court at Carlton House the Twenty-Second Day of 
August 1823 In the Fourth year of Our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command, 

Rob. Peel. 
To Our Trusty and Right Entirely 
Beloved Cousin and Councillor 
James Duke of Montrose, K.G., 
Our Chamberlain of Our House- 
hold. 

Endorsed. — The oath administered to Lord Maryborough by the 
Duke of Montrose at the Office, January 13, 1824. 
Appointment Book, fo. 62. Not Gazetted.* 

If we can trust the " Royal Kalendar," Charles Davis, who 
was groom to the pack in 1816, and one of the whippers-in 
from 1817 to 182-i, was promoted to the place of huntsman 
in 1825, and filled the post until 1867, when, we believe, 
he was succeeded by Mr. Henry King. Lord Maryborough 
figures as the Master of the Buckhounds in the " Kalendar," 
from 1824 to 1831, but there is no doubt his tenure of office 
terminated soon after the death of George TV., as Viscount 
Anson was ordered to be sworn into the office by William IV. 
on December 24, 1830, as appears by the subjoined Hoyal sign 
manual : — 

William R. 

Our Will and Pleasure is, that you forthwith Swear and admit, 
or cause to be Sworn and Admitted, Our Right Trusty and Wel- 
beloved cousin and Councillor Thomas William Viscount Anson, into 
the Office and Place of Master of Our Buck-hounds ; to have hold 
and enjoy the same during Our Pleasure, with all Rights, Fees, 
Salaries, Profits, Privileges and Advantages thereunto belonging in 
as full and ample manner to all Intents and Purposes as William 
Lord Maryborough, resigned, or any other Person hath held and 
enjoyed, or of Right ought to have held and enjoyed the same; and 
for so doing this shall be Your Warrant. Given at Our Court at 

* Lord Cliamherlain's Records. Sig7i Manuals for A2)2)ointments, 1804-55, 
vol. y^, p. 222. 



SUCCESSIVE MASTERS OF THE EOYAL PACK. 381 

Saint James's the Fourth day of December, 1830, In the First Year 

of Onr Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command, 

Melboubne. 

To Our Eight Trusty and Eight En- 
tirely Beloved Cousin & Councillor 
William Spencer, Duke of Devon- 
shire, K.G., Our Chamberlain of Our 
Household. 
{Great seal in red loax. Embossed revenue-staynp for \l. 10s. in 

mai'gin.) 

Endorsed — Sworn by the Duke of Devonshire. Appointment 

Book, fo. 51. "Not Gazetted."* 

On December 29, 1834, George, Earl of Chesterfield, was 
appointed Master of the Royal Buckhounds, vice "Thomas 
William, Viscount Anson, now Earl of Lichfield." His lord- 
ship was gazetted the following day, and sworn into the office 
by the Lord Chamberlain (the Earl of Jersey) on March 12, 
1835 ; nevertheless his name does not occur in any calendar or 
ephemeris in his capacity of Master of the Buckhounds. It 
is absurd to place implicit reliance upon such obviously in- 
accurate works of reference ; yet, in the absence of ofiicial data, 
we know of no other sources of information on the subject. 
Under these circumstances, it must here suffice to give the 
successive Masters of the Royal pack as their several names 
occur in the " Royal Kalendar " — viz., 1836, Earl of Errol; 1841, 
Lord Kinnard ; 1842, Earl of Rosslyn ; 1847, Earl Granville; 
1849, Earl of Bessborough ; 1853, Earl of Rosslyn ; 1854, Earl 
of Bessborough ; 1859, Earl of Sandwich ; 1800, Earl of Bess- 
borough ; 1807, Lord Colville of Culross ; 1869, Earl of Cork ; 
1875, Earl of Hardwick ; 1881, Earl of Cork; 1885, Marquis 
of Waterford; 1886, Lord Suffield; 1887, Earl of Coventry. 
Mr. Francis Goodall, the present f popular huntsman of the 
pack, is mentioned as having filled the office since 1873. 

* Lord Cliamherlain' s Records. Sign Manuals for Aj'jjointmcnts, 1804-55, 
vol. 7^3-, No. 26. 
t June 1887. 




SwiNLEY Lodge. 
(From an Eagraving in the " Sxwrting Magazine," 1795.) 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



SWINLEY LODGE. 



It is probable that a lodge and kennel had been in Swinley Walk, 
Windsor Forest, from time immemorial. Nei^ertheless, the earliest 
specific mention of Swinley Lodge which we have met with does not 
date farther back than the reign of James I., and is comprehended 
{inter alia) in J©hn Norden's unique survey of Windsor Forest, made 
" by order of the King," in the year 1607. At this time Sir Henry 
Nevill was — like Heme the Hvmter- — "sometime Keeper there." 
According to this crude, though carefully coloured and gilded plan, 
drawn to scale, on a fine membrane of vellum, and spoiled by the 
binder through whose hands it subsequently passed, the lodge 
appears to be a small structure with gables at the northern and 
southern extremities. The front door faces south-west. A small 
hut (probably a kennel) stands within the enclosui-e toward the east 
in the front view of the lodge. These two buildings are enclosed 
by a railed-in paddock. The outer enclosure was " environeth " on 
all sides by a rail of high hurdles — as were all the walks in Windsor 

382 



SWINLEY LODGE. 383 

Forest at this time. In 1607 Swinley was a reel deer walk, contain- 
ing 100 head, of which 30 were "antlers," 16 " stags," and the rest 
probably hinds. 

We have not noticed any further reference to Swinley Lodge 
until the reign of Queen Anne. In August 1704, pui'suant to 
commands, the Lord High Treasurer, Sidney Godolphin, signified 
Her Majesty's wish that the ground " within and without " Swinley 
Rails, in Windsor Forest, should be levelled, and the rabbits therein 
exterminated. From the report made thereon by the surveyor, it 
appears, at this time, that this part of the forest comprised about 
a thousand acres, and that it would cost about 450?. " to trench the 
burroughs, which must be at least three foot deep, fill them in again 
and ram them, to make y*^ ground fitt & safe for her Majesty's 
hunting," 

On January 31, 1715-6, the Duke of Kent submitted a repre- 
sentation to the Lords of the Treasury, " that for the better 
preserving the deer in Swinley Walk, a new foddering pen " was 
absolutely necessary, which he thought ought to be enclosed within 
the rails, and made so as to shelter the deer from cold, with a loft 
over the shelter, to place hay in, for the winter's foddering. The 
Duke adds that there were some small repairs required at the barns, 
etc., "belonging to the Lodge," which might be done at the same 
time. His Grace further observes : " Mr. Bret the Hanger at 
Swinley has represented to me, that he did fodder the Deer there all 
the last season, at his own expense," — Mr. Mildmay, late Ranger 
under the Duke of Northumberland, refusing to provide hay, or to 
allow any part of the 501. per annum, appointed for that purpose; 
"therefore," he adds, "I hope your Lordships will direct the Sur- 
veyor of the Woods, to pay to Mr. Rret such part of the preceeding 
allowance, as you shall think sufiicient, to reimburse him for that 
service." He then appeals to their Lordships to order payment to 
the under-keepers of their salaries and allowances, which at this time 
had been two years in arrear, as he was satisfied that " some of those 
poor men who subsist chiefly by that salary, do at this time want 
bread for the support of themselves and families." 

On the ensuing March 15, the Surveyor submitted an estimate 
of the probable cost of executing these repairs, which, it was com- 
puted, would amount to 108?. 7s. l^d. The repairs of Swinley 
Rails appear to have been executed soon after at a total expenditure 



384 HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

of 17 SI. is., which amount was derived from wood felled and sold in 
Windsor Forest. 

On March 20, 1716-7, Lord Cobham sent a memorial to the Lords 
of the Treasury setting forth that the fences round the new planted 
coppices belonging to the walk called Swinley Rails were so much 
out of repair that the young wood was in danger of being utterly 
destroyed, by the deer cropping it, unless it was speedily repaired. 
" And," he adds, " as that is the only proper place in Windsor fforest 
to breed & preserve Game for his Majesty's Diversion, I think it fit 
to acquaint your Lordships that I conceive it necessary for the 
King's Service that these fences be immediately put in Order, as 
the only means to preserve the Game ab' Swinly." 

In the following month the Surveyor- General, in obedience to the 
orders of the late Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, reported 
that he had viewed the fences round the new planted coppices at 
Swinley, and found them so ruined and decayed that, unless they 
were repaired, the deer would prevent the young trees ever becoming 
a covert for His Majesty's game, and that the probable expense 
thereon would be 294^. The rails, posts, etc., necessary for making 
the said fences might be procured out of dotard and decayed trees, 
which might be felled in Windsor Forest, but he feared it would be 
difficult to raise the money there to defray the charge of workmanship, 
without some destruction to the forest. 

This report w^as translated into French, and duly submitted to 
George I., but whether His Majesty ordered the work to be under- 
taken or not, does not transpire. 

On May 4, 1722, 69/. 65. lid. was expended on Swinley Lodge. 
The original estimate was for 2311. 4rS. 8d., but the Treasury dis- 
allowed 143/. 17s. 9cZ. of it " as the necessary repairs only do require," 
because my Lords thought " it unnecessary to put his Mat^ to the 
expense of additional buildings at the Lodge for the conveniency of 
Inhabitants there." 

In 1723, the keepers of Swinley Eails and the bailiff of Battles 
bailiwick collectively received 50/. for hay for the deer therein ; and 
the under-keeper of Swinley was in the enjoyment of an annual 
salary of 20/. The aggregate sum paid this year for the salaries of 
the officers of Windsor Forest amounts to 537/. 9s. ll|c/. 

On June 11, 1725, the Surveyor of Woods, in compliance to the 
order of the Lords of the Treasury, reported that he had carefully 



SWINLEY LODGE. 385 

surveyed Swinley Lodge and Walk, relative to the " particular 
works and plantations " which His Majesty had ordered to be made 
there " for the increase and preservation of the game " ; and found 
that there were many acres of land to be ploughed and sown with 
different sorts of grain ; many hurdles and gates to be made according 
to the different occasions that may happen to arise ; many vermin 
of different kinds to be destroyed ; and many other changes incidental 
to this service which could not be precisely estimated ; therefore 
he proposed that the Lords of the Treasury should authorise him to 
defray the necessary cost of the work out of any money that shall be 
or remain in his hands arising from wood sales or otherwise, and 
afterwards to lay the bill of particulars before their Lordships, with 
an estimate of the annual allowance reasonable to be made for the 
future. 

The Lords of the Treasury — viz., Sir Robert Walpole, Sir William 
Yonge, George Dodington, and William Strickland — by a minute 
dated May 18, 1726, issued orders that the sum of 1,000^. was 
to be expended on Swinley Lodge and within the Walk called 
Swinley Walk or Rails, in Windsor Forest, for the purpose of main- 
taining, preserving, and increasing the game there for the King's 
" Royal Sport and Diversion.'*' Trees in the Bourn Wood were to 
be felled and sold to defray this expenditure. The Surveyor-Creneral 
of Woods was thereupon enjoined to see the work was duly and 
effectvially executed. Without going into full details of the several 
items, it may be mentioned that the cost for repairs done to the 
house, outhouses, and ponds was 681. 15s. 5d. Tilling, sowing, and 
planting the ground from Lady Day 1725 to Lady Day 1726, 
118^. 9s. lid. Beans to feed the deer, pheasants bought, corn to 
feed them, husbandry vitensils, and traps to kill vermin, 621. 14s. 8d. 
Servants' wages to look after the game and feed them for one year, 
301. Repairs about the dwelling house, outhouses, barns, granary, 
and stables, 167^. 5s. 2d. Repairing all the out fences and in fences 
separating the grounds, with the gates, bridges, and trunks belonging 
to them, and for making a new deer pen, 185^. 15s. Id. Four 
hundred 9x7 feet hurdles to be moved as i-equired to protect fresh 
ground of tillage and covert, 1201. And for a plan of the Lodge 
and the adjacent parts of the Walk, 30^. 

On April 26, 1727, Colonel Francis Negus presented a memorial 
to the Lords of the Treasury directing attention to the state of 

25 



386 HISTOEY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT RACES. 

Swinley Lodge, and submitted that certain repairs were urgently 
wanted in respect of that place. It seems, however, that, probably 
in consequence of the death of Geoi-ge I., many contemplated im- 
provements to the Lodge and Swinley Walk dropped, and we hear 
nothing further of those affairs for some considerable time. 

On April 26, 1748, Mr. Robert Nunn was paid 138^. 2s. for his 
charges and expenses for feeding and carting stags and red deer, 
" which were catched and put into pens at tSwinley Lodge and 
Windsor Great Park for the Royal Family to hunt," from March 
1745 to December 1747, by virtue of a Certificate by the Earl of 
Halifax and Ralph Jenison, Esq., the late and present Masters of 
His Majesty's Buckliounds. On July 4, 1750, he received a further 
sum of 811. 18s. "for catching and carting hinds and stags in Windsor 
Great Park, and for catching, carting and feeding deer at Swinley 
and Bagshot Lodges in the years 1748 and 1749 by right of a like 
Warrant. On July 30, 1760 he received a like sum for taking, 
feeding and carting deer from Windsor Great Park, Swinley and 
Bagshot Lodges " and carrying them to several places for the Royal 
Family to hunt from Midsummer 1759 to Midsummer 1760." These 
details came out in a casual search, fi'om which we infer that a 
succinct investigation would show that the charges above men- 
tioned were incurred and defrayed year by year during the reign of 
George 11. It may also be noted here that 35Z. per annum was 
allocated to buy turnips to feed the red deer in each of the Walks 
in Windsor Forest in the winter time.* 

From 1774 to 1789 the following sums were expended on the 
Lodgeand Walk— viz., 1774 and 1778, SSll. ; 1782, 1,049/. 16s. lid.; 
1783, 672Z. Is. U. and 253/.; 1784, 526/ 9s. 3f/; 1786, 847/. 9s. lid.; 
1787, 150/. 15s.; 1788, 509/. 4s. 6c/.; 1789, 269/. 12s. U. 

In the estimate and specifications for necessary repairs required 
here in 1788 it transpu-es that the " elm water pipes " which supplied 
the kennels were out of order, and that it was urgently necessary they 
should be " repaii-ed and cleaned" at a cost of 22/. 18s. The pale 
and fences' of the deer paddock at Swinley, the horse paddock, and the 
adjoining pastures, likewise needed repairing at an estimated cost 
of 69/. 12s. 4c/. Lord Hichingbrooke, Master of the Buckhounds,, 
made pressing representations to the Lords of the Treasury and to 
the authorities of the Office of Woods and Forests as to the necessity 
* Treasurtj Records, M.S., P.R.O. 



SWINLEY LODGE. 387 

of attending immediately to these matters. It appears that in the 
year 1791 one of the walls of the kennel was blown down, where- 
upon Lord Hichingbrooke suggested that it should be rebuilt in 
some other situation, " at such distance from the Lodge as to avoid 
the present noise and inconvenience of that kennel." This recom- 
mendation (which seems to have been rather selfish) was evidently 
ignored, for in the following year 2,000^. was expended on a " new 
bitch and puppy kennel at Swinly." * 

In 1801 an estimate for necessary repairs at Swinley Walk 
amounted to 2,344?. 55. Q^d. In 1805, 2,232?. 16s. Id. was expended 
on repairs of the lodge, fences, pales, etc. In 1808 650?. was 
paid for building and fitting up, adjoining the lodge, a washhouse 
and laundiy, with sleeping rooms over it. 

In 1810 Lord Cornwallis directed attention to sundry necessaries 
that were required at the Lodge, and that " 2 chairs and 3 sofa 
covers were wanted for His Majesty's room." In 1818 this Master 
of the Buckhounds called attention to the state of the Lodge, par- 
ticulai"ly the bedrooms, to repair which an estimate was submitted 
for 237?. 6s. 2d 

In this year the kitchen range of the Lodge was so " out of 
order" that Lord Hichingbrooke, Master of the Buckhounds, com- 
plained to the Lords of the Treasury that he could not cook " any 
victuals there in consequence." In 1792 the Duke of Gloucester, in 
his capacity of " Keeper and Lieutenant of H.M. Forest, Parks 
and Warrens of Windsor," passed the Warrant to pay the keeper 
of Swinley Lodge his salary at the rate of 50?. a year, also 
20?. for the under-keeper there. There was also a charge of 
40?. for feeding the deer. In 1794 an estimate was submitted 
for urgent repaii's at the lodge amounting to 669?. 15^., including 
an item of 1?. 75. 2c?. for " repairing the cornice of the King's 
room." In the following year 1,620?. 18s. 5c?. was laid out in repairs 
at the Lodge, the ice house, deer paddocks, kennels, stables, and 
out offices. In 1799 the interior of the rooms of the lodge having 
been newly painted and decorated, the Duke of York objected to 
the walls of the rooms being covered with cheap and nasty paper. 

On June 24, 1824, Lord Maryborough received the King's 
commands to deliver the land held by liim, as Master of the 

* The kennels (probably the clog pack) were " upon Ascot Heath " prior 
to 1782. 



388 HISTORY OF THE EOYAL BUCKHOUNDS AND ASCOT EACES. 

Buckhoiinds at Swinley, to the Department of Woods and Forests, 
but the paddocks in which the deer were kept there were to continue 
to be occupied as heretofore. It was now proposed to let the land, 
called Swinley Park, containing 297 acres, 2 roods, and 4 perches, to 
H.R.H. Pi'ince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester, at an annual 
rent of 128?. 

As to the lodge, it was in such a state as to be no longer habit- 
able, incapable of being repaired unless at a very great and un- 
warrantable expense, consequently it was decided to pull the whole 
down, and dispose of the materials to the best advantage. It 
transpired in this affair that Lord Maryborough's predecessors, as 
Masters of the Royal Buckhounds, respectively enjoyed, in right of 
their office, the use of about 230 acres of arable, pasture, and wood- 
land adjoining Swinley Lodge, from which must have been derived 
considerable advantage (of which Lord Maryborough and his suc- 
cessors would be dispossessed) ; consequently it was suggested that 
Lord Maryborough should not be deprived of those advantages if it 
could be found convenient to provide a suitable habitation for him 
in the neighbourhood. 

About this time the lodge consisted of a ground floor, containing 
the King's room, parlours, entrance hall, servants' hall, kitchen, and 
storerooms. Over this were twelve bedi'ooms, closets, etc. This 
edifice, with the ofiices, stables, etc., was sold by auction, in small 
lots, in 1831, the materials having been estimated at the value 
of 220?.* 

* MS. Beyartment of Woods, etc., 1, Wliitehall Place, S.W., by permission of 
Colonel Sir Nigel Kingscote, K.C.B. 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX TO THE MASTERS, HUNTSMEN, 
AND HUNT-SERVANTS OF THE ROYAL BUCKHOUNDS 
FROM THE REICN OF KING EDWARD III. TO THE 
REIGN OF H.I.M. QUEEN VICTORIA. 



THE HEREDITARY, OR MANORIAL PACK. 

5IASTEKS. 

Sir Bernard Brocas, 1362 to 1395 . 

Sir Bernard Brocas, 1395 to 1400 . 

Sir Rustin Villenove (Intervenient Master) 

William Brocas, Esq., 1401 to 1456 

William Brocas, Esq., 1457 to 1484 

John Brocas, Esq., 1484 to 1492 . 

William Brocas, Esq., 1492 to 1506 

John Brocas, Esq., 1508 to 1512 . 

George Warham, Esq., j?/;y' Anne Brocas, 1513 to 1514 

Ralph Pexsall, Esq.,/;/re Edith Brocas, 1515 to 1518 

Sir Richard Pexsall, 1519 to 1571 . 

Sir John Savage, 1574 to 1584 

Sir Pexsall Brocas, 1584 to 1630 . 

Thomas Brocas, Esq., 1630 to 1633 



Sir Lewis Watson, First Baron Rockingham, 1633 to 1652 
Edward Watson, Second Baron Rockingham, 1653 to 1689 
Lewis Watson, First Earl of Rockingham, 1689 to 1707 

THE HOUSEHOLD, OR PRIVY PACK. 

I. George Boleyne, Viscount Rochester, 1528 to 1536 



IL Sir Richard Long, c. 1537 to 1545 

IIL Thomas, Baron Darcy, K.G., c. 1546 to Jan. 28, 1551 
IV. John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, April 5 to Nov, 10, 1551 . 
V. Sir Robert Dudley, Nov. 11, 1551, c. to Aug. 1553 . 
VI. Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, May 28, 1572, to Sept. 

1588 

VII. Sir Richard Pexsall,* May 23, 1554, to Nov. 17, 1558 
VIII. Sir Thomas Tyringham, July 21, 1604, to March 25, 1625 
IX. Sir Timothy Tyrell, March 26, 1625, to May 19, 1633 

* Sir Richard Pexsall was appointed " Custodian or Master " of the Privy 
Buckhounds by Letters Patent, dated May 23, 1554, but he does not appear to 
have exercised the duties, or to have received the emoluments, of that office 
during the reign of Queen Mary. 

389 



PAGES 


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- 81 


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- 86 


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390 



CHRONOLOGICAL INDEX TO THE MASTERS, ETC. 



THE HOUSEHOLD OR PBIVY PACK— continued. 

Masters. pages 

X. Sir Thomas Tyringham(ii.), May 20, 1633, to Jan. 1637 129— ISi 
XI. Eobert Tyrwhitt, Esq., May 4, 1637, to Jan. 6, 1651 . 134—148 

XXL John Gary, Esq., July 7, 16G1, Feb. 5, 1685 . . . 149—176 

XIII. Colonel James Graham, March 25, 1685, to Sept. 29, 1688 177—183 

XIV. James de Gastigny, Esq., Sept. 9, 1689, to c. July 1698 . 184—188 



XV. Eelnhard Vincent, Baron Van Hompesch, July 6, 1689, to 

March 8, 1702 184- 



-194 



317—361 

336—368 

861 

370—373 



y 374-379 



THE UNITED PACKS. 

XXXII. Sir Charles Shuckburg, June 6, 1703, to Sept. 2, 1705 . 216—227 

XXXIII. Walter, Viscount Chetwynd, Oct. 4, 1705, to June 7, 1711 230—232 

XXXIV. Sir William Wyndham, June 8, 1711, to June 27, 1712 . 233—235 
XXXV. George, Earl of Cardigan, June 28, 1712, to June 11, 

1715 236—251 

XXXVI. Colonel Francis Negus, July 11, 1727, to Sept. 9, 1732 . 268—291 
XXXVII. Charles, Earl of Tankerville, June 21, 1733, to June 1736. 292—293 

—360 
XXXVIII. Ealph Jenison, Esq., July 7, 1737, to Dec. 25, 1744 . 
XXXIX. Earl of Halifax, Dec. 31, 1744, to June 25, 1746 . 

XL. Ealph Jenison, Esq. (ii.), July 2, 1746, to Feb. 5, 1757 . 
XLL Viscount Bateman, July 2, 1757, to July .5, 1782 (/) 
XLII. Earl of Jersey, March 29, 1782 to (?) .... 
XLIII. Viscount Hichingbroke, Earl of Sandwich, May 30, 1783, 

to (?) 

XLIV. Earl of Albemarle, 1806 or 1807 to (/) .... 
XLV. Marquis Cornwallis, May 13, 1807, to 1823 (?). 
XL VI. Lord Maryborough, Earl of Mornington, Aug. 23, 1823, 

to (?) 

XL VII. Viscount Anson, Earl of Lichfield, Dec. 4, 1830, to (?) . 
XLVIIL Earl of Chesterfield, Dec. 29, 1834, to (?) . . .\ 

XLIX. Earl of Errol, 1836 (?) 

L. Lord Kinuard, 1841 (?) 

LI. Earl of Eosslyn, 1842 (?) 

LII. Earl of Granville, 1847 (?) 

LIII. Earl of Bessborough, 1849 (?) 

LIV. Earl of Eosslyn (ii.), 1853 (?) .... 

LV. Earl of Bessborough (ii.), 1854 (?) .... 

LVI. Earl of Sand^-ich, 1859 (?) 

LVII. Earl of Bessborough (iii.), 1860 (?) . 

LVIII. Lord Colville of Culross, 1867 

LIX. Earl of Cork, 1869 

LX. Earl of Hardwick, 1875 

LXL Earl of Cork (ii.), 1881 

LXII. Marquis of Waterford, 1885 

LXIII. Lord SuflSeld, 1886 

LXIV. Earl of Coventry, 1887 

LXV, Lord Eibblesdale, 1892 



380 



381 



POSTSCEIPT 



A SERIES of articles, condensed from the subject matter in this 
work, entitled " The Royal Buckhounds and their Masters," was 
contributed to and published in Bailys Monthly Magazine of Sports 
and Pastimes, from July 1886 to June 1887. Want of space 
necessarily excluded all the interesting details relating to the 
personnel and to the maintenance of the Pack which now appear in 
this volume, from the time when the Royal Buckhounds were insti- 
tuted in the i-eign of Edward III. to soon after the accession of 
George III. Within that period of four hundred years all the official 
records relating to the subject are open to the pubHc for consultation 
without reserve. But from the reign of George III. onwards to the 
present time the official records cannot be consulted without per- 
mission of the departments to which the sevei-al sets of documents 
respectively appertain. 

In order to continue the subject on the same lines as had hitherto 
been followed, and to carry it on from the reign of George III. down 
to date, it became necessary at this chronological epoch to apply 
to the administrators of the different departments for permission to 
consult their archives, so far as they might contain informa- 
tion relating to the work in hand. Accordingly, on February 28, 
1887, the Compiler wi-ote to the Secretary of State for the Home 
Department to inquu-e if he would accord him (the Compiler) 
permission to consult the State papers of his department from 
the year 1760 to (say) 1860, relating to the Royal Buckhounds, 
which were deposited in the Public Record Office, for the purpose 
of continuing and bringing this work to a conclusion. In this and 
a subsequent letter (March 8, 1887), the Compiler referred to the 
circumstance that when the office of the Treasurer of the Chamber 
had been abolished, on July 5, 1782, pursuant to the Act of the 
22 George III. c. 82, the duties which had been administered by 



392 POSTSCKIPT. 

that department (under the Lord Chamberlain) seemed to have been 
transferred to the Home Office during the interval pending the 
re-organisation of the Royal Buckhounds under the department of 
the Master of the Horse.* But, as to what had actually taken 
place on this point the Compiler is unable to say in the absence of 
the departmental records which he has not been permitted to consult. 
At any rate (as shall presently appear), there is no doubt whatever 
that the Home Office continued to be the channel through which 
certain official correspondence passed in connection with the Royal 
Buckhounds down to 1782. 

On March 21, 1887, the Secretary of State for the Home Depart- 
ment wrote to the Compiler (B. 1036/3) acquainting him " that the 
Public Record Office report on enquiry that there is no series of 
Home Office papers in that department which relate to the Royal 
Buckhounds." 

On March 22, 1887, the Compiler wrote, in reply, to the Secretary 
of State, asserting that the report he mentioned was false ; and, in 
order to prove that the alleged report was inaccurate, he gave eight 
specific references taken from the series of Home Office Records 
known as " Warrant Books " and " Domestick Books " from the time 
of Wniiam III. to George III., and renewed his application for 
permission to consult the " after date " records of the department 
for the purpose specified in his application of the 28th ultimo. The 
reply to that letter is subjoined : — 

[Copij.] 

" Whitehall, 

" Aj}ril 6, 1887. 
" B. 1036/6. 

" Sir, 

" With reference to previous correspondence, and par- 
ticularly to your letter of the 22nd ultimo, I am directed by 
the Secretary of State to acquaint you that the authorities 
of the Public Record Office positively assure him that there 
are no such papers in their custody as you suppose relative 
to the Mastership of the Royal Buckhounds. 
*' I am, Sir, 

" Your obedient Servant, 

" (Signed) E. Leigh Pemberton. 
"J. P. HoRE, Esq." 

* See p. 374. 



POSTSCEIPT. 393 

Assuming the assertions made in these two letters, dated March 21 
and April 6, 1887, of the Secretary of State for the Home Depart- 
ment to be correct, it follows, as a matter of course, that the eight 
specific references submitted by the Compiler in support of his 
application of March 22, 1887, must have been fictitious. It would 
therefore ensue that all the references, and the copies and extracts 
derived fi'om the Home OJfice Records relating to the Eoyal Buck- 
hounds, and inserted in this volume, must have been not only 
spurious, they must have been concocted by the Compiler with an 
intention to deliberately mislead. Fortunately all the documents 
which purport to have been derived from the series of Home Office 
Records deposited in the Public Record Office, as quoted in this 
book, from the time of Wilham III. down to 1760, are open to 
the inspection of any one, consequently the CompUer can safely 
I'ely on their verification ; and, notwithstanding the allegations 
of " the Authoiities of the Public Record Office " to the Secretary 
of State for the Home Department, the Compiler had recourse 
to the only means at his disposal to refute, under the hand and 
seal of the representative of the Master of the Rolls, the gross 
calumny which had been imposed on him. His vindication was 
accomplished by means of what is technically known as " an office 
copy " of the document contained in the " Home Office Records 
Warrant Book," vol. xi., page 47, as printed in this volume, p. 231. 
It was transcribed by the officials at the Public Record Office, and 
certified correct under the hand and seal of Peter Turner, Esq., 
an Assistant Keeper of that Department, on April 14, 1887, at 
a cost of 35., as appears by receipt of same date. No. 140.* Apart 
from independent evidence, it is clear that by virtue of this cei'tified 
copy there must be documents relating to the Royal Buckhounds in 
the Home Office Records now deposited in the Public Record Office. 
It is really beyond dispute and evident to every one down to 1760. 
And if the index volumes are correct, there are also documents in 
the Home Office series relating to Lord Bateman as Master of the 
Buckhounds in 1782 and 1783, the reference thereto being thus 
indicated: ''Home Office Records: Warrant Book, vol. xxvi.B, 
page 205; Ihid., vol. xxvii., page 1." The Compiler having applied 

* An office or certified copy of any official document is, under the Judicature 
Acts, received as irrefutable evidence in the courts of law. If we were obliged to 
obtain certified copies of all the original records used in this work it would 
probably entail an expenditure of 6,000Z. or 7,000^. 



394 POSTSCRIPT. 

for certified copies of the two last -mentioned entries, was informed, 
on April 19, 1887, that it was not the practice of the Record Office 
to supply certified copies of any portions of index or catalogue of 
documents preserved there except when the Records themselves are 
wanting. 

On May 7, 1887, the Compiler wrote to the Secretary of State, 
Home Department, Whitehall, directing his attention to the certified 
copy of the document contained in the " Home Office Records : 
Warrant Book," vol. xi., p. 47, and the communication of April 19 
from the Record Office, pointing out that the latter was tantamount 
to an admission that the documents referred to were in the custody 
of that department notwithstanding the report to the contrary, as 
alleged in the letter of the Secretary of State to the Compiler of 
the 6th ultimo (B. 1036/6). Both of those original papers were 
enclosed on that occasion ; and on the strength of that evidence the 
Compiler again reiterated his application for the usual " permit," 
as he was much pressed for time, and requested, in a postscript, 
that the enclosures should be returned to him. 

On the ensuing June 13 the Compiler finally wrote to the 
Secretary of State, Home Department, Whitehall, requesting at- 
tention to his (the Compiler's) letter of the 7th inst., and the favour 
of a reply at his earliest convenience, and that the Secretary of 
State would be good enough to return the enclosures contained 
therein. That letter was registered by the Compiler, who holds the 
receipt given by the Post Office for its safe delivery. No acknow- 
ledgment or answer has yet been received by the Compiler to that 
letter, nor have the enclosures been returned to him. 

Such ai-e the pleasures incidental to origmal historical researches, 
particularly in the " after date " period. Fortunately the Compiler 
can stand aside. The imputation on his veracity is untenable. 
But it is a public duty that this singular incident should be cleax-ed 
up. It rests between the two Public Departments to decide which 

is the . If the Record Office reported to the Home Office that 

no such documents as those in question are in their custody, the 
certified copy, e.g., suppUed to the Compiler must have been spurious, 
and consequently he was defrauded of the fees demanded and paid 
thereon. He knows, as a matter of fact, that such a contingency, 
under the circumstances, cannot be entertained. Likewise he knows 
nothing of the report alleged to be made by the Record Office to the 
Home Office. That document is too interesting to remain buried in 



POSTSCRirT. 



395 



obscurity. It must be exhumed, and before its translation to a 
worthy sepulchre we shall see what we shall see. 

As to the Treasury Records relating to the affairs of the Royal 
Buckhounds from the reign of George III. onward to the present 
time, the Lords Commissioners of that department graciously per- 
mitted the Compiler to consult their archives down to the year 
1793, but in reply to his application, dated April 2, 1887, their 
Lordships were not prepared to extend the permission which they 
had already granted to him. In so doing that department was 
quite within their rights, but at the same time there is certain 
information preserved in those papers which cannot be obtained 
from any other source. Take, for instance, the svibjects which 
transpire in the subjoined note,* and then draw an inference of 

Dan' Pai-ker Esq'' rasps' CS", 

a letter from Lord) "Opon reading to fhe Lords C'omm" of His Maj'ty's 
Hichingbrook Master of j Try., a letter from Lord Hichiugbroke Master of the 
the Buck Hounds. j^Buck Hounds stating that he is of opinion that it may 

be proper to make an Addition of £25 W Aiiii. to the salary of Will'" Kennedy 
the Master Huntsman, and that the additional allowance of £25 ^ Anii., which 
their Lordships have directed to be made to each of the Six Yeomen Prickers of his- 
Majesty's Hunt, should be paid into the Hands of the Master of the Buck Hounds 
to be by him paid to such Yeomen Prickers who are in possession of two horses 
lit to do the duty ; I am commanded by their Lordships to desire that you will 
move the Duke of Montagu to insert on the Establishment of tlie Master of the 
Horse the sum of £25 W Aiiii. to the Master Huntsman to commence from the 
S'** Ap' 1783. And I am further commanded to desire that you will move His 
Grace to insert on the said Establishment the Sum of £150 ^ Aiin. to the 
Master of the Buck Hounds (in addition to his former Allowances), to commence 
from the said 5"' Ap' 1783, to be by him applied for the purposes aforesaid, in 
lieu of the additional allowance of £25 W Aiiii. directed to be made to the Six 
Yeomen Prickers from the lO"' Oct' 1783, by Mr, Sheridan's letter of the 
.3"! December last. 

I am, &c., 12"' May 1784, 

George Kose. 

— Vide Treasury Records : Letter Book, ?^" 1784, vol. xxx., p. 205. 

Nov- 



TREASURY 
5941 

REG" 5 APR 88 



396 rosTSCRiPT. 

similar information relating to the pack, which no doubt run on on a 
similar line throughout the whole series, and are presumably embodied 
in the annual accounts of the Master of the Horse. And if we are 
deprived of the foundation, how is it possible to compile the super- 
structure? It is simply impossible to do justice to this subject 
except one has access to all the records of the different departments 
relating to the official annals of the Pack. 

The interesting archives of the Lord Chamberlain's Department, 
which are deposited in the Public Record Office, having been placed, 
without reserve, at the perusal of the Compiler for purpose of this 
work, he takes this opportunity to again acknowledge, with thanks, 
the favour accorded to him by the Lord Chamberlain, per the Hon. 
Sir S. Ponsonby Fane, and for which he is very much obHged. 

The Compiler has likewise to return his best thanks to Colonel 
Sir Nigel Kingscote, for allowing him to consult the official papers 
and plans which are preserved in the Department of Woods, etc., 
relating to the History of the Royal Buckhounds. 



With reference to the agitation instigated last year under the 
auspices of the now defunct " Humanitarian League " on the subject 
of alleged cruelty perpetrated by and incidental to the Royal Buck- 
hounds hunting " tame deer," it will be sufficient here merely to 
mention that not one of those allegations has been substantiated 
or proved in point of fact. On the other hand we have the evidence 
of Mr. Tattersall as a follower of the Royal Hunt going back to 
some fifty years, and the tradition of his family for three genera- 
tions, to prove, beyond controversion, that no such " cruelty " was 
known to have occurred in those days. And Mr. Bowen May, the 
doyen of the Pack — a gentleman of irreproachable veracity, who has 
actually hunted with the Royal Buckhovinds for sixty consecutive 
seasons — solemnly asserts in the public press that he had never seen 
a single instance of cruelty to stag or hind in the hunting field. As 
the positive statements of these gentlemen, and of other followers 
of the Pack, have not been challenged or contradicted, the un- 
substantiated allegations of the late Humanitarian Leaguers (who 
probably could not tell a hound from a hunter) necessai'ily fall to 



POSTSCRIPT. 397 

the ground — let us hope, to i-ise no more. There is no doubt, how- 
ever, that in former times it was customary to "hunt and kill " the 
quarry, an obsolete custom which was induced in order to blood tbe 
hounds and to entitle the Hunt servants to certain fees or (in lieu of 
fees) to certain joints of venison for pot and pasty: the latter 
varying and passing from time to time through cuiious chops and 
changes according to the local custom observed at the time being in 
the several forests, until this custom was eventually abolished. Yet, 
even in those days, that now obsolete custom was by no means the 
general rule, as we have frequent incidents shomng that when the 
hunted stag or hind had given good runs of forty or fifty miles the 
hounds were stopped and the quarry " taken," by royal vdW and favour, 
to hunt another day, or was accorded a silver collar, and was never 
to be hunted again. It is probably a true tradition that the custom 
of killing the quarry terminated in " the Bishop's * year " ; and that 
from about that season to the present time the stag or hind was 
" taken " instead of being killed. If we had access to the certificates 
of the Masters of the Buckhounds this reform Avould be, in all 
probability, proved on official authority. Thus the protest of the 
Humanitarians, even if it were bond fide, has been made a century 
too late. In our opinion the only persons who have any locus standi 
or right to object to the continuance o{ the Boyal Buckhounds are 
the farmers and land-owners over whose " country " the Pack hunts ; 
and they are, to a man, in favour of the hunt. 

There are nevertheless certain faddists, who, in attacking stag- 
hunting in general, and the Royal Buckhounds in jjarticular, on the 
plea of crvielty to animals, know that if they were successful in this 

* We believe it was in 1783-4 that the Bishop of Osnaburg hunted five days a 
week during that season. The Buckhounds used to meet on Tuesdays and Satur- 
days, and the Harriers on Mondays and Thursdays. The alternate Wednesdays 
and Fridays were bye-days with both packs. It is said the Bishop stipulated 
that the stag or hind was to be " taken " and not killed. This having received 
the approbation of the King and the Prince of Wales, the Hunt servants were 
forbidden, for the future, to allow the hounds to pull down, worry, or kill the 
quarry. Prince Frederick (second son of George III.) was by his father 
nominated Bishop of Osnaburg in 1765, when His Royal Highness was in the 
second year of his age, and was created Duke of York and Albany in 
November 1784. In 1785 he went to Osnaburg and remained in Hanover for 
some years. By the Treaty of Westphalia, in 1648, it was agreed that every 
alternative Bishop of Osnaburg should be a Catholic and a Lutheran: the 
former to be elected by the Chapter ; the latter (usually a young Prince) to be 
nominated by the head of the House of Hanover. 



398 POSTSCRIPT. 

respect it would become impossible to defend all other branches of 
the chase and many of our manly rural sports. If stag-hunting is 
stopped there must be an end to fox, hare, and otter-hunting. 
There would be no more coursing. Instead of shooting we must 
stalk grouse, partridge, and pheasant with a pinch of salt, and, by 
simply sprinkling it on the tail of the bird, thus " grass " it without 
the aid of " \dllainous saltpetre." Hunters and hacks would soon 
become extinct animals. The multifarious benefits which hunting 
confers on the British farmer would cease ; and the enormous sum 
of money now circulated at home on oui" national sports and 
pastimes would be diverted into other channels, to the utter loss of 
Her Majesty's liege subjects. When asked what alternative or 
substitute he would apply in the event of hunting and shooting 
being " utterly suppressed, abolished, and taken away," by Act of 
Parliament, the faddist replied, " Lawn Tennis and Croquet ! " 
Fancy Lawn Tennis and Croquet in a wintry southerly wind and 
a cloudy sky, with the going fetlock-deep, and the players attired in 
waterproof garments ! That answer is characteristic of the faddist, 
as he must have been ignorant of the ruchments of his own alterna- 
tive exercise ; nevertheless he has the audacity to bring unfounded 
charges against the followers of the Royal Buckhounds, concerning 
whom his theoretical and practical knowledge is absolutely nil ! 
Fortunately the future of stag-hunting was never so promising as 
at the present time. It is extending, obtaining new adherents, and 
attracting votaries in every part of the civilised globe. And, even 
if the Boyal Buckhounds were to be suppressed — as an adjunct 
associated for successive centuries with the " honour and dignity " of 
the Throne — to please the faddist, it is probable that atrabilarious 
individual would not be satisfied until he suppressed every institution 
of the State, and finally abrogated every institution of the Crown 
and Constitution. 

Before concluding this Postscript, the compiler must openly confess 
to a sin of omission for neglecting to carry on the annals of Ascot 
Eaces down to the period when the Plates which had been run for 
by the followers of the Pioyal Buckhounds and by the Hunt servants 
dropped out of the programme. As we have seen, this truly national 
race meeting was instituted in 1711, chiefly for the purpose of 
celebrating these two Plates, in connection with the Pioyal Hunt, 
as an exhibition of speed and stamina by the horses, and a display 
of jockeyship by the ridei-s, who had been in the first flight, during 



POSTSCRIPT. 399 

each successive season, with the Royal Buckhounds in the hunting 
field. The early history of this race meeting is, therefore, closely 
affiliated with our leading subject, and we believe our compilation of 
those races during the pre-calendar period will be found novel and 
interesting. After 1760 the results of the sport at Ascot come out 
year by year in Weatherby's Racing Calendar, from which it appears 
that the last Plate run for there by the Royal Hunt sei'vants took 
place in 1784, and the Plate for hunters belonging to the followers 
of the Pack who had taken " tickets " in that season, was run for 
the last time in 1817. And it is a singular circumstance that in 
April 1817, by the award of the Commissioners, and in compliance 
wdth the directions of the Acts of Parliament,* " the Race-Course at 
Ascot Heath, and the proper avenues thereto," were directed "to 
be kept and continued as a race-course for the public use at all 
times, as it had usually been." It therefore appears that Ascot 
has the honour to be the only racecourse in this country which is 
dedicated to the public for ever by Act of Parliament. " The Royal 
Hunt Cup " pei-petuates the old association of the race meeting with 
the Buckhounds, and we pray it may continue so '' for ever and a 
day." 

The liberal patronage conferred on the meeting by the Royal 
Family and the Public, in the opinion of the Compiler, is not suffi- 
ciently appreciated by the executive. The " management," in view 
of modern requii'ements, is defective in almost every detail. Take, 
for instance, the last reunion ; the old popular fee for admission to 
the public stand was doubled. At the extremity of this stand, what 
appears to be a huge gasometer has been erected, effectually obstruct- 
ing the view of the races run on the T. Y. C. and the Straight Mile 
courses. Except to the fortvmate few in the immediate front row, 
nothing can be seen of the finish of the races rvin on the Cup and 
other courses, from the bend in, particularly when the horses incline 
to the near side. The parentage of the two-year-old colts and fillies 
(many of which are maidens) should be inserted and it is desirable 
that the colours of the jockeys should be given correctly on the card. 
With a proper public stand, " replete with all modern improvements," 
popular prices, and an efficient C. C, there is no reason why the 
surplus revenue of the Ascot Race Meeting might not be allocated 

* See Statutes 53 George III., c. 158—55 George III., c. 122— .'SS George III, 
c. 132. Also, 2, 3, and •!, Reports of the Commissioners of Woods, etc., March 
1816 and June 1819 ; and the Award of the Commissioners, April 1817. 



400 POSTSCRIPT, 

to the support of the Royal Buckhounds without entailing any charge 
on the Civil List. 

On the plea of " put yourself in his place," the Compiler craves 
indulgence for the minor blemishes that meet the eye of the critical 
reader. As to the major blemish, incidental to every unfinished 
work, that, in this case, is beyond the Compiler's control. " Finis 
Coronat Opus." Exactly. And if the end crowns the work, it 
behoves the Ministers of the Crown to explain why this work was 
not allowed to be brought to an end. 

J. P. HORE, 

22, Dalbeeg Eoad, Bkixtoit, S.W., 
■Jww 1893. 



FINIS. NON FINIS. 



Printed by Hazell, Watson, & Viney, Ld., London and Aylesbviiy. 



7^S 



tl^l